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07/27/1978 When I was 18... 18 years old, I saw for the first time in my life... I saw an image of clarity. I saw a comic strip... a three panel comic strip that, though simple as it seemed, changed me... changed my being, changed who I am... Made me who I am... Enlightened me... The strip, Garfield, the comic strip was new... no more than maybe a month and a half since inception, since... since coming into existence... and there it was before me in print, I saw it... a comic strip... What was it called? Garfield. The story here is of a man, a plain man. He is Jon, but he is more than that... I will get to this later, but first let us say that he''s Jon, a plain man. And then there is a cat... Garfield. This is the nature of the world, here. When I see the world, the politics, the future, the... the satellites in space, and... the people who put them there... You can look at everything as a man and a cat... two beings, in harmony and at war... So, this strip I saw; this man, Jon, and the cat, Garfield, you see... Yes... hmm... It is about everything. This... little comic is, oh, lo and behold... not so little anymore. So yes, when I was 18, I saw this comic... and it hit me all at once, its power. I clipped it, and every day, I looked at it, and I said "Okay... let me look at this here. What is this doing to me? Why is this so powerful?" Jon Arbuckle, he sits here, legs crossed... comfortable in his home, and he reads his newspaper... The news of the world, perhaps... and then he extends his fingers lightly, delicately... he taps his fingers on an end table, and he feels for something... What is it? It is something he needs, but it is not there. And then he looks up, slightly cockeyed, and he thinks... His newspaper''s in his lap now, and he thinks this... Now where could my pipe be? This... I always come to this, because I was a young man... I''m older now, and I still don''t have the secrets, the answers, so this question still rings true, Jon looks up and he thinks... Now where could my pipe be? And then it happens... You see it, you see... it''s almost like divine intervention, suddenly it is there, and it overpowers you... A cat is smoking a pipe. It is the man''s pipe, it''s Jon''s pipe, but the cat... this cat, Garfield, is smoking the pipe... and from afar, and someplace near, but not clear... near but not clear... The man calls out... Jon calls out, he is shocked. "Garfield!" he shouts. Garfield. The cat''s name. But, let''s take a step back... let us examine this from all sides, all perspectives... and when I first came across this comic strip, I was at my father''s house... a newspaper had arrived, and I picked it up for him, and brought it inside. I organized its sections for him and then, yes, the comic strip section fell out from somewhere in the middle, and landed on the kitchen floor... I picked up the paper pages and saw, up somewhere near the top of this strip... just like Jon, I was wearing an aquamarine shirt. So I thought, "Ah, interesting. I''ll have to see this later." I snipped out the little comic, and held on to it... and five days later, I reexamined it... and it gripped me, I needed to find out more about this. The information I had was minimal, but enough... An orange cat named Garfield... Okay, that seemed to be the lynchpin of this whole operation, yes. Another clue... a signature in the bottom right corner, a man''s name... Jim Davis. Yes, I''m on to it for sure. So... one: Garfield, orange cat, and two: Jim Davis, the creator of this cat... And that curiously plain man. I did not know, at the time, that his name was Jon. This strip, you see, had no mention of this man''s name, and I''d never seen it before. But I had these clues; Jim Davis, Garfield. And then I saw more, I spotted the tiny copyright mark in the upper left corner. Copyright 1978 to... what is this? Copyright belongs to a... PAWS Incorporated... I use the local library and mail services to track down the information I was looking for... Jim Davis, a cartoonist, had created a comic strip about a cat, Garfield... and a man, Jon Arbuckle. Well, from that point on, I made sure I read the Garfield comic strips, though as I read each one, as each day passed... the strips seemed to resonate with me less and less... I sent letters to PAWS Incorporated, long letters, pages upon pages... asking if Mister Jim Davis could somehow publish just the one comic, over and over again... "It would be meditative," I wrote, "the strength of that." Could you imagine? But... no response... The strips lost their power, and eventually I stopped reading, but... I did not want my perceptions diluted, so I vowed to read the pipe strip over and over again... That is what I call it, "The Pipe Strip." The Pipe Strip. Everything about it is perfect. I can only describe it as a miracle creation, something came