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SCARED STIFF REVIEWS | Movies, Video Games, News & More By Melissa Antoinette Garza I saw this in the theaters twice and the last time was with my best friend. We shared a flask of honey whiskey and a vape pen and then went out for margaritas afterwards. It was a fun night! MA (2019) is a great send up to 1980s revenge flicks. It's like CARRIE (1976), SHOCK EM' DEAD (1990) and SLAUGHTER HIGH (1986) mixed with a bit of PLAY MISTY FOR ME (1971) and FATAL ATTRACTION (1987). The film begins when our female lead protagonist Maggie (Diana Silvers) moves to her mother's old hometown. Her mom Erica (Juliette Lewis) had left years ago to make it big, but she ended up divorced and penniless. She takes a job as a waitress at a casino while Maggie tries to fit in at school. She immediately meets a few friends. Haley (McKaley Miller) is a popular pretty girl with a bit of an attitude but a certain strength I admire. She's of the "I don't give a fuck" variety and you know who else if of that variety? That's right. It's A Missy – so I like her! Haley's boyfriend Chaz (Gianni Paolo) is a bit of a tool, but he means well. Haley's love interest Andy (Corey Fogelmanis) is a great cat with a shitty father. Lastly among their group is Darrell (Dante Brown). Darrell is nice and also the only one to raise any early concerns about Ma (Octavia Spencer). The kids decide to try to coerce an adult to buy liquor for them. Everyone is turning them down, until Ma/Sue Anne approaches. At first she turns Maggie away, just as the others did. Then, she sees Andy. Sue Anne crushed on Andy's dad, Ben (Luke Evans) in high-school. Ben is a dick. Ben has always been a dick. He not only turned her down in school, he humiliated her and basically set up a sexual assault where she ended up giving a blow-job to someone in a dark closet who she thought was Ben, but was actually some other dude. Fuck Ben. Ben's a fucking loser. I wish the rat from WILLARD (1971) killed this Ben just for sharing his name. Ma has some PTSD and who the fuck wouldn't? I'm not defending all of Ma's crazy actions, but she's not just a nut-job. These fuckers from her hometown pushed her into being crazy and then sit back and act shocked when shit goes down. You can only push a woman too far and this woman was pushed too goddamn far! I wish she was nicer to her daughter Genie (Tanyell Waivers) who is undoubtedly a victim of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy. Still, there's only so much Ma can be blamed for. Ma buys the booze and starts to have weird feelings for Andy reminiscent of those she had for his father, before Ben decided to go all REVENGE OF THE NERDS (1984) style switcheroo sex. In the beginning, Ma is just happy to have youthful cool friends. She invites the kids back to her place and they party. She gives them the full basement but tells them never to go upstairs. Things soon spiral out of control as Ma gets super needy. When the kids have other stuff to do, she feels used and abused. As those feelings grow, the parents in town begin to find out Ma has been letting their kids get drunk and high at her house. In the end, a massive showdown ensues between the kids and Ma while Erica attempts to find and save them. This was a fabulous flick. The acting was great. The villain was sympathetic and expertly cast as Octavia Spencer. In one scene, Ma helps some other kids get their drinks on and instead of thanking her they make fun of her. She breaks down crying in her car and I seriously felt awful for her! I wanted her to destroy those motherfuckers. I would have been fine with her killing those assholes. Fuck them! She's trying to be nice, risking her job for these punks and they shit on her! God, I fucking hate most teenagers. All of the acting was amazing. Juliette Lewis was fabulous and one could understand her plight both as a teen who saw what went down with Ma and did nothing and as an adult who still has a difficult time taking charge, both at work and at home. Unlike the other teens with Sue Anne, Erica wasn't cruel. She was however complacent, which is sometimes worse. When you think someone has your back and will protect you, but instead stays silent or disappears in the crowd so they don't have to speak up, it's a harsh betrayal. Erica was a coward and it sucks, but she is redeemable. Diana Silvers was great as the female protagonist. When Maggie starts questioning Ma's motives and mental well-being, it's not done in an over-the-top or a disingenuous way. Maggie realizes things slowly and she takes in what she knows. As she begins getting more uneasy the viewer's hair stands on the back of their necks with equal tension. It's a cool transference of energy between the character and the audience which Silvers nails. The supporting cast was just as excellent. I really don't have a bad word to say about any actor within the production. Every player had a significant role in pushing the story forward and they all did a wonderful job doing it. Go see this movie while it's still in theaters. It's fun, dark, crazy and emotional which is four components every horror fan looks for in a scary good flick. Scared Stiff Rating: 8/10
Courtroom Watch | A witness protection program for Truth, Liberty and Justice for all! Psalm 94:16 Who will rise up for me against the evildoers? or who will stand up for me against the workers of iniquity? A witness protection program for Truth, Liberty and Justice for all! Psalm 94:16 Who will rise up for me against the evildoers? or who will stand up for me against the workers of iniquity?
Still Waters Run Deep – Musings by a Quiet Woman in a Noisy World According to Wikipedia, "Still waters run deep is a proverb of Latin origin now commonly taken to mean that a placid exterior hides a passionate or subtle nature. Formerly it also carried the warning that silent people are dangerous, as in Caesar's summing up of Cassius in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar I.2.195–6: Yon Cassius…
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Perhaps the finest nature writer of the Twentieth Century, Rachel Carson (1907-1964) is remembered more today as the woman who challenged the notion that humans could obtain mastery over nature by chemicals, bombs and space travel than for her studies of ocean life.
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Author Margaret Coel Margaret Coel, award-winning novelist and short story writer; author of Buffalo Bill''s Dead Now, The Perfect Suspect, Blood Memory and the Wind River mystery series including The Spider''s Web, The Silent Spirit, The Girl with Braided Hair, The Drowning Man, and more
The Shadow of Your Wings, The Shelter of Your Peace Angry, young Jewish woman in America. Will not be scared and will not be silent. Pro-feminism, pro-intersectionality, pro-equality, pro-justice. Anti-fascist, anti-Nazi, anti-racist.
