RAW RANKED SITES ABOUT
#SYSTEM COVERS

The most comprehensive list of system covers websites last updated on Jan 1 2020.
Stats collected from various trackers included with free apps.
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SAP SuccessFactors Human Resource Management | HR Cloud SAP SuccessFactors is a complete, cloud-based human resource management (HR) system that covers everything from payroll to employee engagement.
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Home | Department of Financial Services | Ministry of Finance | Government of India Financial Services covers the functioning of Banks, Financial Institutions, Insurance Companies and the National Pension System
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FCS AU: Surfboard Fins, Covers, Traction, Leashes, Surf Accessories FCS Australia is the leader in surfboard fins, covers, traction, leashes and surf accessories. 67 WSL World Championship Tour events have now been won by surfers riding the FCS II system and fins. Buy online for free shipping within Australia on orders over $25.
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Steve Meade Designs (SMD) SteveMeadeDesigns is the leading Car Audio Forum around the world! Home of the famous Steve Meade from Youtube a.k.a Meade916! On this forum, you can find all your car audio needs in one place! All of our members are helpful/ kind and willing to help in any situation you find yourself in! We have tons of categories that will fit what you're looking for, such as General Audio, Pro Audio / Home Audio / Home Theatre, Head Units-Processors and Eq's, Amplifiers, Big D Wiz Playground - Classic to Current Car Audio and Amplifier Testing Lab!, Amp Guts, Mid's and highs, Subwoofers / Enclosures, Electrical-battery- Alternators- Wiring, Second Skin Sound Deadening and Automotive Insulation!, Sonic Electronix - Great Selection Great Prices, DC Sound Lab - Big Bass on ANOTHER LEVEL!, XS Power Batteries / Chargers! (and other stuff too), Mobile Solutions - Installer tool and training PARADISE, Sundown Audio - GREAT Amps/Subs! GREAT Customer Service!, Ascendant Audio Subwoofers/Speakers, MechMan Alternators and 12v Accessories, SKAR AUDIO - Performance Audio/Reasonable Prices!, CE Auto Electric Supply, D'Amore Engineering, wcCarAudio.com, Pride Car Audio, Incriminator Audio, & B2 Audio!
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PrestigeProductsEast.com is where pet product retailers shop for their stores. PrestigeProductsEast.com is where pet product retailers shop. The Pet industries top brands at manufacturer direct pricing and no extra cost.
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The Cover Project > Home The Cover Project: We''ve got you covered with game inserts for every current and past generation gaming system that we could find cases for.
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Home | CMS Connected Focused on the web content management (WCM) industry, CMS-Connected is the content management industry’s headline news, articles & advisory resource. From the latest technologies, innovations, mergers & acquisitions, platforms and products, CMS-Connected covers CMS related news and commentary from leading the industry expert analysts. We dig past the glossy brochures, flashy websites and sales-speak buzz-words, focusing on what the buyer definitely needs to know and what''s really driving the top Web CMS platform solutions on the market today.
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TalentOz – Comprehensive HCM On-Cloud – HR Solution – Talent Management System TalentOz on the cloud solutions covers the complete lifecycle of employees. This includes both strategic and transactional aspects of HCM. Mobile and Tablet friendly.
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Maui Now : Local Maui News and Information Hawaii's source for local Maui News, Events, Breaking News, Real Estate, and Community Information.
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Welcome to American Spas! American Spa is the World''s Finest Manufacturer of Hot Tubs, Spas such as American Spas. We have spa covers and a complete line of spa accessories to make your backyard a home resort. Fast Shipping on Genuine spa Parts with the Best Technical Support
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Septic System Parts & Supplies: Pumps, Risers, Covers & More Shop over 850 septic system parts online. Lowest prices guaranteed on everything from septic pumps, risers, covers & more. Free Same Day Shipping Available!
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Buy Car Accessories Shopping Online India - Autotrends.in AutoTrends.in India''s #1 online store for high quality Auto Accessories, Car Accessories and Car Care Products, car music system, car seat covers, car security system, car gps security system, car stereo system, car glass films, car reverse parking sensors, gps navigation systems, in gurgaon, noida, delhi, ncr and india, car stereo dealer, car music system supplier, car seat cover dealer, car security system supplier, car gps security system dealer, car glass films supplier, India, car boutique, trade mart, trademart, Dealer, Selling Agent, Distributor, Wholeseller, Online Seller.
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Motorcycle, ATV/UTV, Snowmobile, Marine Parts, Apparel and Accessories - 2WheelPros.com Best deals on OEM parts from Aprilia, Honda, Suzuki, Yamaha, Polaris BRP and more! Aftermarket Parts, Apparel and Accessories - 2WheelPros.com
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LNWY | Read. Watch. Listen A music website about the artists you love and the ones we think you’ll grow to love. Putting the focus squarely back on the music itself.
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Vancouver Auto Parts | Greater Vancouver's Premier Auto Parts Supplier Vancouver Auto Parts | Catering to vehicle owners, enthusiasts, and mechanics alike since 1991. Among the largest wholesale and retail automotive parts
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Absolute Markets Insights - Market Research reports by Market Research Company Absolute Markets Insights - Market research company offers custom syndicated market research reports with market analysis, consulting services. Market research reports by Absolute Markets Insights depends on survey & analysis covers a magnitude of factors, industry research, market size, forecasts, technological advancements, innovation trends, financial growth, pricing trends, competitive insights of market segments.
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Logistics Insider - Indian Logistics Magazine | Logistics & Transport News Logistics Insider is an industry-specific logistics magazine in India that covers stories, news, and articles around the transport and logistics ecosystem.
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Fiberglass (GRP) Cable Tray System, Fiberglass (FRP/GRP) Ladders, Fiberglass (GRP/FRP) poles, Fiberglass Luminaries, Fiberglass Motor Covers, Motor Canopies, Trefoil Clamps,Cable Cleats
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Synergita - Employee Performance Management Software Synergita employee performance management software covers goals management, multiple performance appraisals, continuous feedback, & employee engagement features. Sign up for free.
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With Fingertip Everyone is a Decision Maker Fingertip is a business operating system that covers everything from CRM to decision making and project management to OKRs.
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YoLinux.com: Linux Tutorials, Help, Documentation and Information Linux Information Portal YoLinux.com includes informative tutorials and links to many Linux sites. Covers Linux topics from desktop to servers and from developers to users. Linux software development tutorials include topics on Java and C/C++.
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Forex No Deposit Bonus Forex Deposit Bonus|Many Forex Many Forex Find World’s latest Forex Promotion Offers Forex No Deposit Bonus,Demo Contest,Forex Deposit Bonus and Broker Reviews
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PT. CAKRA ADJI GUNUNG | Menjual berbagai peralatan industri seperti Gearbox, Electric Motor, Inverter, Electric Chain Hoist, Air Compressor, Gear Pump, Vibrator, Worm Gear, Gear Reducer, Coupling, Rantai berbagai merk PANTHER AIR DRYER
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BeLight Software — Intuitive Apps for Mac, iOS, Windows and Android BeLight Software solutions cover desktop publishing, interior design, data protection and games for Mac, Windows, iOS and Android platforms.
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挂锁,铜挂锁,铁挂锁,挂锁厂家,不锈钢挂锁,厂家,供应商,定制厂家-浦江威力仕锁业有限公司 Pujiang Welis locks Co.,Ltd ( Pujiang forward lock factory) was founded in 1997, which was located in Pujiang, Zhejiang -----“The largest manufacture base of padlocks in China”, now our company covers an area of more than 20,000 square meters. After 18 years insistence, development, innovation, update quality control system and bring in advanced automatic equipment & technology, we have our own excellent sales team, and make gratifying progress in some frontiers.
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Membership Management Software by ChamberDesk.com Membership management system to manage your membership organization from remote locations and devices. It covers every aspect of Members management process.
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Safe Work Method Of Statement | Safety Method Statement Portal This fabrication method statement covers the detailed procedure for fabrication and installation of any kind of steel structure & decking slabs. 
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Technology News, Latest Gadgets Reviews, Specifications, Prices, Mobile Comparison, Tech Videos and Photos | Tech Hot News Spot Tech Hot News Spot - Get the Latest Trending tech news, gadget news, mobile phone news, Tablets PC, Camera, Gaming, Internet, Phone Compare, Reviews.
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Home | Peoria Area EMS Serving a nine-county radius in central Illinois, Peoria Area EMS covers one of the largest and most diverse areas in the Midwest. Dedicated, skilled and courageous, our 1600 providers (from over 75 agencies) include paramedics, firefighters, police, dispatchers, EMTs, and first responders. Every day thousands of people dial 911, counting on us to respond quickly and appropriately to local medical emergencies. OSF Saint Francis Medical Center is not only a Level One Trauma Center offering the highest level of emergency care 24/7/365. We also serve as Resource Hospital for the Peoria Area EMS System, ensuring that our providers comply with all state and local regulations, and are offered continuing education opportunities.