together... the elements aligned... It is like the comets, the cosmic orchestra that is up there over your head... The immense, enormous void is working all for one thing, to tell you one thing... Gas and rock, and purity, and nothing. I will say this... When I see the pipe strip... and I mean every single time I look at the lines, the colors, the shapes that make up the three panel comic... I see perfection. Do I find perfection in many things? Some things, I would say... Some things are perfect... and this is one of them. I can look at the little tuft of hair on Jon Arbuckle''s head... it is the perfect shade... The purple pipe in Garfield''s mouth... How could a mere mortal even MAKE this? I have a theory, about Jim Davis... After copious research and, yes, of course, now we have the internet, and this information is all readily available, but... Jim Davis, he used his life experiences to influence his comic... Like I mentioned before, none of them seem to have the weight of the pipe strip... But you have to wonder about the man who is able to even, just once, create the perfect form, a literally flawless execution of art, brilliance! Just as in a ward... I think there is a spiritual element at work... I''ve seen my share of bad times and... when you have something... Well, it''s just... emotions, and neurons in your brain, but... something tells you that it''s the truth... Truth''s radiant light. Garfield, the cat? Neurons in my brain, it''s... it''s harmony, you see? It... Jon and Garfield, it''s truly harmony, like a... continuous, looping, everlasting harmony... The lavender chair, the brown end table, the salmon-colored wall, the fore''s green carpeting, Garfield is hunched, perched... perhaps with the pipe stuck firmly between his jowls... His tail curls around. It''s more than shapes too, because... I... Okay, stay with me... I''ve done this experiment several times. You take the strip. You trace only the basic elements. You can do anything, you can simplify the shapes down to just... blobs, just outlines, but it still makes sense... You can replace the blobs with magazine cutouts of other things, replace Jon Arbuckle with a... car parked in a driveway sideways, cut that out of a magazine, stick it in... Replace him there in the second panel with a... a food processor... Okay, and then we put a picture of the planet in the third panel over Garfield... It still works. These are universal proportions. I don''t know... how best to explain why it works, I''ve studied the pipe strip, and analyzed Jon and Garfield''s proportions against several universal mathematical constants. E, Pi, the Golden Ratio, the Feigenbaum Constants, and so on... and it''s surprising... scary even, how things align. You can take just... tiny pieces of the pipe strip, for instance, take Jon''s elbow from the second panel... and take that, and project it back over Jon''s entire shape in the second panel, and you''ll see a near perfect Fibonacci sequence emerge... It''s eerie to me... and it makes you wonder if you''re in the presence of a deity, if there is some larger hand at work... There''s no doubt in my mind that Jim Davis is a smart man... Jim Davis is capable of anything to me... He is remarkable, but this is so far beyond that, I think we might see that... this work of art is revered and respected in years to come. Jim Davis is possibly a new master of the craft, a... a genius of the eye; they very well may say the same things about Jim Davis in five hundred years that we say about the great philosophical and artistic masters from centuries ago... Jim Davis is a modern day Socrates, or... Da Vinci... mixing both striking visual beauty with classical, daring, unheard-of intellect... Look, he combines these things to make profoundly simple expressions... This strip is his masterpiece... The Pipe Strip is his masterpiece... and it is a masterpiece and a marvel... I often look at Garfield''s... particular pose, in this strip. He is poised, and statuesque... and his cat stare is reminiscent of the fiery gazes often found in religious iconography... But still, his eyes are playful, lying somewhere between the solemn father''s expression in... Rembrandt''s "Return of the Prodigal Son," and the coy smirk of Da Vinci''s "Saint John The Baptist". His ears stick up, signifying a peaked readiness... It''s as if he could, at any moment, pounce; he is, after all, a close relative and descendant of the mighty jungle cats of Africa that could leap... after prey. You could see the power drawn into Garfield''s hind quarters, powerful haunches indeed. The third panel. And I''m just saying this now, this is just coming to me now... The third panel of the pipe strip is essentially a microcosm for the entire strip itself... All the power dynamics, the struggle for superiority, right? WHO has the pipe? WHERE is the pipe? All of that is drawn, built, layered into Garfield''s