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Wimborne History Festival | Featuring Sting in the Tale, a festival of stories Wimborne History Festival will return 17th to 19th July 2020. Join us in 2020 to explore Wimborne in the Georgian era, taking a look at the exuberance of the Regency period and the contrast to the Industrial revolution. Discover how society 200 years ago was changed and how our own modern technological revolution is already changing society, commerce and industry now! Can't wait that long!? Then join us this summer for the return of Sting in the Tale, a festival of stories - enjoy enchanting tales for all ages from 27th July to 3rd August 2019. 2018 History Festival To commemorate the centenary of the end of the First World War and to mark 100 years since woman gained the vote, the 2018 Wimborne History Festival focused on these two periods of history. This free living history event took place at Allenbourn School, in the Square, on the Minster Green and in Wimborne Minster Church, the Allendale Centre, East Dorset Heritage Trust and Priest's House Museum. The Festival was delighted with people's response to this year's event, and in particular the fantastic atmosphere in town on Saturday and the respectful reaction to all of the WW1 themed exhibits and activities and in particular our Silent Soldiers. If you haven't already signed up to our History Festival newsletter please use the form below so that we can keep you up to date with all the news. If you would like to get involved and help, please visit our volunteering page for details. Some of the displays and activities that took place at the 2018 Festival Funders & Sponsors Thank you to all our partners
Gyn Fizz | All about being an adult! For the uninitiated, it's like "Once you've seen a vibrator, you've already seen them all." For those who know their vibes however, there are different types of vibrators and that choosing the right one can spell the difference between so-so masturbation and mind-blowing self-pleasuring. You can't tell the difference just by looking at them. This guide will give you an idea on the types and features of various vibrator types you can buy from an adult sex toy store. Types of vibrators When it comes to purpose, there are three main types: the vaginal vibrator, the g-spot vibrator and the clitoris vibrator. Again, the difference should be self-explanatory. Each one targets a specific area for optimum pleasuring. But now there are multi-purpose vibrators that can do the work of two vibrator types. Vibrators that penetrate are also equipped with extra strong vibrations and attachments that can reach out to the clit. A great example of this is the very popular rabbit vibrators, which stimulate the inside of the vagina and the clit at the same time. There can sometimes be vibrating dildos, basically realistic looking dildos that vibrate but I haven't found a great one yet. I have found some pretty great squirting dildos though. Power Source When it comes to power sources, there are two main types: the electrical/plug in vibrators and the battery-powered vibrators. The difference between them should be self-explanatory. The benefits vary; plug in ones give you uninterrupted power (unless there is electricity outage) while the battery-operated ones give you mobility and convenience. I personally prefer battery operated because I don't like getting cords in the way. Shapes of vibrators When it comes to shape, there are three common types: the phallic, the bullet, and the egg. Phallic vibes are good for those who prefer lots of penetration, while the bullet and egg is perfect for spot stimulation of the clitoris, although these can be inserted inside the pussy also. The newest models of bullet and egg vibrators are equipped with remote controls (with or without wires) for more comfort and flexibility for the user. Bullets or eggs that are equipped with extra strong vibrations can also qualify as mini massagers and can be used on other parts of the body. Another type of multi-purpose vibrators that are worth mentioning includes those that double as body massager, such as the Hitachi Magic Wand. The extra strong vibrations and the wand make it perfect for relaxing massages before and after masturbation. Other sub-categories of vibrators include the waterproof vibrators. These babies can be used in the shower and bath, and some models can even be used in the pool as well. Top Rated Vibrators You Will Fall in Lust With Over the years, hundreds of vibrator brands have come out providing both men and women with endless nights of pleasure. While different users will have their own preference of what's the best out there, we've done our own research and have come up with the Top 10 Vibrators You Will Fall in Lust With which covers the best vibrators on the market. Before I do though, the massively popular Womanizer Pro 40 and Satisfyer Pro are two vibrators you should check out. 10) Twirling Cuddle This rabbit vibrator is designed to lightly suck on your clitoris giving you double satisfaction as you insert 9) California Exotics Butterfly Kiss Touted as the vibrator created by women. I can be used for both insertion and clitoral stimulation. It has nine setting which range from gentle to intense. 8) Womolia Emotional Bliss This little wonder has a small fluttering butterfly for g-spot arousal and antennae for tickling the clitoris. Has 9 speed settings. With only 3.34 inches insertable, it still one of the best options for mini vibrators. It is great for stimulating the clit as well as the g-spot and is perfect for sex in the bath as it is both cordless and waterproof. 7) Jolie Natural Contours Mini G-spot Vibrator A classic sex toy made popular by the likes of Howard Stern. It packs a lot of punch in a 4-inch frame. 6) Doc Johnson's The Original Pocket Rocket One of the most discreet, yet powerful vibrators around. It has 4 interchangeable soft silicone tips that delivers so much pleasure. 5) LELO Mona 2 Every review site on the internet will tell you that the Mona 2 is one of the most spectacular toys out there; and they're absolutely right. The Mona 2 is indeed spectacular in everything from it's design to its functionality. The first thing to notice would be the power in this bad boy. The motor is so powerful that at full speeds, it will feel like your vagina is about to explode. This toy is not one for the faint of heart. But, this is actually good news, once you're fed up of those boring vibrators, you have this beast to look forward too. The toy is structurally well-built, but it might lose the edges if you're using a silicone-based material. We recommend using a water-based lube since it works really well with most silicone toys. There's a decent battery life on this thing as well. You can easily play for 2 hours before the toy is in need of another charge. Pros Quite a few different intensities Several different modes and functions to play around with. Decent battery life Fancy storage pouch included Cons The only con would be that it also stimulates the urinary tract. So, during play, you might instantly feel the need to urinate. Definitely a mood killer when you're close to climax. For the full review check out - Lelo Mona 2 4) We-Vibe II Lelo is known for producing vibrators that seamlessly blend fashion and femininity with amazing engineering. This sculpted wonder offers a dramatic shape for your ultimate pleasure. 3) Lelo Gigi G-spot Vibrator The LELO Gigi is a G-Spot vibrator, and to be fairly honest, the only thing we can say about it is that it knows how to do it's job amazingly well. The design of this toy is so impeccable that it knows exactly how to hit the right spots and give you the most amazing orgasm of your life. The soft, velvety material of this toy is another reason why it's so popular. The surface of the toy is nothing short of absolute royalty, and you can see that as soon as you lay eyes on this thing. The toy is amazingly discreet. The length is about 9.5 cm and is as quiet as a toy can get. It's practically dead silent, but that doesn't mean it doesn't pack a punch. The Gigi has an absolute beast of a motor with several different vibrating mode that will rock you to your core. Pros The length of this toy is spot on. It's not too deep for beginners, or too 'shallow' for the pros. Handy controls make it easy to change the setting during play. An INSANE battery. A full charge will last you about 15 hours of kinky play. The flawless design hits the right spots and makes every woman think that the toy was made just for them. Cons The toy is pretty far from being waterproof, even though it's wireless. This has a twist-bottom control and is one of the most popular options available out there. And is perfectly shaped to reach that extreme sex spot. Check out my review of the Lelo Gigi 2. 