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MEDarchiver MEDarchiver è leader del settore “Hospital Information and Communication Systems (HICT)” per il mercato italiano, con competenze senza pari nel campo della bioingegneria e dell''informatica medicale. La missione di MEDarchiver è ridurre gli errori clinici e migliorare i processi ospedalieri attraverso il design e l''implementazione di sistemi informativi per strutture sanitarie che siano provvisti di un’architettura integrata, robusta, complessa e coerente. Offrendo competenze ineguagliabili nell''integrazione di dispositivi medici e nello sviluppo di sistemi clinici avanzati, e implementando soluzioni all-digital attraverso un’esclusiva piattaforma software proprietaria, MEDarchiver copre tutte le aree ospedaliere: amministrativa, clinica, chirurgica, infermieristica ed assistenziale. Le installazioni di MEDarchiver contano oltre 17.000 utenti, coinvolti quotidianamente nella gestione di più di 27 milioni di pazienti e oltre 50 milioni di eventi clinici. L''esclusiva interoperabilità offerta dalle soluzioni MEDarchiver include interfacce per più di 100 dispositivi medici. MEDarchiver offre ai propri clienti risorse professionali specializzate (ingegneri biomedicali, clinici, elettronici e software), assicurandosi che ogni processo venga concluso in modo fluido e senza errori. I "Lead Packages", i principali pacchetti per la cardiologia, l''oncologia e le sale operatorie rappresentano lo stato dell''arte dei sistemi informativi specialistici, mentre la soluzione “PHC - Private Hospital & Clinic” di MEDarchiver è la più completa piattaforma all-inclusive sul mercato. Principali prodotti e soluzioni: Sistema Informativo Ospedaliero Sistema Informativo Cardiologico Cartella Clinica Cardiologica Gestione Sale Operatorie Verbale Operatorio Cartella Clinica Elettronica (CCE) Fascicolo Sanitario Elettronico (FSE) Sistema Informativo Oncologico Cartella Clinica Oncologica Gestione Chemioterapia Prescrizione elettronica Integrazione dispositivi medici Interoperabilità. MEDarchiver is a leading company in the Hospital Information and Communication Systems (HICT) market in Italy, with unique skills in the fields of biomedical engineering and health informatics. Its mission is to reduce clinical errors and improve hospital processes through the design and implementation of robust, complex, consistent and integrated information systems for healthcare facilities. Offering unparalleled expertise in medical device integration and advanced clinical systems development, and implementing all-digital solutions through its unique proprietary software platform, MEDarchiver covers all hospital areas including administration and billing, clinical care, surgery and nursing. MEDarchiver installed base exceedes 17.000 users, daily involved in the management of over 27 millions patients and more than 50 millions clinical events. The unique interoperability offered by MEDarchiver solutions includes interfaces to more than 100 medical devices. MEDarchiver provides customers with skilled professional resources (biomedical, clinical, software and electronic engineers), making sure the path to the end of each and every project is smooth and trouble-free. Leading Packages for Cardiology, Oncology and Operating Room are the state-of-the-art in the specialty information systems, while MEDarchiver''s PHC - Private Hospital & Clinic solution is the ultimate and most complete, all-inclusive platform in the market. Core products and solutions: Hospital Information System (HIS) Cardiovascular Information System (CVIS) Cardiology Information System (CIS) Operating Room Management (OR) Electronic Medical Record (EMR) Electronic Patient Record (EPR) Oncology Medication Management (OMM) Electronic Prescription System Oncology Electronic Record Medical Device Interoperability.
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Buy Patio Misting System Pool Coolers an affordable Swimming Pool Cooling System Pool Coolers | An Affordable Swimming Pool Cooling System |Pool Mister | Pool cooler helps reduce the pool water temperature during the hot summer days. Pool cooler is your solution, cool any size swimming pool cooling system with our product. No need to install costly Pool Chiller.
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DEJAN KOZINA - WEB DESIGN STUDIO - MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION - NETWORK MANAGEMENT - WAP PRODUCTION This page is the entry point to the website of Dejan Kozina, web / wap designer,multimedia producer-editor and network administrator. This site serves as a information point and contact sheet for potential customers and is not rpt not intended as a showroom. This page only serves as a splash screen while the server checks your browser, screen res and so on and the counter jumps one up. Do not bother to link if all you need is my address, as you can go straight to contacteng.htm
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PARENTS ALLIANCE OF PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY, MARYLAND | Fight corruption in PGCPS. Innovate, Change and Transform – Create Transparency and Accountability Initiative. Fight corruption in PGCPS. Innovate, Change and Transform - Create Transparency and Accountability Initiative.
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Alden Carbon | BTA System | Garmin Mounts We produce unique custom carbon fiber components for the cycling market. We specialize in making BTA systems, Garmin computer aerobar mounts, and carbon fiber crank covers. We also have other great products to help you fill your cycling needs.
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DAVID SOMMERVILLE David Sommerville Rouler #bikelife - "Retired" in 2012 after 26th season, having pinned race number on over 1800 times, which is 5+ consecutive YEARS of daily racing! Cranked out more than 200,00 miles with fair share of victories, defeats, getting dropped, hundreds of flats, spills & mishaps, and spent thousands of hours on the bike. "I''ve been dropped in more races than you have done..." #dadlife - married to Lori Sommerville, father of Devin Sommerville, resides in South Slope, Brooklyn, NYC. #joblife - Director of Verge Sport and Director of Technology for Verge Global, basically slinging shoe covers, which come in pairs....and implementing code. #pastlife - Master stylist to the stars at John Dellaria Salon in Soho, NYC for 17 years. Grand Master of Pyrametrics cutting system while also known for premium highlighting ability. Retired in 2012 to enter the Bicycle Industry.
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AC Delete Firewall Covers by AGM Industries in Keenesburg, CO AGM Industries in Hudson, CO presents their AC Delete covers that are designed to fit most GM Classic Muscle Cars and Trucks, such as Chevelle, El Camino, Camaro, Nova, Monte Carlo, Impalla and their Buick, Oldsmobile, and Pontiac counter parts.
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PetroDiAC PetroDiAC, is a leading independent consultancy group dedicated to improving the profitability, efficiency and safety of Oil & Energy worldwide customers. Founded in 1994, it has offices in Houston-USA, Amsterdam-Netherlands and Ras Al-Khaimah-UAE. PetroDiAC signed an agreement with Toyo Pumps Europe PetroDiAC consultants had delivered more than 200 consultancy & engineering services projects for more than 50 customers around the world. These projects involved several consulting & engineering activities for Oil & Gas Upstream, Mid-Stream, Downstream, Petrochemicals, Water & Wastewater, Process Equipment Manufacturers, Industrial Automation, Skid Mounted Packagers and Pharmaceuticals companies. PetroDiAC services spans throughout the project life-cycle from inception to operation optimization. PetroDiAC services covers several disciplines but focused on designing Operational Excellence Programs, Startup Readiness Programs, Integrated Manufacturing Operation Management (iMOM), Program Management Office, Process Engineering, Process Control Systems and Quality, Health, Safety & Environment (QHSE). Value Engineering is a core focus while performing our services. Other disciplines that PetroDiAC complement its services with are Material & Corrosion, Mechanical, Electrical, and Instrumentation & Civil Engineering This depth of experience has made PetroDiAC one of the market leaders and has given us a precise understanding of the critical risks involved design, operate and maintain these production & manufacturing facilities. PetroDiAC is continuously developing its capabilities and enhancing services portfolio by partnering with Technology providers and surrounding itself with alliances and global organizations that provides invaluable source of industry standards and global best practices to PetroDiAC and its customers. PetroDiAC Experienced project managers and discipline engineers strengthen PD’s capability to execute lump sum turnkey projects involving electrical, instrumentation and telecommunication. PD’s involvement covers detailed design, procurement, execution, configuration and integration, residual engineering, construction, installation, commissioning, operation training and maintenance. In order to strengthen its portfolio and indirect workforce, PetroDiAC has aligned itself with major multinational organizations to service the different segments of industries we serve in the Middle East & Africa marketplace. We comply with our Business Ethics Policy, management system and all local rules and regulations. We foster a culture of transparency and responsibility. We investigate all violations and complaints and take appropriate corrective actions and imbed in our continuous improvement initiatives. Locations : UAE Iraq Saudi Cairo Egypt Dubai AbuDhabi Oman Bahrain Qatar Sudan Nigeria Ughanda Africa Algeria Libya Business : Consultant Consultancy Oil Gas Upstream, Mid-Stream, Downstream, Petrochemicals, gensuite, Water Wastewater Process Equipment Manufacturers Industrial Automation Skid Mounted Packager Pharmaceuticals companies Operations Process Engineering Refinary Utility PLC RTU SCADA DCS ICSS Control Automation HMI P&ID PID PFD Feed System Integrator Integration Panel Yokogawa Honeywell Emerson ABB SIEMENS SCHNEIDER Electrical Instrumentation duqm refinery quanta technology digitalisation digitization TOYO PUMP paper SUBMERSIBLE VERTICAL PUMPS HORIZONTAL PUMPS EQUIPMENT AND SPECIAL DEVICES DREDGING SYSTEMS imtech dubai petroleum Fostering Digitalization: The Journey Of Digital Metamorphosis
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Blue LPG Tanks & Gas Parts - Blue LPG blue lpg, sales and distribution of lpg tanks,lpgas, parts, gas parts, lpg vapor injection, lpg kits under bonnet kits, venturi kits,& lpg parts and accessories,LPG parts, spare parts, autogas parts,
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ZEBON: Online Printing Quote - Magazine, Catalog, Hardcover Book With our powerful online print quotation system, obtain quotes instantly. Explore our printing network with guaranteed print quality. We have endless options to satisfy your needs
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Cable Covers | Floor Cable Covers, Electrical Cord Protectors & Holders | TripSafe Australia Safety floor cable covers. TripSafe TM offer simple yet effective cable management systems to secure electrical cords and cable to the floor at home or in the office. Our range of high quality velcro cable protectors, holders and organisers will help you to avoid tripping hazards.
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ALD Group Limited - electronic atomization technology research and applications ALD’s business covers ENDS, IMV and HnB. ALD builds innovative vaping devices including Pods system, CBD hardware, Dry herb vaporizer, Disposable E-cig.
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Cyberspace Auto Parts Cyberspace Auto Parts is a trusted online seller of EFI and engine management car parts. Our extensive, genuine and premium quality aftermarket product range covers most Australian and International vehicles applications and is backed by a 12 month warranty.
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Home | CMS Connected Focused on the web content management (WCM) industry, CMS-Connected is the content management industry’s headline news, articles & advisory resource. From the latest technologies, innovations, mergers & acquisitions, platforms and products, CMS-Connected covers CMS related news and commentary from leading the industry expert analysts. We dig past the glossy brochures, flashy websites and sales-speak buzz-words, focusing on what the buyer definitely needs to know and what''s really driving the top Web CMS platform solutions on the market today.
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Remedi™ An End-to-End Hospital Management System Solution RemediTM is an Integrated Hospital Management System designed and developed by netBIOS Technologies, Kerala, India. It covers a wide range of hospital administration and management processes, and provides relevant information across the hospital to support effective decision making and future business planning. The Hospital Management System incorporates advanced diagnostics practices and delivers key tangible benefits to clients across India and abroad. An inside-out understanding of how Multi-Speciality and Medical College Hospitals, Healthcare Groups and Institutions work has allowed us to refine and improvise our Hospital Management Software, catering to the varying requirements of our clients.