iconic pose here. You can see it in the curl of his tail... Garfield''s ear whiskers stick up, on end, the smoke billows, upward... drawing the eye upward... increasing the scope... I''m just... amazed... really, that after 33 years of reading, and analyzing the same comic strip, I''m able to find new dimensions. It''s a testament to the work... For six years, I delved into tobacco research, because... can a cat smoke? This is a metaphysical question... Yes, can any cat smoke? Do we know? Can just Garfield smoke? The research says no. Nicotine poisoning can kill animals, especially household pets. All it takes is the nicotine found in as little as a single cigarette. [ *Okamoto M, Kita T, Okuda H, Tanaka T, Nakashima T (Jul 1994). "Effects of aging on acute toxicity of nicotine in rats". Pharmacol Toxicol. 75 (1): 1-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0773.1994.tb00316.x. PMID 7971729 ] Surely, Jon''s pipe hold a substantial amount of tobacco, and it is true that pets living in the homes of smokers are nearly 25% more likely to develop some form of cancer... most likely due to secondhand smoke... but these are facts of smoking, its tolls on our world. But after visiting two tobacco processing plants in Virginia... and the Phillip Morris cigarette manufacturing facility, I came no closer to cracking the meaning. I was looking for any insight. A detective of a homicide case has to look at every angle, so I''m always taking apart the pipe strip. I focused on every minutiae, every detail of this strip. Jon Arbuckle''s clothing... I have replicas. I''m an expert in textiles... so, you see, this smoking thing was a hang-up for me... but it was the statement here... until... This is key, this is the breakthrough. The pipe is not a pipe, really. Obviously there is symbolism at work here... I saw that from the beginning, and I looked at the literal aspects of the strip to gain insight into the metaphors at play... I worked at a newspaper printing press for eighteen months, in the late 1980''s... I was learning the literal to inform the gestural... the subliteral, the in-between... Jon reading this newspaper means so much more than just... Jon reading the newspaper... but how could you ever hope to decipher the puzzle without knowing everything there is to know about newspapers?! Okay... for example... Jon holds his newspaper up with his left hand, thumb gripping the interior. I learned that this particular grip here was the newspaper grip of nineteenth century aristocrats... and this aristocrat grip was a point of contention that influenced the decision to move forward with prohibition... in the United States, in the early twentieth century! So Jon''s hand position is much more than that, it... it is a comment on class war... and the resulting reactionary culture... but I didn''t know about the aristocratic newspaper grip until I came across some microfiche archives at the printing press. It''s about information. You have to take it apart. ...and the breakthrough on the smoking cat came late... just eight years ago, actually. "Smoking cat" is an industry term. It''s what the smoking industry calls a tattletale teenager who tells on his friends after they''ve all tried smoking for the first time... and it is actually a foreign translation, bastardization of the term "smoking rat"... But the phrase was confused when secret documents went back and forth between China and America... These documents are still secret, and the only reason I know about the term is because I know a man, my friend. Let''s call him "Timothy," yeah... yes, it''s a fake name, for his protection. Timothy worked for Phillip Morris for sixteen years, and he had seen the documents... and when he told me, it was an Aha moment... and he said, "But how? How could this cartoonist, Jim Davis, know about this... obscure term from the mid-70''s, used exclusively by a few cigarette companies!?" This is still a mystery to me... but I connect the dots by noting Jim Davis'' childhood experiences on a farm. He must have seen something... What could it be? Timothy went on to tell me there was one particular smoking cat, a boy, from... yes, Indiana, a boy named Ernie Barguckle, who became a thorn in the side of the tobacco companies for a couple of years... He did more than tattle to his parents; he and his family took legal action, and they eventually received a huge settlement payout... But that name is too similar... Ernie Barguckle... Jon Arbuckle. Jim Davis must have used this. There''s more here. Ernie Barguckle spent nearly half of that settlement money on experimental medical procedures to cure his... impotence. He was impotent. So... he was a smoking cat with a... a metaphorical pipe, that did not work... Are you starting to see the layers here? This is exciting stuff, you start to get a whole picture here, and it informs the work! It''s... it''s just