2) Fifty Shades of Grey: Greedy Girl This is another toy from the Fifty Shades series; and well, it's one of the finest things ever made. Basically, this is a rabbit vibrator that's going to make you scream as loud as you possibly can. It's that simple. If you want the specifics, listen to this; Greedy Girl has 36 different possible vibration mode combination. Yup, you read that right, 36! There are two powerful motors in this little speeds and the amount of kinky stuff you could do with this toy is just absolutely endless. Just the rabbit vibrator has 3 speeds and 9 patterns and one thing's for sure, the shaft definitely knows how to destroy your G-Spot. Just slap on some lube and watch as this wonderous toy gives you the orgasm of a lifetime. The toy is also amazingly quiet. You'd think that something with two motors wouldn't be too quiet, well, you're dead wrong. This thing is silent enough to be used in a library and no one would guess that there's something going on downstairs. If you're the type of girl that likes to her toys to the bath tub, Greedy Girl's got your back. This little rabbit is entirely waterproof! Pros You'll definitely be surprised at how powerful the motors are. The size and the shape is everything women could ever hope for. Long, LONG list of vibration patterns and combination. Luxurious satin bag included in the box Cons The battery just runs barely an hour; which does leave a bit to be desired, but this toy is running two motors, what else could you expect. The shaft does get hot with extended use. 1) Hitachi Magic Wand Massager Winner! This has been a bestseller for many adult stores for years due to its non-phallic super effective shape. It offers high and low vibration modes. After the original, old school Hitachi Magic Wand Massager, it was pretty obvious that Hitachi would realize that they needed to amp it up a bit and release something that's more up-to-date with the current world of sex toys. So, Hitachi was good enough to bless us with a wireless version of the Magic Wand and really amplify everything good with the OG version of the toy. So, first let's talk about some features the Wand shares with its predecessor. The toy is almost a foot long. The vibrating head is almost 2.5 inches across and 7 inches around. The vibrator weighs over 2 pounds, making it one of the most powerful vibrators out there. Apart from the vibrating head, the whole toy is made of plastic with the exception of a small piece of metal. It's cordless, but that doesn't mean that it's completely waterproof. This vibrator is unlike anything else available in the market, and sometimes, that has it's own disadvantages. The uncanny design means that it'll be quite some times before Hitachi can come out with a waterproof version. Understanding the need of the public, Hitachi considered it a good idea to optimize the toy for the purposes it's being used for; orgasms. So, they made it body-friendly by changing the material of the head to pure silicone. Other than that, they added button to increase or decrease RPM as well as change the modes of vibration. Hitachi might not have made the original Wand for sexual pleasure, but they definitely had pleasure in mind while making this fine piece of machinery. For more info see my Hitachi Magic Wand review. Other links you might find useful: 28sex_toy%29 For men and the prostate I recommend the Lelo Hugo. For men and a masturbation device, I recommend this Tenga egg. If you're looking for a cool dildo, check out the Vamp. Another couple of honorable mentions: Jimmy Jane Hello Touch Tantus Cush
S-F | The Beautiful Day Women have always had a secret that is often hidden from the man, so that there is a term that emerged from men who say that women are mysterious creatures is difficult to guess the contents of his heart and mind. Habits woman like this will continue even after getting married and having a husband. Basically, every woman wants to be understood by a partner under any circumstances. Why is that? Because the woman is the figure of the meek and very sensitive in all matters, especially related to couples and families. Often a woman always wears feelings before acting, while the opposite, he always uses the mind or logic before acting. This is what often makes women prefer to remain silent and only harbored in the hearts of grievances experienced. What secrets are often hidden women of their partner? Here are 6 secrets! 1. She actually wanted a more active partner Many women can pass many tasks at once without the help of anybody. If you want to compare women and men have equal responsibility. If a man works for a living, women take care of the house, cooking, maintaining and taking care of children, even women can work and do all these things. But even so, most women deep down always want a partner who is more active and have the initiative in all things. But not all couples or men can understand this. 2. Women are actually saving the fear of losing Woman is actually very simple creatures fragile when facing a problem but often times women always hide this weakness by pretending to be strong as if it did not have any problems. Although the couple's relationship is fine, every woman always keep the fear of losing. Most women being indifferent and seemed to show from the outside that their partners or men who need it when in fact these women just cover her fear. 3. She actually wanted to be persuaded when angry When he was angry because his partner made a mistake, most women will silence one language or burble-burble endlessly like a seagull. In these circumstances she really just wanted to persuasion, and want to hear the words "sorry", "I'm sorry" or "I love you" from her partner. When he persuaded the woman, the hearts of women will feel fly and anger that was gnawing be lost in an instant. 4. She actually really like to be praised As women pass is good for couples, women actually crave the praise of his partner. Not that every effort made women insincere because it expects in return that praise, but this is one way that can make a woman more courage in doing something for the sake of his loved ones. For example, when a woman cooking a meal for her partner, she is expecting a compliment from the pair like, "So good you are cooking!" or "Thank you for the food that is tasty". These simple words will positively impact women more courage to please their partner. 5. Women can actually read gestures Every woman is not only sensitive to the couple, the woman can also read their partner's body motion. Well when the couple was having problems or lying, the woman can judge just by looking at their partner's body motion. As a man or husband, you should always keep this in mind and strive to always be open to women, because although women silent and only harbored does not mean she does not know any couple that loves behavior. 6. She actually likes surprises Every women like pleasant surprises. Often women have given signs when expecting a surprise from their spouse, for example, spontaneous woman will say to his partner, "A very nice place for a vacation well" or "very romantic restaurant and yes to dinner together." Men, you should be more sensitive to this, because in fact that's the code from your partner that you expect him or whims. Pleasant surprises can make a woman happy and feel pampered.
Silent Seduction Review Book Seduce With Silence System PDF Manish Leone Reveals A Strange New Arousal Technique For Shy Men Called Seduce With Silence That Makes A Woman Beg For Sex Without Saying A Single Word!
ALEXAWAGNER | LUXURY SILENT UNDERSTATEMENT SHOES&BAGS As she lovingly designs all her shoes, Alexa is constantly thinking of the woman who will wear her ALEXAWAGNER creations. A pair of shoes has a lot of power on the behavior and feeling of women.