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Buy Pool Cooler and Accessories Pool Coolers an affordable Swimming Pool Cooling System Pool Coolers | An Affordable Swimming Pool Cooling System |Pool Mister | Pool cooler helps reduce the pool water temperature during the hot summer days. Pool cooler is your solution, cool any size swimming pool cooling system with our product. No need to install costly Pool Chiller.
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BEST DIAMOND CHINA LTD PCD,CBN ,PCD cutter,diamond powder factory china best diamond,Best diamond with its sufficient industry experience, seeks to provide excellent products and service to its global partners. Best''s main products in superhard materials industry covers: Single crystal synthetic diamond,Synthetic diamond grits & powders,CBN ,PCD cutter,PDC cutters for oil & gas drilling,PCD die blanks for wire drawing,PCD & PCBN tools,Diamond grinding wheels etc. Best products not only have a good reputation in the Chinese mainland market, But also sell across the world to forty-five countries and regions from Europe, America, Africa and Southeast Asia. All the above comes from Best ''s independent R & D team, mature products production and inspection line, strict quality control and detection system and attentive service team. Best focus on each link from raw materials to product arriveing users, and pay great attention to the user ''s feedback and suggestions on Best''s product and service, and strives to customer satisfaction and good use experience, we ''d like to hear your voice, Best willing to be your best choice !
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Growers - New Zealand Frost Fans | Home of the FrostBoss™ New Zealand Frost Fans offer comprehensive protection solutions with the FrostBoss™ range of equipment, for virtually any crop, any location, any topography and any soil type.
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Utah Car Insurance | Compare Utah Car Insurance Quotes No-fault insurance states require PIP coverage and have limits for suing Tort system states do not require PIP and do not put any stipulations on civil court actions Drivers in Utah need to make sure they have the minimum legally required insurance coverages and consider additional coverages Generally, no-fault auto insurance refers to insurance coverage that gives policyholders the right to file claims and be paid for losses from their own insurance company no matter who caused the damage. There are no-fault states and there are at-fault states. However, in a legal sense, no-fault means that in addition to this type of insurance coverage, claimants have a restricted right to recourse within the legal system and a limited tort option. First-party coverage is referred to as personal injury protection or PIP for short. In order to sue another party in civil court within a no-fault state, you must have sustained severe injuries and meet certain state criteria. The limits for which you can sue can be related to the severity of your injuries or to the amount of your medical and associated expenses. In fact, in some states, the injured party must be disabled for a certain number of days in order to sue. Enter your zip code above to compare car insurance rates from multiple top companies at once! Currently, Puerto Rico and 12 states have no-fault insurance laws in place. These states include: Florida Michigan New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Hawaii Kansas Kentucky Massachusetts Minnesota North Dakota Utah What is tort insurance system? A tort insurance system is opposite of a no-fault insurance system. In a tort auto insurance system, the driver or another party who is deemed to be the cause of an auto accident will be liable for paying the medical expenses and other damages to the other involved parties. This can include lost wages and payments for pain and suffering. Under a tort system, there are no restrictions for what can potentially be collected for pain and suffering. The only requirements are that the other driver is at fault and you have incurred expenses and suffering for your related injuries. You can make a claim for pain and suffering, no matter what the amount. This is unlike no-fault states, where a minimum must be met. Is Utah a no-fault state? Utah is a no-fault state. Drivers in Utah who are in an accident will be required to turn first to their own insurance coverages to pay for their damages. In some cases, this is their only option. The insurance carrier is legally required to pay up to a minimum of $3,000 in PIP benefits, regardless of who caused the accident. If a Utah driver had a minor accident, this may be the only step in the process. As a no-fault state, injured drivers have limited options and have to follow certain steps. First, they must turn to their own PIP policy. If their $3,000 coverage has been exhausted or if they have had extremely serious injuries from the accident, they may have the right to sue. Injuries that qualify for civil action under Utah law include: Long-term disability Long-term impairment Permanent disfigurement Permanent dismemberment The benefit to living in a no-fault state like Utah is that claims are usually paid faster and overall costs are reduced. This can lead to lower premiums for drivers in no-fault states. However, one downside is that there can be a very broad interpretation of the language used in the law which has the potential to hurt all parties involved. PIP coverage has also become a prime area for unethical doctors and clinics to inflate costs and recommend unnecessary treatments. No-fault states do not have unduly burdened legal systems and can cost taxpayers less. On the other hand, people with very serious injuries have the potential to slip through cracks in the law and not get a fair settlement for their medical bills and pain and suffering. Auto Insurance in Utah Like nearly all other states, Utah has minimum auto insurance requirements for drivers. In addition to the minimum $3,000 PIP that all drivers must carry, they must also have liability coverages as follows: $25,000 per person for bodily injury $65,000 per accident for bodily injury $15,000 per accident for property Liability coverage is strictly for damages you cause to other parties. It does not cover any of your own damages. Additional coverages Utah drivers should consider purchasing include: – Uninsured/Underinsured Motorists If you are a victim of a hit-and-run accident or are in an accident with another driver who does not follow the legal requirements for auto insurance, you can rely on this coverage from your own policy. – Collision and Comprehensive Although not required by law, these coverages are often required if you have a leased or financed vehicle. Collision covers damages to your car if it is in an accident with another vehicle, object, or if you have a rollover crash. Comprehensive coverage is for other situations such as hitting wildlife, flooding, fires, vandalism, theft, or even losses caused by natural disasters. With collision and comprehensive coverage, you select your deductible and policy limits. Finding the Best Car Insurance Coverage in Utah As a Utah driver, it is important to find the best car insurance coverage at rates you can afford. Shopping for an auto insurance policy at the best price is a lot like shopping for anything else. Use these tips to ensure you get the best price for your auto insurance coverage. – Compare Car Insurance Rates from Multiple Companies You will want to get rates from several different companies. It is important to be sure you are comparing the same policy types when doing so. The easiest way to do comparison shopping for auto insurance is to use an online price comparison tool. This is also important to do prior to letting your auto insurance policy auto-renew. – Ask about Available Discounts Good Driver – If you haven't had an accident or a ticket in several years, you may be rewarded with a discount by your insurance company. Good Student – Many auto insurance companies will provide discounts to students with a history of good grades. Multi-Line – If you have other insurance products, such as renters, homeowners, or life insurance with your auto insurance company, you will often qualify for a discount. Anti-Theft – Vehicles equipped with anti-theft devices are seen as less of a risk and often get better insurance rates. Driver Education – If you have taken a defensive driving course or driver's education, you may qualify for a discount. Multi-Vehicle – Having more than one vehicle on the same policy will usually grant you lower rates on your overall policy. Military/Veteran – Many insurance companies will honor members of the military, past or present, with a discount on the auto insurance. You should always plan on shopping around to find the best insurance rates. Doing so will allow you to compare policies and prices and find what works best for your unique situation. Enter your zip code below to find the best car insurance rates in Utah today!
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Sancerres at Sunset | Travel. Home. Repeat. Solo travel is daring, liberating, rejuvenating. It feels a little bit naughty, like getting away with something. You go when you want to go, where you want to go. You eat when you want to eat, what you want to eat. You can sleep when you want, and get up when you want, and you get the whole bed. You can stay at a luxury hotel or a campground; it's your choice. You get to indulge your own interests, no matter how nerdy, or boring, or eclectic someone else might think them. If you want to plan your trip around seeing a historic museum, a national park, and a baseball game, you can. You don't have to convince anyone why they matter, and you don't have to compromise. You can't live this way all time, and it wouldn't be good for you anyway. It's better to have people in your life, people you want to put first. But every once in a while, it's good to get away from others, so you can restore yourself. It's rare, and that's what makes it special. This post contains affiliate links. For more information, click here. Road trips are adventurous, raw, and so intriguing they've inspired movies from It Happened One Night to Thelma & Louise. You have flexibility. You stop when there's something interesting to see or do, or when you just want a break. You stay in one place as long as you want, and you move on to the next one whenever you want. You don't have a plane to catch, and you don't have to be molested to get on board. Your car is your cocoon; you can load it with whatever you're going to want. But the trip isn't about the car; it's about you and the road and where the road takes you and where you choose to follow it, eyes wide and mind open and heart full of excitement. And when you put solo travel and road trip together, it's magic. It's a rare and nurturing oasis of freedom in our over-regulated, over-scheduled, over-intrusive, over-judgmental modern world. It's life on your terms. And good magic needs a lot of behind-the-scenes planning and preparation. After five fabulous weeks alone on the road, here's my comprehensive list of Solo Road-Trip Essentials 1) A Loose Plan Freedom and flexibility are the glory of the solo road trip. You don't want to over-plan. But you have to have some idea of where you want to go and what you want to do. Make a short list of your top things to do. Mine included: Southfork Ranch in Texas and a Salem Red Sox game in Virginia, as well as the Everything Food Conference in Utah. I also wanted to go to all five of the contiguous states I hadn't already visited (North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Idaho, and Oregon). Rough draft your route. You can do this online or on a paper map or both. Plot your to-see points, and trace a route that covers them. Use it to gauge how long it should take to drive from point to point and to plan stops on the way. But remember: it's just a rough plan; adjust it continually as you go along. At the end of every driving day, after I checked in to my hotel room and cleaned out the car, I got online to figure out where to stop next and what I'd like to see on the way--a small museum, a historic site, a local park. I made reservations if it looked like rooms were filling up, but the best driving days were the ones when I knew I could go until I wanted to stop. Decide how much you want to drive daily and weekly. I settled on roughly six hours per day, five days per week. I thought this would be a fairly light schedule, especially after years of driving from northern Virginia to my parents' home outside Boston. I've seen some travel bloggers write about driving 12 hours in a day, and great for them if that's what they like. But for me, the point of the journey was the journey, and I wanted to spend more time exploring out of the car than in it. I also knew that I'd have daily and weekly blogging responsibilities, that I like wearing frequently washed clothes, and that God gave us a weekly day of rest for a reason. As it turned out, even this light and flexible schedule became pretty tiring after five weeks, and I started slowing down by the time I made it back to the southeast. Write up a nightly to-do list. When you're road tired, and possibly hungry, you don't want to keep asking yourself, "What do I need to remember to do