Ubud Bodyworks A Balinese compound healing centre inspired by Balinese way of life. Mahatma therapist Master Ketut Arsana plan a seed in this place since 1987 to allow people to get the real body work experience. He created special healing and massage techniques aimed at enhancing and promoting health and wellbeing. Our treatment room are thoughtfully designed for ultimate relaxation while you immerse in the expert hands of our well-trained therapist. Master Arsana has over 25 years of practice in Yoga, healing and spiritual experience in Buddha Kecapi therapy. He has an extensive knowledge regarding the nature of the body, and applies unique healing treatments to the need of the individual. The technique as a combination of Ayurveda and Bali Usadha Treatments. Each treatment is focused on balancing, revitalizing and rejuvenating the lymphatic system; allowing the body to feel lighter, and brighter, and clear the mind. It will also enhance our immune system. UBUD BODYWORKS - Address: 25 Hanoman Street Padang Tegal, Ubud 80571 Bali-Indonesia, Tel: +62 361 975 720 / 971 393 Fax: +62 361 975 720 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org , www.ubudbodyworks.com
Gospelize Me | Share Jesus. April 12, 1963 We the undersigned clergymen are among those who in January, issued "An Appeal forLaw and Order and Common Sense," in dealing with racial problems in Alabama. We expressed understanding that honest convictions in racial matters could properly be pursued in the courts but urged that decisions of those courts should in the meantime be peacefully obeyed. Since that time there had been some evidence of increased forbearance and a willingness to face facts. Responsible citizens have undertaken to work on various problems which caused racial friction and unrest. In Birmingham, recent public events have given indication that we all have opportunity for a new constructive and realistic approach to racial problems. However, we are now confronted by a series of demonstrations by some of our Negro citizens directed and led in part by outsiders. We recognize the natural impatience of people who feel that their hopes are slow in being realized. But we are convinced that these demonstrations are unwise and untimely. We agree rather with certain local Negro leadership which has called for honest and open negotiation of racial issues in our area. And we believe this kind of facing of issues can best be accomplished by citizens of our own metropolitan area white and Negro, meeting with their knowledge and experience of the local situation. All of us need to face that responsibility and find proper channels for its accomplishment. Just as we formerly pointed out that "hatred and violence have no sanction in our religious and political tradition." We also point out that such actions as incite to hatred and violence, however technically peaceful those actions may be, have not contributed to the resolution of our local problems. We do not believe that these days of new hope are days when extreme measures are justified in Birmingham. We commend the community as a whole and the local news media and law enforcement officials in particular, on the calm manner in which these demonstrations have been handled. We urge the public to continue to show restraint should the demonstrations continue, and the law enforcement officials to remain calm and continue to protect our city from violence. We further strongly urge our own Negro community to withdraw support from these demonstrations, and to unite locally in working peacefully for a better Birmingham.When rights are consistently denied, a cause should be pressed in the courts and in negotiations among local leaders, and not in the streets. We appeal to both our white and Negro citizenry to observe the principles of law and order and common sense. Signed by: C. C. J. CARPENTER, D.D., LL.D. Bishop of Alabama JOSEPH A. DURICK, D.D. Auxiliary Bishop. Diocese of Mobile-Birmingham Rabbi HILTON J. GRAFMAN, Temple Emmanu-El, Birmingham, Alabama Bishop PAUL HARDIN, Bishop of the Alabama-West Florida Conference of theMethodist Church. Bishop HOLAN B. HARMON, Bishop of the North Alabama Conference of theMethodist Church GEORGE M. MURRAY, Bishop Coadjutor, Episcopal Diocese of Alabama EDWARD V. RAMSAGE, Moderator, Synod of the Alabama Presbyterian Church in theUnited States EARL STALLINGS, Pastor, First Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama. . . Martin Luther King Jr wrote a letter responding from a Birmingham Jail . . 16 April 1963 My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely." Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in." I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Frequently we share staff, educational and financial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their "thus saith the Lord" far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid. Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. Never again can we afford to live with the narrow, provincial "outside agitator" idea. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider anywhere within its bounds. You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham. But your statement, I am sorry to say, fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations. I am sure that none of you would want to rest content with the superficial kind of social analysis that deals merely with effects and does not grapple with underlying causes. It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham, but it is even more unfortunate that the city's white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative. In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps: collection of the facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self purification; and direct action. We have gone through all these steps in Birmingham. There can be no gainsaying the fact that racial injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States. Its ugly record of brutality is widely known. Negroes have experienced grossly unjust treatment in the courts. There have been more unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches in Birmingham than in any other city in the nation. These are the hard, brutal facts of the case. On the basis of these conditions, Negro leaders sought to negotiate with the city fathers. But the latter consistently refused to engage in good faith negotiation. Then, last September, came the opportunity to talk with leaders of Birmingham's economic community. In the course of the negotiations, certain promises were made by the merchants--for example, to remove the stores' humiliating racial signs. On the basis of these promises, the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and the leaders of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights agreed to a moratorium on all demonstrations. As the weeks and months went by, we realized that we were the victims of a broken promise. A few signs, briefly removed, returned; the others remained. As in so many past experiences, our hopes had been blasted, and the shadow of deep disappointment settled upon us. We had no alternative except to prepare for direct action, whereby we would present our very bodies as a means of laying our case before the conscience of the local and the national community. Mindful of the difficulties involved, we decided to undertake a process of self purification. We began a series of workshops on nonviolence, and we repeatedly asked ourselves: "Are you able to accept blows without retaliating?" "Are you able to endure the ordeal of jail?" We decided to schedule our direct action program for the Easter season, realizing that except for Christmas, this is the main shopping period of the year. Knowing that a strong economic-withdrawal program would be the by product of direct action, we felt that this would be the best time to bring pressure to bear on the merchants for the needed change. Then it occurred to us that Birmingham's mayoral election was coming up in March, and we speedily decided to postpone action until after election day. When we discovered that the Commissioner of Public Safety, Eugene "Bull" Connor, had piled up enough votes to be in the run off, we decided again to postpone action until the day after the run off so that the demonstrations could not be used to cloud the issues. Like many others, we waited to see Mr. Connor defeated, and to this end we endured postponement after postponement. Having aided in this community need, we felt that our direct action program could be delayed no longer. You may well ask: "Why direct action? Why sit ins, marches and so forth? Isn't negotiation a better path?" You are quite right in calling for negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored. My citing the creation of tension as part of the work of the nonviolent resister may sound rather shocking. But I must confess that I am not afraid of the word "tension." I have earnestly opposed violent tension, but there is a type of constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth. Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal, so must we see the need for nonviolent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights of understanding and brotherhood. The purpose of our direct action program is to create a situation so crisis packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation. I therefore concur with you in your call for negotiation. Too long has our beloved Southland been bogged down in a tragic effort to live in monologue rather than dialogue. One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely. Some have asked: "Why didn't you give the new city administration time to act?" The only answer that I can give to this query is that the new Birmingham administration must be prodded about as much as the outgoing one, before it will act. We are sadly mistaken if we feel that the election of Albert Boutwell as mayor will bring the millennium to Birmingham. While Mr. Boutwell is a much more gentle person than Mr. Connor, they are both segregationists, dedicated to maintenance of the status quo. I have hope that Mr. Boutwell will be reasonable enough to see the futility of massive resistance to desegregation. But he will not see this without pressure from devotees of civil rights. My friends, I must say to you that we have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and nonviolent pressure. Lamentably, it is an historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily. Individuals may see the moral light and voluntarily give up their unjust posture; but, as Reinhold Niebuhr has reminded us, groups tend to be more immoral than individuals. We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct action campaign that was "well timed" in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the word "Wait!" It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This "Wait" has almost always meant "Never." We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that "justice too long delayed is justice denied." We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God given rights. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward gaining political independence, but we still creep at horse and buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter. Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say, "Wait." But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters; when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six year old daughter why she can't go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her little mental sky, and see her beginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five year old son who is asking: "Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?"; when you take a cross county drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept you; when you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading "white" and "colored"; when your first name becomes "nigger," your middle name becomes "boy" (however old you are) and your last name becomes "John," and your wife and mother are never given the respected title "Mrs."; when you are harried by day and haunted by night by the fact that you are a Negro, living constantly at tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next, and are plagued with inner fears and outer resentments; when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of "nobodiness"--then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait. There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair. I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience. You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court's decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools, at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for us consciously to break laws. One may well ask: "How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?" The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that "an unjust law is no law at all." Now, what is the difference between the two? How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority. Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber, substitutes an "I it" relationship for an "I thou" relationship and ends up relegating persons to the status of things. Hence segregation is not only politically, economically and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful. Paul Tillich has said that sin is separation. Is not segregation an existential expression of man's tragic separation, his awful estrangement, his terrible sinfulness? Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme Court, for it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong. Let us consider a more concrete example of just and unjust laws. An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself. This is difference made legal. By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself. This is sameness made legal. Let me give another explanation. A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in enacting or devising the law. Who can say that the legislature of Alabama which set up that state's segregation laws was democratically elected? Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a single Negro is registered. Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured? Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in its application. For instance, I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit. Now, there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance which requires a permit for a parade. But such an ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First-Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and protest. I hope you are able to see the distinction I am trying to point out. In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist. That would lead to anarchy. One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty. I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law. Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience. It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake. It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire. To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience. In our own nation, the Boston Tea Party represented a massive act of civil disobedience. We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was "legal" and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was "illegal." It was "illegal" to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler's Germany. Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at the time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers. If today I lived in a Communist country where certain principles dear to the Christian faith are suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying that country's antireligious laws. I must make two honest confessions to you, my Christian and Jewish brothers. First, I must confess that over the past few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate. I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Counciler or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to "order" than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: "I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action"; who paternalistically believes he can set the timetable for another man's freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a "more convenient season." Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will. Lukewarm acceptance is much more bewildering than outright rejection. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and that when they fail in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of social progress. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that the present tension in the South is a necessary phase of the transition from an obnoxious negative peace, in which the Negro passively accepted his unjust plight, to a substantive and positive peace, in which all men will respect the dignity and worth of human personality. Actually, we who engage in nonviolent direct action are not the creators of tension. We merely bring to the surface the hidden tension that is already alive. We bring it out in the open, where it can be seen and dealt with. Like a boil that can never be cured so long as it is covered up but must be opened with all its ugliness to the natural medicines of air and light, injustice must be exposed, with all the tension its exposure creates, to the light of human conscience and the air of national opinion before it can be cured. In your statement you assert that our actions, even though peaceful, must be condemned because they precipitate violence. But is this a logical assertion? Isn't this like condemning a robbed man because his possession of money precipitated the evil act of robbery? Isn't this like condemning Socrates because his unswerving commitment to truth and his philosophical inquiries precipitated the act by the misguided populace in which they made him drink hemlock? Isn't this like condemning Jesus because his unique God consciousness and never ceasing devotion to God's will precipitated the evil act of crucifixion? We must come to see that, as the federal courts have consistently affirmed, it is wrong to urge an individual to cease his efforts to gain his basic constitutional rights because the quest may precipitate violence. Society must protect the robbed and punish the robber. I had also hoped that the white moderate would reject the myth concerning time in relation to the struggle for freedom. I have just received a letter from a white brother in Texas. He writes: "All Christians know that the colored people will receive equal rights eventually, but it is possible that you are in too great a religious hurry. It has taken Christianity almost two thousand years to accomplish what it has. The teachings of Christ take time to come to earth." Such an attitude stems from a tragic misconception of time, from the strangely irrational notion that there is something in the very flow of time that will inevitably cure all ills. Actually, time itself is neutral; it can be used either destructively or constructively. More and more I feel that the people of ill will have used time much more effectively than have the people of good