next?" Make a fool-proof list. Mine included: Unload and tidy up car. Charge electronics.Research next stop; make reservations. Jot down notes for upcoming blog posts. Edit photographs.Check in on social media: Instagram, facebook, twitter, PinterestRespond to email. Outline a basic daily schedule. You can make day to day changes when they're called for, but having a schedule will help you stay on track. Mine looked like this: A Day in the Life of a Travel Blogger on the Road 5:15am: Alarm goes off. Hit snooze. Visualize day ahead.5:24: Alarm goes off again. Get up. Make coffee. Do crunches.5:30ish: Over coffee, go online and make sure nothing catastrophic happened overnight, e.g. the blog didn't get hacked, Trump didn't tweet the nuclear codes, etc.5:55: Don exercise clothes and go outside or to hotel gym to work out.7ish: Shower and dress for the day. Comfy casual clothes for driving. No make-up, just eye cream with sunscreen, tinted moisturizer with sunscreen, lip balm with sunscreen, curled lashes, and body lotion with sunscreen. Keep concealer, powder foundation, red lipstick, and 3-in-1 blush, highlighter, and lip tint at the ready just in case.7:45ish: Protein breakfast, no simple carbs. Grab an apple for lunch.8:15ish: Pack, load car, swap out CDs. Check out of hotel. (Even though most hotels email a receipt, I always ask for a print-out at the desk and look it over before I leave, just in case.) 8:45ish: Hit the road. Stop along the way at an interesting site or two. Eat the apple for lunch.4-5pm: Check in at next hotel. Complete task list.6ish: Dinner. Usually a low-carb charcuterie plate in the room, occasionally a juicy burger from room service, out to a local Mexican place if in the southwest.7ish: Play at casino, read, watch TV.9: Skin care: oil-based cleanser, creamy cleanser, toner, serum, eye cream, neck cream, moisturizer, body lotion. Bed. Prepare for departure. An organized approach to a few simple tasks will help make your departure much smoother. Set up a packing station a few days ahead of time. The earlier you can gather up the things you'll be taking, the less stressed you'll be as departure day nears. I used my small den for this, so that the growing piles wouldn't drive me crazy. Pay your bills. Set up automatic payments. Don't forget: housing--mortgage, rent, condo feesinsurance--health, home, autocredit cardsutilities (Suspend your cable unless you'll want to access it from the road.) Clean thoroughly. You don't want to return to an untidy home (and you don't want any multi-legged squatters moving in while you're away). I set aside a full day for this. Plan for a short first day of driving. Leaving can be the most stressful part of a trip. Give your extra self time to double-check that you've packed the prescriptions and turned off all the appliances (you can even snap pictures of them if you'll want the reassurance). Make a one-night reservation at an inexpensive highway hotel; just make sure it's far enough away that you won't be tempted to turn home to get that one last thing you wish you'd packed. Prepare to come home. This is part of preparing to leave, so that it won't haunt you near the end of the journey. I brought along a re-entry folder, for some paperwork regarding things I'd need to handle upon my return. Toward the end of the trip, I also planned for a short last day of driving, so that if there were any problems at home, I'd have time and energy to cope with them. I reserved what I hoped would be a luxury hotel room for my last few days on the road, so that I'd be coming home feeling rested and so that the last stretch of the trip wouldn't seem like more of a downer than necessary. Be flexible. You know that plan I had to see five new states? I only got to three of them before I decided that the last two would just be too much for this trip. On the other hand, I visited lots of places that I would never have planned ahead, just because they looked intriguing, from the Museum of Space History in New Mexico to the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville. Go with the road and go with your gut. 2) A Priority on Safety You matter. Your safety matters. Take it seriously. Have your car checked out before you leave. I did this a few weeks early so there'd be time for any necessary repairs. Bring: A navigation system. Make sure your maps are updated.A road atlas. Electronics fail. Books don't. Have a back-up.Coolant, oil, and jumper cables. A road safety kit.A First-Aid kit.A Swiss Army knife. Membership in an auto club.A spare key.Any needed medications. I always travel with Extra-Strength Tylenol for headaches, Advil for muscle aches, and Claritin for allergies. (I'm happy to report that I didn't need the Tylenol.)Your Passport and of course your driver's license, registration, and proof of insurance. Establish your safety rules. It's easy to make wrong decisions in the moment when you don't have firm rules in place. Mine were: Never let the gas tank go below 1/2 west of the Mississippi or 1/4 east.No hiking alone in large parks. Marked trails in small parks were okay. No alcohol until the car is parked for the night. I also had a soft rule of only one glass of wine per night, which I bent twice for craft cocktails. But most nights, the only thing I drank was water. No stopping on the shoulder for photographs, no matter how beautiful the scenery. Stop only at designated overlooks and turn-outs. You might notice a few places in my narratives with metaphoric descriptions of landscapes and no pictures to match; that's why. 3) Lodging that Suits Your Style Lots of travellers are comfortable at hostels and campgrounds. If you're one of them, you might want to skip this part. I prefer luxury hotels, but they're not practical for one-night stops along the road. For road trips, I like a combination of casino, casual-convenient, and extended-stay hotels. Casino Hotels Casino hotels are a great option for women travelling alone, because: They're safe. There are cameras and security personnel everywhere. In casino towns, you can even walk alone at night, because they're all lit up, and there are lots of cops around. They're inexpensive. They're not in business to make money on the rooms, so you can usually stay for cheap or even for free. They usually have reasonably priced or even complementary valet parking. The big ones have rewards credit cards without annual fees, making them a better bet than most travel credit cards, and you also earn points redeemable as cash with their player's cards. There's always something to do. There are restaurants and bars, spas and pools, and of course table games and slot machines. These casino brands have hotels in multiple locations: Caesars Caesars has properties all over the country. Along with its namesake, its brands include Horseshoe, Harrah's, Bally's, and others. Its properties range from luxury to well-at-least-it's-comped. The two nicest hotels where I stayed on my recent road trip were Caesars properties. Its rewards program is Caesars Rewards. MGM MGM is another large network, with properties concentrated in Las Vegas and then scattered primarily through the South and the mid-Atlantic. Most have unique names. They range from luxury to mid-scale. Its rewards program is MLife. Boyd Boyd Gaming has 18 midscale properties in Nevada, the South, and the midwest. Most have unique names. Its rewards program is B Connected. El Dorado El Dorado has 26 midscale properties in the South, the West, and the midwest. Along with its namesake, its affiliated brands include Tropicana, Isle, Lady Luck, and others, with independent rewards programs. As of this writing, El Dorado has announced plans to acquire Caesars next year. Casual-Convenient Hotels These properties tend to be easily accessible from the road. They're often called limited-service hotels, because they lack upscale amenities like spas and bars, valet service, and shopping esplanades. But they do have what long-term road trippers want: big open parking lots, gyms, breakfast in the morning and cookies at night and coffee and tea all day, and usually microwaves and refrigerators in the rooms. My go-to brand has long been Hampton by Hilton, because they're ubiquitous and reliably clean and comfortable and reasonably priced. Hilton's rewards program is HHonors. I did have one nice stay at the Country Inn & Suites by Radisson in Northwood, Iowa. Two big plusses for this brand are cookies all day and a wonderful lending library system whereby road trippers can take a book at one property and return it at the next. Radisson's frequent-travel program is Radisson Rewards. Extended-Stay Hotels For longer stops, I prefer extended-stay hotels. Like their casual-convenient counterparts, they offer complimentary breakfast in the morning and sometimes receptions in the evening. The rooms have fully equipped kitchens with real dishes and glassware, things you miss after weeks on the road. My favorite brand is Residence Inn by Marriott. They're reliably clean and reasonably priced. The gyms and laundry rooms are large and well equipped. The televisions are Netflix-ready for use with your own account. They have a complimentary same-day grocery-shopping service. And there's microwave popcorn in the kitchen, which I never have at home, but can't resist when I'm curling up with a Netflix flick after a long day of driving or writing or laundry or all three. Marriott's rewards program is Bonvoy. 4) Food In my vision for the trip, I thought I'd be alternately dining at local haunts and having happy-hour bites with my single glass of wine at hotel bars. In reality, more often than not, I made myself a small charcuterie board in the hotel room, washed down with water, after I'd finished the tasks on my to-do list. Here's my list of groceries to pack: bottled water half-and-halfcured meats tunacheesesdips cruditesberriesplastic platesplastic cutlerypaper napkinsZiploc bags (more than you think you'll need)a small bottle of dish detergentcold packs 5) A Wardrobe for All Seasons Be prepared for all kinds of weather. After five weeks ranging from hot sun to wet snow (including both in Salt Lake City), here's what I wish I'd packed: Footwear comfortable pumpsversatile, comfy sandalsslip-on sneakershiking bootsrunning shoes flip-flopsslippers8 pr cushy gym socks4 pr ankle socks4 pr thick slouch socks2 pr hose/tights Basics I love Talbots for inexpensive basics that are easy to notch up with the right accessories. 1 comfortable skirt1 pr comfortable cotton pants1 pr designer jeans1 pr mom jeans2 pr cropped pants or Capris3 pr modest shorts4 long-sleeved tops8 short-sleeved tops Dresses 2 day-to-evening dresses3 casual dresses, including at least one that can double as a swim cover-up Outerwear 2 cardigans1 blazer1 windbreaker1 pr winter gloves Hats 3-4 wide-brimmed hats2-3 baseball caps1 warm knit hat Accessories 3 scarves3 belts: wide, medium, thin Activewear 2 pr gym shorts1 pr sweats1 modest bathing suit1 bikini Sleepwear 1 comfy cotton nightgown1 pr cozy pajamas 1 modest silk robe Jewelry I hate worrying about losing my jewelry when I travel, so I bring only a few good pieces that I can wear together: 1 pr comfortable earrings1 simple necklace3 rings3 bracelets1 brooch Laundry Supplies lg mesh laundry bagdetergentbleach podsdryer sheets 6) Bags and Baggage 1 sm. crossbody1 med. crossbody1 lg tote1 duffel bag, for 2-3 days worth of clothes1 lg suitcase, for clothes not presently needed1 picnic basket1 sm. soft-sided cooler that fits inside the picnic basket1 laptop bag1 camera bag packing cubes: Not only do they keep your suitcase organized, but they also help you keep tidy in hotel rooms that inexplicably don't have dressers with drawers. a collapsible wagon: If you take one piece of advice from this whole long post, take this one. I bought my little blue wagon to carry wine-and-cheese picnics to outdoor concerts and the beach. I use it more to lug groceries up to my 11th-storey condo. But it was a lifesaver not only for loading and unloading the car but also for carting the wash to and from hotel laundry rooms. 7) A Fitness Plan You have to be intentional about fitness or it will be too easy to blow off. I resolved before I left to spend an hour exercising every morning before I hit the road, unless I knew I'd be doing significant movement during the day. Most days I either used a treadmill in the hotel gym or went for a long walk in the fresh air. I also did ten crunches every morning while the coffee was brewing and lifted weights once or twice each week. I brought along my favorite work-out DVDs, yoga mat, hand weights, ankle weights, and resistance bands--and didn't take them out of the car once. The good news: I hit my 10,000-step goal every day, and usually far exceeded it, according to my fitbit, and I lost eight pounds. The bad news: It wasn't enough; I lost muscle tone because I didn't do enough strength training. If I'd known then what I know now, here's what I'd do: every morning: 10 crunches and five burpees5-6 times/week: 3-4 miles jogging or brisk walking3-4 times/week: strength training when possible: climb stairs 8) Money Rewards Credit Cards There are a lot of rewards credit cards out there, and it's worth selecting a few that will help maximize what you can reap back from your travels (and put toward your next journey!). Here's the balance that worked for me: 2 cards that pay an unlimited blanket rate of at least 1.5 percent (a go-to card and a back-up). Citibank's Double Cash card pays 1 percent back when you make purchases and 1 percent when you pay your bill; it has no annual fee. 1-2 casino branded cards. Caesars offers a Visa with benefits that include Caesars Rewards Platinum status (the lowest elite tier) for $5,000 in annual spending. It has no annual fee, and even low rollers can get nice rooms comped with it. If your credit is good enough, you may qualify for a Visa Signature, with its additional travel perks, like room upgrades and late check-out. 2-3 cards that pay at least 4 percent cash back for some of your major road-trip expenses. The Discover it Card offers a blanket 1 percent cash back on most items, and 5 percent on quarterly categories, like restaurants and gas stations, on up to $1,500 in purchases. It has no annual fee and will double all the cash back you earn during your first year. Cash Some people don't feel comfortable with a lot of cash; some people only feel comfortable with a lot of cash. Bring the amount you feel comfortable with. Just make sure to carry enough $5s and $1s for tips. And bring quarters for laundry; most hotels can sell you a roll, but I wouldn't count on it. Don't forget your ATM card(s). 