will. We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad people but for the appalling silence of the good people. Human progress never rolls in on wheels of inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be co workers with God, and without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation. We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right. Now is the time to make real the promise of democracy and transform our pending national elegy into a creative psalm of brotherhood. Now is the time to lift our national policy from the quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock of human dignity. You speak of our activity in Birmingham as extreme. At first I was rather disappointed that fellow clergymen would see my nonviolent efforts as those of an extremist. I began thinking about the fact that I stand in the middle of two opposing forces in the Negro community. One is a force of complacency, made up in part of Negroes who, as a result of long years of oppression, are so drained of self respect and a sense of "somebodiness" that they have adjusted to segregation; and in part of a few middle-class Negroes who, because of a degree of academic and economic security and because in some ways they profit by segregation, have become insensitive to the problems of the masses. The other force is one of bitterness and hatred, and it comes perilously close to advocating violence. It is expressed in the various black nationalist groups that are springing up across the nation, the largest and best known being Elijah Muhammad's Muslim movement. Nourished by the Negro's frustration over the continued existence of racial discrimination, this movement is made up of people who have lost faith in America, who have absolutely repudiated Christianity, and who have concluded that the white man is an incorrigible "devil." I have tried to stand between these two forces, saying that we need emulate neither the "do nothingism" of the complacent nor the hatred and despair of the black nationalist. For there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle. If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the South would, I am convinced, be flowing with blood. And I am further convinced that if our white brothers dismiss as "rabble rousers" and "outside agitators" those of us who employ nonviolent direct action, and if they refuse to support our nonviolent efforts, millions of Negroes will, out of frustration and despair, seek solace and security in black nationalist ideologies--a development that would inevitably lead to a frightening racial nightmare. Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained. Consciously or unconsciously, he has been caught up by the Zeitgeist, and with his black brothers of Africa and his brown and yellow brothers of Asia, South America and the Caribbean, the United States Negro is moving with a sense of great urgency toward the promised land of racial justice. If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community, one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking place. The Negro has many pent up resentments and latent frustrations, and he must release them. So let him march; let him make prayer pilgrimages to the city hall; let him go on freedom rides -and try to understand why he must do so. If his repressed emotions are not released in nonviolent ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a fact of history. So I have not said to my people: "Get rid of your discontent." Rather, I have tried to say that this normal and healthy discontent can be channeled into the creative outlet of nonviolent direct action. And now this approach is being termed extremist. But though I was initially disappointed at being categorized as an extremist, as I continued to think about the matter I gradually gained a measure of satisfaction from the label. Was not Jesus an extremist for love: "Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you." Was not Amos an extremist for justice: "Let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like an ever flowing stream." Was not Paul an extremist for the Christian gospel: "I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus." Was not Martin Luther an extremist: "Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise, so help me God." And John Bunyan: "I will stay in jail to the end of my days before I make a butchery of my conscience." And Abraham Lincoln: "This nation cannot survive half slave and half free." And Thomas Jefferson: "We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal . . ." So the question is not whether we will be extremists, but what kind of extremists we will be. Will we be extremists for hate or for love? Will we be extremists for the preservation of injustice or for the extension of justice? In that dramatic scene on Calvary's hill three men were crucified. We must never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime--the crime of extremism. Two were extremists for immorality, and thus fell below their environment. The other, Jesus Christ, was an extremist for love, truth and goodness, and thereby rose above his environment. Perhaps the South, the nation and the world are in dire need of creative extremists. I had hoped that the white moderate would see this need. Perhaps I was too optimistic; perhaps I expected too much. I suppose I should have realized that few members of the oppressor race can understand the deep groans and passionate yearnings of the oppressed race, and still fewer have the vision to see that injustice must be rooted out by strong, persistent and determined action. I am thankful, however, that some of our white brothers in the South have grasped the meaning of this social revolution and committed themselves to it. They are still all too few in quantity, but they are big in quality. Some -such as Ralph McGill, Lillian Smith, Harry Golden, James McBride Dabbs, Ann Braden and Sarah Patton Boyle--have written about our struggle in eloquent and prophetic terms. Others have marched with us down nameless streets of the South. They have languished in filthy, roach infested jails, suffering the abuse and brutality of policemen who view them as "dirty nigger-lovers." Unlike so many of their moderate brothers and sisters, they have recognized the urgency of the moment and sensed the need for powerful "action" antidotes to combat the disease of segregation. Let me take note of my other major disappointment. I have been so greatly disappointed with the white church and its leadership. Of course, there are some notable exceptions. I am not unmindful of the fact that each of you has taken some significant stands on this issue. I commend you, Reverend Stallings, for your Christian stand on this past Sunday, in welcoming Negroes to your worship service on a nonsegregated basis. I commend the Catholic leaders of this state for integrating Spring Hill College several years ago. But despite these notable exceptions, I must honestly reiterate that I have been disappointed with the church. I do not say this as one of those negative critics who can always find something wrong with the church. I say this as a minister of the gospel, who loves the church; who was nurtured in its bosom; who has been sustained by its spiritual blessings and who will remain true to it as long as the cord of life shall lengthen. When I was suddenly catapulted into the leadership of the bus protest in Montgomery, Alabama, a few years ago, I felt we would be supported by the white church. I felt that the white ministers, priests and rabbis of the South would be among our strongest allies. Instead, some have been outright opponents, refusing to understand the freedom movement and misrepresenting its leaders; all too many others have been more cautious than courageous and have remained silent behind the anesthetizing security of stained glass windows. In spite of my shattered dreams, I came to Birmingham with the hope that the white religious leadership of this community would see the justice of our cause and, with deep moral concern, would serve as the channel through which our just grievances could reach the power structure. I had hoped that each of you would understand. But again I have been disappointed. I have heard numerous southern religious leaders admonish their worshipers to comply with a desegregation decision because it is the law, but I have longed to hear white ministers declare: "Follow this decree because integration is morally right and because the Negro is your brother." In the midst of blatant injustices inflicted upon the Negro, I have watched white churchmen stand on the sideline and mouth pious irrelevancies and sanctimonious trivialities. In the midst of a mighty struggle to rid our nation of racial and economic injustice, I have heard many ministers say: "Those are social issues, with which the gospel has no real concern." And I have watched many churches commit themselves to a completely other worldly religion which makes a strange, un-Biblical distinction between body and soul, between the sacred and the secular. I have traveled the length and breadth of Alabama, Mississippi and all the other southern states. On sweltering summer days and crisp autumn mornings I have looked at the South's beautiful churches with their lofty spires pointing heavenward. I have beheld the impressive outlines of her massive religious education buildings. Over and over I have found myself asking: "What kind of people worship here? Who is their God? Where were their voices when the lips of Governor Barnett dripped with words of interposition and nullification? Where were they when Governor Wallace gave a clarion call for defiance and hatred? Where were their voices of support when bruised and weary Negro men and women decided to rise from the dark dungeons of complacency to the bright hills of creative protest?" Yes, these questions are still in my mind. In deep disappointment I have wept over the laxity of the church. But be assured that my tears have been tears of love. There can be no deep disappointment where there is not deep love. Yes, I love the church. How could I do otherwise? I am in the rather unique position of being the son, the grandson and the great grandson of preachers. Yes, I see the church as the body of Christ. But, oh! How we have blemished and scarred that body through social neglect and through fear of being nonconformists. There was a time when the church was very powerful--in the time when the early Christians rejoiced at being deemed worthy to suffer for what they believed. In those days the church was not merely a thermometer that recorded the ideas and principles of popular opinion; it was a thermostat that transformed the mores of society. Whenever the early Christians entered a town, the people in power became disturbed and immediately sought to convict the Christians for being "disturbers of the peace" and "outside agitators."' But the Christians pressed on, in the conviction that they were "a colony of heaven," called to obey God rather than man. Small in number, they were big in commitment. They were too God-intoxicated to be "astronomically intimidated." By their effort and example they brought an end to such ancient evils as infanticide and gladiatorial contests. Things are different now. So often the contemporary church is a weak, ineffectual voice with an uncertain sound. So often it is an archdefender of the status quo. Far from being disturbed by the presence of the church, the power structure of the average community is consoled by the church's silent--and often even vocal--sanction of things as they are. But the judgment of God is upon the church as never before. If today's church does not recapture the sacrificial spirit of the early church, it will lose its authenticity, forfeit the loyalty of millions, and be dismissed as an irrelevant social club with no meaning for the twentieth century. Every day I meet young people whose disappointment with the church has turned into outright disgust. Perhaps I have once again been too optimistic. Is organized religion too inextricably bound to the status quo to save our nation and the world? Perhaps I must turn my faith to the inner spiritual church, the church within the church, as the true ekklesia and the hope of the world. But again I am thankful to God that some noble souls from the ranks of organized religion have broken loose from the paralyzing chains of conformity and joined us as active partners in the struggle for freedom. They have left their secure congregations and walked the streets of Albany, Georgia, with us. They have gone down the highways of the South on tortuous rides for freedom. Yes, they have gone to jail with us. Some have been dismissed from their churches, have lost the support of their bishops and fellow ministers. But they have acted in the faith that right defeated is stronger than evil triumphant. Their witness has been the spiritual salt that has preserved the true meaning of the gospel in these troubled times. They have carved a tunnel of hope through the dark mountain of disappointment. I hope the church as a whole will meet the challenge of this decisive hour. But even if the church does not come to the aid of justice, I have no despair about the future. I have no fear about the outcome of our struggle in Birmingham, even if our motives are at present misunderstood. We will reach the goal of freedom in Birmingham and all over the nation, because the goal of America is freedom. Abused and scorned though we may be, our destiny is tied up with America's destiny. Before the pilgrims landed at Plymouth, we were here. Before the pen of Jefferson etched the majestic words of the Declaration of Independence across the pages of history, we were here. For more than two centuries our forebears labored in this country without wages; they made cotton king; they built the homes of their masters while suffering gross injustice and shameful humiliation -and yet out of a bottomless vitality they continued to thrive and develop. If the inexpressible cruelties of slavery could not stop us, the opposition we now face will surely fail. We will win our freedom because the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of God are embodied in our echoing demands. Before closing I feel impelled to mention one other point in your statement that has troubled me profoundly. You warmly commended the Birmingham police force for keeping "order" and "preventing violence." I doubt that you would have so warmly commended the police force if you had seen its dogs sinking their teeth into unarmed, nonviolent Negroes. I doubt that you would so quickly commend the policemen if you were to observe their ugly and inhumane treatment of Negroes here in the city jail; if you were to watch them push and curse old Negro women and young Negro girls; if you were to see them slap and kick old Negro men and young boys; if you were to observe them, as they did on two occasions, refuse to give us food because we wanted to sing our grace together. I cannot join you in your praise of the Birmingham police department. It is true that the police have exercised a degree of discipline in handling the demonstrators. In this sense they have conducted themselves rather "nonviolently" in public. But for what purpose? To preserve the evil system of segregation. Over the past few years I have consistently preached that nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek. I have tried to make clear that it is wrong to use immoral means to attain moral ends. But now I must affirm that it is just as wrong, or perhaps even more so, to use moral means to preserve immoral ends. Perhaps Mr. Connor and his policemen have been rather nonviolent in public, as was Chief Pritchett in Albany, Georgia, but they have used the moral means of nonviolence to maintain the immoral end of racial injustice. As T. S. Eliot has said: "The last temptation is the greatest treason: To do the right deed for the wrong reason." I wish you had commended the Negro sit inners and demonstrators of Birmingham for their sublime courage, their willingness to suffer and their amazing discipline in the midst of great provocation. One day the South will recognize its real heroes. They will be the James Merediths, with the noble sense of purpose that enables them to face jeering and hostile mobs, and with the agonizing loneliness that characterizes the life of the pioneer. They will be old, oppressed, battered Negro women, symbolized in a seventy two year old woman in Montgomery, Alabama, who rose up with a sense of dignity and with her people decided not to ride segregated buses, and who responded with ungrammatical profundity to one who inquired about her weariness: "My feets is tired, but my soul is at rest." They will be the young high school and college students, the young ministers of the gospel and a host of their elders, courageously and nonviolently sitting in at lunch counters and willingly going to jail for conscience' sake. One day the South will know that when these disinherited children of God sat down at lunch counters, they were in reality standing up for what is best in the American dream and for the most sacred values in our Judaeo Christian heritage, thereby bringing our nation back to those great wells of democracy which were dug deep by the founding fathers in their formulation of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. Never before have I written so long a letter. I'm afraid it is much too long to take your precious time. I can assure you that it would have been much shorter if I had been writing from a comfortable desk, but what else can one do when he is alone in a narrow jail cell, other than write long letters, think long thoughts and pray long prayers? If I have said anything in this letter that overstates the truth and indicates an unreasonable impatience, I beg you to forgive me. If I have said anything that understates the truth and indicates my having a patience that allows me to settle for anything less than brotherhood, I beg God to forgive me. I hope this letter finds you strong in the faith. I also hope that circumstances will soon make it possible for me to meet each of you, not as an integrationist or a civil-rights leader but as a fellow clergyman and a Christian brother. Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty. Yours for the cause of Peace and Brotherhood, Martin Luther King, Jr.
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Barrymore Film Center The Barrymore Film Center, established by the Borough of Fort Lee, is a 260-seat cinema, film museum and archive dedicated to the role Fort Lee, NJ played as birthplace of the American film industry and as the first American film town where such studios as Universal (1912) Fox (1915) and the first studio built and operated by a woman, Alice Guy Blache’ (Solax 1912) were established. The BFC is being built by the Borough of Fort Lee and will then be operated by the Borough’s Fort Lee Film Commission. The BFC will have exhibits centering not only on Fort Lee film history, but also on world cinema history, and will be the location of major film retrospectives including an annual silent film program, film festivals, screenings of foreign films and works of emerging filmmakers.