9) Electronics and Entertainment Your list will depend somewhat on your personal preferences, but here are my road-trip must-haves: phone and chargers: I like my iPhone SE because it's small but has a good camera.earbuds: I save the ones they give out on planes and use them to catch up with the morning news while I exercise. laptop and charger: The only laptop I want to take on the road is my MacBook Air, because it's thin and light.cameras, chargers, cables, tripod: My big camera is a Nikon D3100 DSLR, which I often use with this tripod. I use my Sony DSC-W70 when lugging a DSLR is impractical; it's lightweight and takes good videos. a variety of things to listen to: I brought around 100 CDs, from classical to Christian (which was great for singing along in praise of God's creation), and swapped them out in the mornings before I hit the road, and I still got bored with them. I would add educational CDs from the Teaching Company and some Rosetta Stone to polish up one of my rusty languages. There are also podcasts and audio books, if you enjoy them. reading material: I like to bring a lot of magazines when I travel, because I can leave them for someone else to enjoy and lighten my load as I go. On the other hand, I usually limit myself to one book, because they're heavy. journal(s)/notebook(s): It's easy to forget things on the road, whether it's how your heart soared seeing a family of deer scamper through the Black Hills or the tour hours at Southfork Ranch. Write them down. I love these notebooks. 10) The Right Mind-Set A solo road trip is a wonderful opportunity, but it can be physically and emotionally grueling. Driving hours a day for weeks is tiring, and there's no one to take the wheel when you want a break. Things will go wrong. You may get lost. I took an hour-long detour through the Mojave Desert in California because I overshot my turn to Laughlin, Nevada. You may get scared. I've developed a weird phobia of overpasses that are so high I can't see the ground. You may get lonely. I missed my late mother, with whom I took my previous cross-country road trips, and I cried from Arizona to New Mexico. You have to set your mind to accept these kinds of things before you go. You have to allow yourself to feel emotional swings without being overwhelmed by them. You have to believe that the rewards are worth the risks. (And if you can't, that's okay, and it's better to realize it; long-term solo road tripping is not for everybody, and there are lots of other ways to travel.) I never questioned. No matter how sad or scared I became, I loved being on the road, and being on my own. And I slept better than I have in years.
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Single-Winner Voting Methods | An LES for vote-counting methods in Quebec's Math 5 CST curriculum. Voting is important, but just as important is how those votes are counted. This Learning and Evaluation Situation, aimed at Grade 11 students in Quebec's CST Math option, covers four single-winner vote-counting methods: plurality, elimination, Condorcet, and Borda count. Its aim is to challenge students to expand their knowledge of how our democratic system works…
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Sensormatic AM Label;am antenna;rf soft label;eas security product; Focusing on the field of Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS), Zhejiang Kahn Electronics Company Ltd. is a high-tech enterprise that self-develops, manufactures and sells Radio-Frequency (RF) EAS tags. Currently, EAS is wildly used in developed countries to protect products from damage or shoplifting in supermarkets and shopping malls. Besides, it also cuts down the expense of workforce for employers and upgrades enterprise image. The number of our annual production reaches to 500 million and our market covers the whole globe, mainly in Asia, Europe, North America and Middle East. We offer customers portable, environment-friendly, cost-effective and reliable EAS tags that are fully compatible with 8.2 MHz-RF technology system. We pride in our modern office facilities, world class manufacture and automatic detection devices. Besides, convenient transportation conditions, customer-first service as well as experienced research and sales team make us a competitive enterprise and we thus gain trust and appreciation from the worldwide customers. So far, we have set up representative offices in Russia and Germany, which exerts an active role in enhancing our sales in the local and among neighboring countries. As we continue to develop steadily, we will establish more after-sale sites or agencies abroad to adapt to market demand and provide superior services to local customers. With our philosophy of “quality first”, Kahn will carry on cooperating with our customers to suit their individual needs and guarantees the quality and authenticity of every product we manufacture and sell.  
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The Cover Project > Home The Cover Project: We''ve got you covered with game inserts for every current and past generation gaming system that we could find cases for.
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TxtMania | The Philippines, a group of over 7,000 islands with combined land area encompassing 300,000 square kilometres, grew into a nation under more than three centuries of Spanish conquest and 42 years of American rule. It is the first country outside the New World that closely witnessed the United States' rise to power following the 1898 Spanish-American War. Situated 800 kilometres southeast of mainland Asia, the archipelago, named after King Philip II of Spain, was discovered in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, the same explorer who had discovered the Pacific Ocean in search of the so-called "Spice Islands" and is now widely considered the first navigator to have cruised around the planet. Ironically, the Filipinos, after having been subdued for centuries by foreign colonizers as a result of Magellan's voyage, would emerge as the best seafarers in the world, manning a third of all international vessels today. Some 7.8 million overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) and Filipino migrants would help rebuild cities in many countries and bring back over US$10 billion in annual remittances to their families in the Philippines. The country's geographical location and long exposure to foreign influences has placed the Philippines on a unique cultural base in Asia. It is now the only predominantly Catholic country in the region, with 70 million out of its total population of 85 million (as of 2005) confessing to be Catholic. There are also large numbers of Protestants and Born-Again Christians in the country while the Muslim population is concentrated in southern Mindanao. Early Trade The first inhabitants of the Philippines were the Negritos who traveled from mainland Asia over a land bridge that is now underwater. Migrants from other Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia later followed and established a Malayan culture that flourished before the Spaniards came. Chinese and Arab merchants helped establish markets at the community level. A sultanate system, first established in the southern island of Sulu in the 14th century, is believed to have reached the islands of Luzon and Visayas, giving way to the rise of the Islamic faith. The Spaniards would later drive the Muslims to the south and establish Catholicism as the main religion in the north and central parts of the country. Local villages, known as barangay, traded agricultural and fishery products with each other. The Igorot tribe in Northern Luzon carved the marvellous Banaue Rice Terraces from the mountains, a proof of their advanced agriculture technology. Communities near the shore exchanged goods with Chinese and Arab merchants, who came aboard large ships. These communities traded slaves, gold, beeswax, betel nuts, pearls, and shells for porcelain, silk, iron, tin and semi-precious stones. The Philippine islands were a part of an extensive trade route used by Chinese merchants as early as the 10th century. By the time Magellan arrived in the islands, regular trade and cultural contact between Chinese traders and local chieftains were firmly instituted. Many Chinese merchants settled in the country and shared their crafts with the natives. Some historians claim that an Italian Franciscan priest, named Father Odorico, was actually the first European to have reached the Philippines in 1324 when his ship bound for China took refuge from a storm in Bolinao Island in northern part of Luzon. Aside from the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordillera Mountains, early settlers did not leave any giant monument, and this is what makes conservative historians doubt the existence of the rich kingdoms in the country hundreds of years ago. However, it cannot be denied that early Filipinos were learned individuals who expressed their beliefs and sentiments in rich languages. According to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), there are actually 78 language groupings and over 500 dialects in the Philippines. Feudal Society Magellan, who claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, died in a battle with a group of local warriors led by Lapu Lapu at Mactan Island. It was Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in the fourth Spanish expedition, who named the territory as Filipinas after the heir to the Spanish throne in 1543. In 1565, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi led an expedition to colonize the islands and by 1571, most parts of the archipelago came under Spanish rule. The Spaniards established the colonial government first in Cebu in 1565 and then in Manila in 1571. Historians claim that University of San Carlos in Cebu and University of Sto. Tomas in Manila are the oldest universities teaching European type of education in Asia. Jesuit and Dominican priests established the two institutions. Under Spanish rule, Catholicism became the dominant religion. Catholic friars not only lorded over the congregations; they enjoyed vast political and economic influence, which they eventually used to repress Filipino peasants' uprisings in the largely feudal Philippine society at that time. The Spaniards also quelled a number of rebellions instigated by the Chinese migrants. The friars distributed lands to Spanish families, who later comprised the landowning class. To perpetuate their economic interests, this class would also rise to become the political elite that would remain in power to this day. This gave way to the hacienda system in the Philippines, where cacique or landowners managed large tracts of lands tilled by peasant workers. Under the system, farmers were supposed to receive half of the harvest, but they usually ended up with much less because they had to pay for large interests on debt incurred from the cacique. This would be later corrected with a system of land reform, which, however, remains to be fully implemented to this day. Galleon Trade The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade became the major trading system between Asia and the Americas for nearly two centuries. Manila became a transhipment point of American silver to China. It was through this trade that the first Chinese silk and porcelain reached the shores of the New World. There were unverified claims that Filipinos helped build the city of Los Angeles in America. The Chinese and Filipinos would later become the two largest Asian migrant groups in the United States. Coconut became the country's top agricultural product, because of Spain's huge need for charcoaled coconut shells used for the caulking of the galleons. In 1642, the colonial government issued an edict requiring each Filipino to plant 200 coconut trees all over the country. By 1910, coconut exports would account for a fifth of total Philippine exports and to this day, coconut oil remains the country's top agricultural shipment. The Galleon Trade lasted for about 200 years until 1815. It is during this period that rice and tropical fruits from the Philippines such as mango and banana made their way to Latin America. Beginning 1750, Spanish priests encouraged the development of plantations to grow abaca (hemp), tobacco, coffee and sugar. Sugar barons from the Visayas would later emerge as among the richest clans in the country. From 1762 to 1764, the British briefly captured Manila during the Seven Years War. The treaty of Paris ended the British occupation and returned the colony to the hands of their original colonial masters. Plantation Crops In 1781, the Spanish governor established the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines, which would become a major source of revenue for the colonial government. From 1820 to 1870, the Philippines would be transformed to an agricultural export economy. Located on the oceanic trading routes connecting Asia to other parts of the world, the Philippines became a transhipment point of merchandise goods from all over Southeast Asia on their way to Europe. The Philippines exported plantation crops such as sugar, abaca, other fibres, tobacco, coffee, and coconut products to China, Spain, United States, United Kingdom and British East Indies. In return, it imported textiles and rice. Historians claim that Spain administered the Philippine affairs through Mexico. Spanish administrators in the country were actually reporting to the Viceroyalty of Mexico. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Madrid directly governed its only Asian colony and even allowed rich Filipinos to study in Europe. The Spanish rule gave way to the rise of a small but highly powerful elite class, which to this day, controls most of the Philippine economy. The elite families, which own large plantations, were able to send their children to Europe for education. Foreign Investors Investors from Spain, Germany, Britain and other European countries laid the groundwork for utility companies in steam navigation, cable, telegraphy, railroads and electricity in the country. They also invested heavily in rice and sugar milling, textile and banking. The local elite developed the brewing industry, which would become one of the most profitable sectors in the economy. Although the educated Filipinos who studied in Europe shunned the use of force to topple the colonial government, their writings provoked nationalist sentiments among young men, who eventually formed a revolutionary movement against Spain. In 1896, the war between Spanish and Filipino soldiers escalated following the death of novelist Jose Rizal and rebel leader Andres Bonifacio. Emilio Aguinaldo, the new leader of the revolutionary forces, forged a pact with US Commodore George Dewey in Hong Kong to defeat the Spanish army. American Colony The Americans entered the scene because of its conflict with Spain over Cuba. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American war in the Pacific, the Philippines had to be taken by the US, lest other European countries such as Britain, France and Germany would fight for their next Southeast Asian colony. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo, first backed by American forces, declared the independence of Kawit, Cavite, the seat of the revolutionary Filipino government at that time, from Spanish rule. The Americans took possession of Manila on August 13, 1898. While armed clashes with Spanish forces continued in other parts of the country, the Americans and the Spaniards were negotiating for the purchase of the Philippines for US$20 million. In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the US. Filipinos felt insulted at the fact that their country has been passed from one colonial master to another for only US$20 million. When the US, which had not conquered any country before, made known its intention to succeed Spain as the next colonizer of the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his men waged a revolutionary resistance that ended with his capture in March 1901. The American soldiers easily subdued the remaining factions of rebellion with the help of their powerful weapons and their divide-and-conquer tactic. As an archipelago of 7,000 islands, the Philippines is home to different ethnic groups which do not speak the same language. The national government's attempt to declare Tagalog (spoken in Central and Southern Luzon including Metro Manila) as the national language would not easily win the support of other regions. The Philippine-American war took the lives of 4,234 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers. The death toll was much higher on the civilian population, with as high as 200,000 casualties. Although local resistance persisted until 1903, the US ended its military rule on July 4, 1901. American Way Under American civilian rule, the Philippines was introduced to US-type of education, Protestant religion, and later to the concept of democracy. Placed under US control were most parts of the country, except in the southern portion of Mindanao where Muslim rebels held strong resistance. William Howard Taft, the 27th US president, was the first American Civil Governor in the Philippines. Taft was praised for establishing a civil service system, creating a national legislature, suppressing prices, upgrading health standards, and sponsoring land reform and road building in the country. In 1907, the First Philippine Assembly composed of educated and rich Filipinos with vast landholdings. Manuel L. Quezon, who represented the Philippines in the US Congress, lobbied for the passage of the Jones Law, which in 1916 abolished the Philippine Assembly to give way for a bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. With the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934, Filipinos had their first taste of self-rule through the Philippine Commonwealth, a transitional government designed to prepare the Filipinos over a ten-year period for independence. By 1935, the Commonwealth was in place with Quezon as its first president. The Philippines also approved a new constitution in the same year. The United States is credited for helping establish the Republic of the Philippines, the first democratic government in Asia. Economically, the Philippines was ahead of its Asian neighbours, who were still subjects of European colonial powers before the war. Japanese Invasion In December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the Philippines and drove the Commonwealth Government from Manila. While Quezon continued to head the government-in-exile until his death in New York in August 1944, the Japanese forces handpicked Jose P. Laurel, a graduate of Yale University and Tokyo International University, to head a new government under their control. The Philippines was dragged into the war because of Japan's military ambition to become the dominant force in Asia and the Pacific. Japan wanted to be the leader of an economic zone in East Asia, which would be the source of its raw materials. The US presence in the Philippines, known for its strategic location in Southeast Asia, was the largest threat to the Japanese forces, following the destruction of the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. While the American forces were regrouping in the United States, Filipino soldiers formed a guerrilla organization called Hukbalahap (People's Anti-Japanese Army). Some 30,000 guerrillas at that time engaged the Japanese army in intermittent clashes. The Hukbalahap would later adopt the communist ideology and rule in the countryside. Meanwhile, Sergio Osmeña replaced Quezon as the head of the government-in-exile and joined General Douglas MacArthur in the liberation of Manila. General MacArthur returned to the Philippines via the island province of Leyte, along with 174,000 army and navy servicemen on October 20, 1944. The liberation of Manila took almost 20 days from February 3 to 23, 1945 and the fierce battle destroyed much of the city, with its ruins now often compared to the ruins of Warsaw, Poland in Europe. The Japanese army, however, continued to fight in the provinces, until September 2, 1945 when General Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya who was believed to have hidden vast amount of treasures during the war, surrendered in Baguio City. It is estimated that the battle of Manila cost the lives of 1 million Filipinos, 300,000 Japanese and 60,000 Americans. The intensity of the US-Japan war would force the former to drop an atomic bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and in Nagasaki three days later. US Bases By February 1945, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth in the Philippines but it was only on July 4, 1946 that the US granted the Philippines its independence, coinciding with the celebration of the Independence Day in America. However, US military bases would remain in the country for the next 45 years. On March 14, 1947, Manila and Washington signed the Treaty of General Relation, which provided the US to construct military bases for a lease period of 99 years. In 1959, the agreement was amended to shorten the lease period until 1991, after which both sides were to renegotiate the contract. When the US sought a ten-year extension of the lease period in 1991, the Philippine Senate, led by Senate President Jovito Salonga, rejected the proposal in a historic casting of vote on September 16, ending US military bases in the country. With newfound freedom in 1946, Filipinos elected Manuel A. Roxas, leader of the Liberal Party and one of the seven members of the Constitutional Convention who drafted the 1935 Constitution, as the first president of the independent republic in April 1946. His presidency was focused on rebuilding the cities and municipalities torn by the war, redistributing lands as wealthy landowners returned to reclaim their estates, and confronting the Hukbalahap, which by this time was tagged as a socialist-communist organization. The economy grew at a rapid pace, immediately after the war. Special Treatment Close economic ties between Manila and Washington continued after the war on the back of agreements providing for preferential tariffs for American exports and special treatment for US investors in the Philippines. In the 1946 Philippine Trade Act, the Americans were granted duty-free access to the Philippine market and special rights to exploit the country's natural resources. Because of the Trade Act, the Philippines suffered a huge trade deficit with the influx of American imports. In 1949, the Philippine government was forced to impose import controls, after getting the consent of Washington. Roxas' two-year presidency ended with his death, following a heart attack while delivering a speech at Clark Air Force Base in Pampanga province in April 1948. Vice president Elpidio Quirino succeeded Roxas as president and defeated Jose P. Laurel to keep his post in the 1949 presidential race. It was during Quirino's term that the Minimum Wage Law was enacted and the Central Bank was established to stabilize the peso and consumer prices. The country's gross national product grew by an average of 7.7 percent annually in the early 1960s, on the back of the double-digit increase in the manufacturing sector. In the 1953 presidential election, Ramon Magsaysay, who had served as defense secretary under the Quirino administration, won by a landslide. The charismatic Magsaysay initiated peace talks with the Hukbalahap, which would later evolve into a communist organization. He became popular for opening the gates of Malacanang Palace to ordinary people. He died in a plane crash on Mount Manunggal in Cebu in March 1957, which to this day remains a mystery to many Filipinos. While the standard of living in the Philippines was below that of the Western World, the country was often cited as the second richest economy in Asia, after Japan in the 1960s. However, ill-advised economic policies, poor governance and rapid population growth in the country would allow other Asian economies such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and China not only to catch up with but to leave the Philippines behind in the race towards industrialization. Filipino First Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the country's top government post following the death of Magsaysay. Garcia was known for his First Filipino Policy and Austerity Program, which put the interests of Filipinos ahead those of foreigners. Under his austerity measures, he encouraged temperate spending, which resulted in less imports and more exports. His nationalist policies, however, perpetuated the business interests of the ruling elite in the country and did not encourage local businesses to be competitive. Garcia lost to his vice-president in the 1961 presidential poll. Protectionist policies allowed local manufacturers to control the economy from 1949 to 1962, discouraging them from becoming competitive. Diosdado Macapagal, father of incumbent President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, was the president from 1961 to 1965. Before he became president, he authored the land reform program as a legislator and was vice-president to Garcia. As president, Macapagal began a five-year socio-economic program by removing imports control and liberalizing foreign exchange. It was Macapagal who declared June 12 as the national Independence Day. In 1962, the Macapagal administration began devaluing the peso by half to around 3.90 to the US dollar. Macapagal initiated a shift in investments from the light industries to chemicals, steel and industrial equipment. He was also one of the proponents of the MAPHILINDO, a trade bloc of three South East Asian countries – the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. This bloc later expanded to what is now the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). By 1965, foreign capital was present in nearly a third of the country's capital stock. Martial Law Ferdinand Marcos, the Senate president, defeated Macapagal in the presidential election to become the country's tenth president in November 1965. A close ally of the United States, Marcos launched military campaigns against the insurgents including the communist Hukbalahap and Moro rebels in Mindanao. In August 1967, Manila hosted a summit that led to the creation of the ASEAN. With his reelection in 1969, Marcos had to contend with worsening civil strife. An ideologist named Jose Ma. Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines on December 26, 1968. It was during the same year that University of the Philippines Nur Misuari founded the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the armed wing of Islamic resistance movement. In June 1971, the government convened the Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. Ironically, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972, following a series of bombings in Metro Manila, He abolished Congress, curtailed freedom of the press, imposed curfews, ordered the arrest of his political enemies, prohibited labour unions, and controlled the economy with the help of his cronies. Although his wife Imelda was credited for building some of the country's finest monuments, she was criticized for personal extravagance, a form of which was maintaining a collection of 3,000 pairs of shoes. Green Revolution The so-called green revolution in the early 1970s, which introduced new farming technologies, enabled the Philippines to export rice to its neighbours. The International Rice Research Institute was established in Los Banos town, Laguna province where Thai, Vietnamese and other Asian researchers trained to develop their own rice production. Thailand would later become the world's largest rice exporter and the Philippines one of the largest rice importers. With the introduction of new farming technologies, the Philippines became heavily dependent on importer fertilizers, which are mostly fuel-based. The increase in world crude oil prices also pushed prices of fertilizers, to the detriment of Filipino farmers trying to adopt the modern technologies. Chinese Tycoons On June 9, 1975, the Marcos administration signed a joint communiqué with Communist China to restore official diplomatic relations. The Communiqué recognized that "there is but one China, of which Taiwan is an integral part. In return, China vowed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Philippines and refrained from providing any substantial support to the Communist Party of the Philippines, the largest insurgent group in the country. The largest success story in the Philippines actually involved Chinese merchants who left China in pursuit of business opportunities abroad. Unlike rich American investors, Chinese migrants came to the Philippines with little money but large determination that the country's democratic society would help them become rich. True enough, they found goldmine in the Philippines. Today, the richest individuals in the Philippines have Chinese names, including billionaires such as Lucio Tan, Henry Sy, John Gokongwei, and George Ty. Together, they are the largest group of investors in the Philippines and control most of the largest companies in the country. Overseas Workers Under Martial Law, one man other than Marcos would singularly define labour relations in the Philippines and the role of the Filipino workers in the world. Labour Minister Blas Ople, a former journalist, authored the Labor Code on November 1, 1974 and launched the overseas employment program in 1976, which would send young and talented Filipinos who could not find work at home to other countries for dollar-earning jobs. Ople obtained the permission of Marcos to deploy thousands of Filipino workers overseas to meet the growing need of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates for skilled workers and the rising demand for Filipino seamen in flag-of-convenience vessels. Hesitant at first, Marcos later conceded to the proposal, if only to tame the growing militancy building among the hearts of the young and intelligent Filipinos who could not find job opportunities in their own land. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) were established to intensify recruitment of Filipino workers. This would make the Philippines the third largest destination of dollar remittances in the world, next to the more populous countries of India and Mexico. The Marcos administration also tried to court foreign investors, by committing guarantees against nationalization and imposing restrictions on trade-union activity. However, the blatant record of human rights abuses by the military under his administration was a big turnoff among foreigners. Under Martial law, the military and the police killed, abused, or arrested at least 10,000 Filipinos, including some of the brightest students and intellectuals. Many had disappeared without a trace. While Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981 in time for the visit of Pope John Paul II to Manila in February, he maintained most of his powers as a dictator. Benigno Aquino, an opposition senator living in asylum in the US, decided to return to Manila in 1983. His death, from assassins' bullets at the tarmac of the Manila International Airport, sparked adverse sentiments against the Marcos administration. Bankruptcy As the economy stagnated under the Marcos administration because of a mix of bad economic policies, corruption and uncontrolled population growth, the government had to resort to foreign borrowing to finance the fiscal deficit. In October 1983, the Central Bank notified its creditors about its plan to default payment on debt amounting to US$24.6 billion. With the growing loss of confidence by the business community, the peso depreciated by as much as 21 percent in 1983. The gross domestic product shrank by 6.8 percent in 1984 and by 3.8 percent in 1985. Emboldened by Marcos' dipping popularity, the opposition gathered around Aquino's widow, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who would later challenge Marcos in the 1986 snap presidential election. When Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) declared Marcos the winner amid allegations of widespread electoral fraud, protesters, buoyed by Manila archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin, trooped to the streets. Following the defection of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Armed Forces vice chief Fidel Ramos from Marcos, protesters began converging along EDSA near Ortigas Avenue, which would culminate in the ouster of Marcos from Malacanang Palace on February 25, 1986. The media called the bloodless uprising as the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution - something that political groups would later thought could be replicated time and again. Democratic Rule After Marcos, his family and his cronies fled from the Philippines, Aquino became president, organized a new government, freed the political prisoners and tried to restore democratic rule in the country. In February 1987, her government approved a new Constitution, which would later be subjected to heated debates over its restrictive provisions on foreign participation in the economy. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government with a bicameral legislature composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives and an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court chief justice. To avoid a replication of Marcos' excesses, the Constitution limited the president's stay in office to one six-year term. It also created the autonomous regions of Muslim Mindanao and Cordillera and put agrarian reform as the cornerstone of the government's plan for social transformation. A renegade faction in the Philippine military launched a series of coup attempts against the Aquino presidency. Perception of political instability dampened economic activities and refrained the economy from matching the large strides taken by its Asian neighbors in the 1980s and 1990s. By this time, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand have overtaken the Philippines in the race towards industrialization. The Arroyo administration, while taking pride of having restored democracy, failed to bring the economy on track towards industrialization, and one of the factors singled out was the president's political inexperience and lack of consistency in pushing for economic reforms. In the 1992 presidential election, Aquino endorsed the candidacy of her chosen successor – Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos. In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo's powerful eruption sent tons of ashes around the planet's atmosphere. Subsequent lava/lahar flow buried several towns in Central Luzon and jolted the economy. The natural tragedy also forced American soldiers at Clark Field and Subic Bay to withdraw from their bases earlier than stipulated. The US turned over to the Philippine government the two bases with total assets amounting to US$1.3 billion. The Philippine government later transformed the two bases into special economic zones. Liberalisation In 1992, Fidel Ramos was elected President. He began his term amid an energy crisis, which plunged the country literally into darkness. This he was able to resolve by inviting foreign investors to take part in the so-called build-operate-transfer (BOT) scheme, where they would serve as independent power producers (IPPs) enjoying a lot of incentives and guaranteed market. While it brought light to Filipino households, the scheme would later translate to high electricity rates. In 1995, the Ramos administration also had to contend with a rice shortage, as a result of low agricultural production and poorly managed importation program. Since then, the government has authorised the National Food Authority (NFA) to import rice at will in order to prepare for any shortage in domestic stock. The Ramos presidency was also responsible for economic reforms such as privatisation of government assets, trade and banking liberalisation and deregulation, which would push annual trade growth at double-digit levels and draw in large-ticket foreign investments. By 1996, the Philippines was described as a newly industrialising economy along with the likes of Thailand and Malaysia. It was also under the Ramos presidency that communism was legalised, and some leftist organisations would later join Congress as partylist groups. The government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) headed by Nur Misuari would sign a peace agreement that would establish a peace zone in southern Philippines. However, other militant rebel groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Abu Sayyaf would continue waging a war against the government for a Islamic state in the south. What Ramos failed to accomplish is the amendment to the 1987 Constitution to remove the restriction on foreign ownership of land and public utilities, which limits maximum ownership to 40 percent. The opposition party accused him of trying to tinker with the charter to remove the six-year term limit of the president and in the process perpetuate his stay in power. In the end, he had to give up such attempt under the weight of public opinion. Financial Crisis With the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis, the Philippine economy contracted by 0.6 percent in 1998, the same year Joseph Estrada, a popular politician with links to the movie industry, became president. The economy actually grew although at a slower pace at 3.4 percent in 1999 and at 4 percent in 2000 even as the inflation and interest rates began to decline. In comparison, growth reached 5.2 percent under the Ramos presidency in 1997. While Estrada got the backing of Filipino-Chinese businessmen by reducing the problem of kidnapping, he did not get the same support from other "elite" businessmen. Despite appointing top economists, Estrada, a former college dropout, could not convince the "high society" that he could resolve the country's economic woes. Ironically, what brought down the Estrada administration was not his economic policies, seen by many as not substantially different from those of Ramos, but the perception of wide corruption in his administration. In October 2000, a former ally implicated Estrada in illegal gambling payoffs and kickbacks. Reports that he has many wives housed in different mansions also got Estrada indifferent treatment from the Church, which was a force behind the 1986 People's Power Revolution. EDSA 2 In December 2000, the House of Representatives impeached Estrada. The subsequent impeachment trial at the Senate was aborted when senators from the opposition party walked out of the courtroom, triggering street demonstrations reminiscent of the 1986 revolt. Within hours after the walkout, the crowd at EDSA