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Iranian Divorce In USA | For consultation call 609-915-2237 By Professor Gabriel Sawma GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY Kuwait is located on the northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, known as Arabia, and on the northwestern head of the Persian Gulf. The country is rich, and is estimated to have the fifth largest petroleum reserves in the world. The country became independent on June 19, 1961 and is ruled by the Sabah family, who has been ruling this country for two hundred years. On August 2, 1990, Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded and annexed Kuwait. This led the United States, under President George H. W. Bush, who created a coalition of other nations to launch Operation Desert Storm to liberate Kuwait. The war lasted until February 28, 1991, and resulted in a convincing victory for the U.S and its coalition. Kuwait is a constitutional hereditary monarchy with its cabinet (Council of Ministers) appointed by the Emir, and a National Assembly that is elected every five years. The Parliament serves as a legislative body with the power to overturn the decrees issued by the Emir, who is head of state. The constitution of Kuwait was adopted in 1962, and the parliament is elected every four years. Islam is Kuwait's religion. Roughly 70% of the state's inhabitants are Sunni, while 30% are Shi'as. More than fifty percent of the residents of Kuwait are foreigners, who are able to establish their own schools and practice their religious faiths. On May 16, 1999, the emir of Kuwait, Shaikh Jabir al-Sabah, issued a decree to grant Kuwait women the right to vote and to run for office "in recognition of their vital roles in building Kuwaiti society and in return for the great sacrifices they had made during various challenges the country faced." In 1994, Kuwait signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Upon ratification, it incorporated reservations on a number of provisions, including one giving equal rights to men and women with respect to guardianship and adoption of children, saying that they conflicted with Islamic law. Kuwait's personal status law, as we shall see below, is theoretically based on Islamic Shari'a Law. PERSONAL STATUS LAW OF KUWAIT (PSL) Article 2 of the Constitution of Kuwait states that the religion of the State is Islam, and that the Islamic Shari'a shall be a main source of legislation. The personal status law of Kuwait, number 51, 1984, is based on Islamic Shari'a, in accordance with the Maliki school of jurisprudence. The PSL legitimizes male protection and control over women. In Kuwait, a man may divorce his wife without her consent and is only responsible for her maintenance during the three-month period of iddah. Article 74 of this law requires the husband to support his wife. In return for her right to nafaqa (maintenance), the wife must obey her husband and rear the children. Article 88 of PSL, however, does not give the husband an absolute right to ta'a (obedience). If a wife feels that she can no longer live with her husband and her his house, a judge cannot force her to obey her husband's demand that she returns. Under such circumstances, the wife will lose her right to maintenance and the court will support that. Article 102 of the PSL stipulates that a husband may divorce his wife without her consent and is only responsible for her maintenance during the three-month period of iddah during which a woman is secluded in order to determine whether she is pregnant to ensure that the husband is the only father of the child. The husband, however, is required to provide her with an allowance for any children in her custody. In addition, under Article 165, if a woman is divorced without her consent, her former husband is required to pay her maintenance for one year as a compensation. This is known as nafaqat al-mut'ah. CUSTODY OF THE CHILDREN (HADANAH) The Personal Status of Kuwait designates fathers as the legal guardians of their children. According to Article 194, mothers may have physical custody of the children, and in the event of divorce they retain custody of male children until maturity, which is 15 years of age, and female children until they marry, but the authority over their children is significantly less than their ex-husband's. However, the mother loses custody if she remarries. Religious doctrines and local tradition requires that parental control over the children is left unchallenged. This means that the government does not interfere in this area. Rather, parental authority is limitless, almost absolute. A husband may forbid his wife or daughter to work outside the home. There are no constitutional guarantees for women to employment. Article 190 of the PSL list the qualifications of the person who has custody of the children, they include: maturity, reasonable, faithfulness, and ability to take care of the child, and keep the child healthy and good manners. Additionally, Article 191 also requires that the mother who has custody of a female child, that she would lose her custody right if she remarries a man being a relative of the child in a prohibited degree. i.e., a relative who is prohibited from marrying the female child, "if the marriage is consummated." Article 191(b) also indicates that if the next in line for custody keeps silent for a year, without good excuse, after knowing of the consummation of a disqualifying marriage, then they lose the right to claim that custody, adding that they cannot claim ignorance of this provision as an excuse. As to acquiring citizenship in Kuwait, Art. 2 of the Kuwaiti Nationality Law states that "Any person born in, or outside Kuwait, whose father is a Kuwaiti national shall be a Kuwaiti national himself." The nationality of the father is therefore, the determining factor for granting a Kuwaiti citizenship to the children. In addition, Article 8 of the Kuwaiti nationality law allows the foreign wife of a Kuwaiti citizen to acquire the Kuwaiti nationality after completing 15 year of marriage. DISCLAIMER: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication, it is not intended to provide legal advice as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer. For specific or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author. Gabriel Sawma is a lawyer with Middle East background, and a recognized authority on Islamic law of marriage, divorce and custody of children, Hindu marital disputes in U.S. courts, and Iran divorce in USA. Professor of Middle East Constitutional and Islamic law, Expert Consultant on Islamic divorce in US Courts and Canada, Expert Consultant on Hindu divorce in U.S. courts, Expert Consultant on Iranian Shi'a divorce in USA, Expert Consultant on Islamic finance. Admitted to the Lebanese Bar Association; Associate Member of the New York State Bar Association and the American Bar Association. Prof. Sawma lectured at the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML) in New York State and wrote many affidavits to immigration authorities, Federal Courts, and family State Courts in connection with recognition of Islamic foreign divorces in the U.S., Hindu divorces, and Iranian marital conflicts. Taught Islamic Finance for MBA program at the University of Liverpool, United Kingdom. Travelled extensively to: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Egypt, Sudan, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Syria and Palestine. Wrote many articles on Islamic and Hindu divorce in USA, custody of children in the Middle East and Central Asia; and on abduction of children to Muslim countries; Speaks, reads and writes several languages including Arabic, English, French and others. Interviewed by: BBC: CNN: CBN: FDU: Contact Information: Email: email@example.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. (609) 915-2237 For more information on our field of expertise, please visit our website at this link:
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