grew into millions of anti-Estrada protesters. When political and military leaders withdrew their support from Estrada, Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide swore Vice President Gloria Mapacagal Arroyo as the next president on January 20, 2001. Arroyo, a daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal, came to Malacanang with a promise to clean the government of corrupt officials and bring down the number of poor Filipinos, which represents a third of the total population. In her first year in office, she faced numerous challenges starting with the May 1 rebellion, instigated by the Estrada camp to regain the presidency. The rebellion proved futile, as the highly politicised military and the police remained loyal to Arroyo. She also had to contend with Muslim extremists, who began to target cities in their attacks. Following the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001, the Philippines was one of the first countries to express support for a US-led international campaign against terrorism. On the economic front, Congress passed the liberalisation of the retail trade sector and the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, which aims to privatise the state-owned National Power Corporation. The Arroyo administration also promoted business process outsourcing (BPO), information technology, tourism, and mining as key investment areas for foreign companies. Trade with other Asian countries was also given importance in view of the declining trade volume with the United States. Telecommunications One particular industry, which has led economic growth since 2000 is telecommunications, although this proved to be a bane for other industries as Filipinos cut their expenditures on other items to buy mobile phones and pay for monthly network services. By 2005, it is estimated that half of the 85 million Filipinos would have mobile phones, a high penetration rate for a developing market. Because of the global economic slump following the September 11 attacks, the GDP grew by merely 1.8 percent in 2001. Growth reached 4.3 percent in 2002 and 4.7 percent in 2003 even as the Arroyo administration confronted communist and Islamic insurgency problems and a shocking military coup in July 2003. After surviving the coup, Arroyo won the May 2004 presidential election over Estrada's close friend and popular actor Fernando Poe Jr. Economic growth reached 6.1 percent in 2004, the highest in 15 years, although this was negated by high inflation and uncontrolled unemployment rates which were more felt by the poor. Fiscal Deficit Pressed by economists to narrow the burgeoning fiscal deficit, President Arroyo urged Congress to pass a package of tax reform measures aimed at achieving a balanced budget by the end of her term in 2010. Because of a long history of budget deficits, the public debt hit more than 130 percent of the GDP in 2003 and has been rising since then. Different sectors, however, criticised the administration for passing a heavier burden of taxation on the people at a time crude oil prices were hovering at historic high levels and pushing prices of goods and services beyond the capacity of ordinary consumers. By the second half of 2005, there were signs that the fiscal deficit was narrowing, even with the delay in the implementation of the Expanded Value Added Tax (EVAT) law, which raised by 2 percentage points the tax rate on consumer products and services to 12 percent and by 3 percentage points the corporate income tax to 35 percent. The new EVAT law, which was expanded to cover fuel and electricity, took effect on November 1, 2005. New Constitution As the popularity of President Arroyo dipped to the lowest level amid allegations that she bought her way to the presidency in the 2004 presidential elections, she was given an option to correct the loopholes in the political system by amending the 1987 Constitution. She formed a Consultative Commission to recommend charter amendments focusing on lifting all restrictions to foreign investments and paving the way for a shift in the form of government from a presidential, central system into a parliamentary, federal system. Posted by Text Mates at 4:16 PM 0 comments Labels: Economy, History, National, Social Filipino Inventions Solar powered Balut maker The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology at the University of the Philippines-Los Banos has invented a solar "balut" maker. Engineer Fernando Paras Jr. said the machine, which covers an area of five square meters, is actually an incubator that can process duck eggs into embryonated eggs or balut for 15 to 17 days. Traditionally, balut makers in Pateros have been using electricity for incubation. The new invention is a two-way solar-powered system, with the solar water heater serving as the primary heat source while the photovoltaic cells serve as the auxiliary heat source regulating the temperature inside the incubator. The machine can process up to 4,000 eggs at the same time. This can double the income of farmers. SMS reader for the Blind A group of four engineering students from the De La Salle University invented the SMS reader, a device that allows the blind to read and send text messages. The prototype is composed of a black box with a Braille display that mimics the interface of a mobile phone. A data cable is connected to a slot in the black box. Superkalan Narciso Mosuela of La Union province invented the "superkalan", a novelty stove that can be fired with anything that burns—wood, paper, dried dung and leaves, corn cobs, and coco shells. The body of this stove is made of aluminum alloy, with a cast iron heat intensifier. For his invention, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) bestowed on Mosuela the "best design award" for Third World country category in 1987. Aside from the superkalan, Mr. Mosuela invented a functional rice thresher and other kitchen gadgets. Anti-cancer cream In November 2005, Filipino inventor Rolando dela Cruz won the gold medal for his "DeBCC" anti-cancer cream at the prestigious International Inventor's Forum in Nuremberg, Germany. The "DeBCC" cream, developed from cashew nuts and other local herbs, was chosen over 1,500 entries as the "most significant invention" of the year. According to Mr. dela Cruz, the cream was a simple answer to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer worldwide. BCC affects around 800,000 Americans every year, according to the Skin Care Foundation. BCC also affects 500,000 Europeans and 190,000 Australians every year. Mole Remover In 2000, Rolando dela Cruz developed an ingenuous formula that could easily remove deeply grown moles or warts from the skin without leaving marks or hurting the patient. His formula was extracted from cashew nut (Annacardium occidentale), which is common in the Philippines. The formula won for dela Cruz a gold medal in International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology Exhibition in Kuala Lumpur in September 2000. In March 1997, dela Cruz established RCC Amazing Touch International Inc., which runs clinics engaged "in a non-surgical removal of warts, moles and other skin growths, giving the skin renewed energy and vitality without painful and costly surgery." Modular Housing System Edgardo Vazquez won a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal in 1995 for developing a modular housing system. Such a system called Vazbuilt is reportedly capable of building within weeks a house with prefabricated materials that can withstand typhoons and earthquakes. Ironically, Vasquez is not getting enough support from the Philippine government to propagate his technology, which could help provide shelter to some five million Filipino families without their own homes. Vazquez is the national president of the Filipino Inventors Society. Super Bunker Formula-L In 1996, Rudy Lantano Sr., a scientist from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST), won the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal for developing Super Bunker Formula-L, a revolutionary fuel half-composed of water. The mix burns faster and emits pollutants, 95 percent less than those released to the air by traditional fuel products. The inventor said his invention is a result of blending new ingredients and additives with ordinary oil products through agitation and mixing, which is a very safe process. The initial plan was to commercially produce two million liters of Alco-Diesel, two million liters of Lan-Gas and an unlimited quantity of Super Bunker Formula-L each day for customers in Luzon. Natural Gas Vehicle The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle that runs on natural gas, whose rich deposits remain untapped under the Philippine seabed. The project's main objective is to look into the potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel to conventional petrol and diesel for the transport sector. The natural gas vehicle (NVG) has been road-tested in Isabela where an existing natural gas supply from the PNOC Gas Plant is located. Test runs have also been made in Cagayan, Ifugao and Mountain Province. The test vehicle used was the Isuzu Hi-Lander 4JA-1, direct injected diesel engine. The use of natural gas as a fuel is cheaper. On a gallon-equivalent basis, natural gas costs an average of 15 to 40 percent less than gasoline and diesel. There are over one million NVGs in the world today, according to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Lamp Fixing Invention A Filipino inventor has developed a technology, which could revive a busted lamp (pundido) and give it more years of functional life than those of new ones. Acclaimed by the Filipino Inventors Society as timely and revolutionary, the Nutec system can prolong the life of fluorescent lamps up to seven years. Nutec was developed by New World Technology, headed by president Eric Ngo and chosen as the "Product of the Year" at the Worldbex 2000 Building and Construction Exposition held at the Manila Hotel. Engineer Benjamin S. Santos, national president of the Inventors Society, called Nutec a timely invention. "Tubig Talino" The Department of Science and Technology claimed that it has developed "Tubig Talino", an iodine-rich drinking water that treats micronutrient deficiencies responsible for goiter, mental and physical retardation, and birth defects. "Tubig Talino" is actually a mixture of 20 liters of water and 15 ml of "Water Plus + I2". Consumption of five glasses a day of this iodine fortification in drinking water is expected to provide 120 micrograms of iodine, which meets 100 percent of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a male adult. Feminine Hygiene Product Inventor Dr. Virgilio Malang won a gold medal for his invention "Psidium Guajava Effervescing Gynecological Insert", a silver medal for his "Patient Side-Turning Hospital Bed", and three bonze medals for his inventions "external vaginal cleanser", "light refracting earpick", and "broom's way of hanging" at the Seoul International Fair in held South Korea in December 2002. There were 385 inventions from 30 countries that joined the competitions. Patis Contrary to popular belief, there was no fish sauce or Patis yet during the Spanish occupation. Patis began to become a part of most Filipinos' diet only after the Japanese occupation. Here is an account of how an enterprising lady discovered the fermentation of Patis. Immediately after the war, the family of Ruperta David or Aling Tentay started a dried fish business. One day, Aling Tentay stored in jars some salted fish that turned into fragments even before they dried. While in jars, the fish fragments turned into a liquid substance that tasted like our Patis today. Thus the beginning of the thriving Patis business of Aling Tentay, which was officially registered in 1949 and is known today as Tentay Food and Sauces Inc. (Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer) A Showcase of Ingenuity Nothing perhaps has been associated with Filipino technology as much as the country's pride - jeepney. The word "jeep" evolved from the military designation, general-purpose or G.P., of a light vehicle first used by the Americans in World War II. Developed by the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, this vehicle was powered by a four-cylinder engine and was classified as a quarter-ton truck in carrying capacity. It had served as a command vehicle, reconnaissance car, and ammunition carrier. The American soldiers brought these vehicles to the Philippines in the 1940s. After the war, these vehicles were left by the Americans and converted by the Filipinos into public utility vehicles. Employing artistic and indigenous designs, the Filipinos came up with a longer, well-decorated, techni-colored and sleeker vehicle, which they later called jeepney. From the standard military jeep, the body was extended to accommodate between 20 to 30 passengers. Modern jeepneys now sport very colorful and intricate paintings, fancy adornments, and metallic decors reflective of Filipino sentiments, values, and culture. The town of Las Pinas has been recognized as the jeepney-producing center in the country. Today, public utility jeepneys or PUJs serve as the primary means of transportation in most provinces. For this, the Philippines came to be known as the "land of the jeepneys".
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