remarkable. Jim Davis took these raw ideas, these... pieces, and he transformed them into smart social commentary that is... all so ravishingly beautiful. I have cried. I''ve cried, I''ve cried... I''ve cried, cried over this piece. It just... gets in my soul. I try to explain this to people, I have... the newspaper articles about Ernie Barguckle... People have fought me on this, they don''t see it, or they''re close-minded, "How could a comic strip about a cat smoking a pipe mean any more than that?" But it is more... and when I feel spiritual, or start to think existentially, I still see this comic. Here''s something from 1981 that I wrote in thinking about the implications of this strip; this is just an excerpt here... there''s more before and after, but this part is the essence to me... If a comic about a cat smoking a pipe can be the only thing in the universe... then maybe this is the strongest evidence for that. *fumbles with tattered sheet from 1981* "Many of you say, ''Oh, but I am not blind. I have never been blind,''... But when you truly see, you will understand just how truly blind you once were to even think it right to say you were not blind. What does a blind man see? Blackness. Darkness. Blankness. Blank darkness. Dark blankness. The absence of things, quite literally NO thing. No things. Nothings. So, you see nothing, and I bring you into the light. A cat has your pipe! You''ve been blind, do you understand this!? The cat has your pipe. You can''t fully immerse yourself, you don''t have the light. You don''t have the radiance, the radical light, the radically radiant light of truth and truth''s belonging love, and nature of light, and loving truthful radiance. So don''t be bold, and make bold statements. I know of you. The cat has your pipe. The. Cat. Has. Your. Pipe. Remember that." *puts paper back in pocket* That writing, well... It''s kind of rough... Kind of an... early eighties feel... and I see that, but I''m still... I''m still proud of it. Sometimes I imagine that it is the editorial column in the newspaper Jon Arbuckle is reading. It''s an exercise in recursion, it''s like a vortex opens up... It''s like you hold two mirrors up to each other, one is reality and the other is a cartoon strip. Let''s see here... Oh yes, I must bring this up, because I think, surely, Jim Davis is again speaking on multiple levels by including the details set before us in the comic. Notice the glimpse of Jon Arbuckle''s foot in the first panel. The size of the shoe would indicate that maybe the man just has small feet... but a deeper investigation takes us to the footbinding rituals of certain Asian cultures. Inflicted usually on women for the desire of men, this practice was incredibly painful and crippling... Aha! Mister Davis is, here, presenting us with a man, or rather... "man", who engages in footbinding, a body modification for women, on top of "being without his pipe"... or impotent. This is a man facing extreme inner turmoil, the panels tell that story... subconsciously. Notice the background wall shading of the first panel points inward toward Jon in the second panel... and the sharp tapered end of the purple pipe in the third frame also points at John in the second panel, inward; the eye is drawn to the center panel. You can connect these points and draw a triangle across the panels, and this triangle will align with the reoriented points of Jon''s collar! This, this is majestic artwork! ...and to uncover this hidden order is... bliss like I''ve never known. Comforting, in an empty world. I can''t help but read the thought bubble, over and over again. Now where could my pipe be? Now where could my pipe be? It is a profound question. Why am I here? What is my purpose? It is reflection and self-examination here. It is facing the dust, the misery of a cold, careless universe. You can feel the weight of it. But where could my pipe be? One imagines the author, Jim Davis, teetering on the edge of insanity... his rationality, his lucidity, hovering over the void... and he seeks the truth. You can see it in the line quality of the drawings; the thoughtful, controlled outlines mixed with the... occasional, chaotic scribbles at work in the shadows and Garfield''s dark stripes. It''s almost as if Garfield is chaos himself. Yes, he is the embodiment of chaos, disorder, hatred, fear... Thievery, death, destruction, desolation! These are the things Garfield represents; HE stole the pipe, HE sits with his back to Jon, Garfield... Garfield, this chaos cat, Garfield has turned his back on everything, everyone! One recalls the great existential forces in literature... Camus'' Meursalt, Kafka''s Gregor Samsa, or Sartre''s Antoine Roquentin... Garfield the Cat sees the hopelessness of life, which...ah, yes... This is why Jim Davis has chosen smoking. It represents a recklessness, a... a disregard for what some would define as the beauty of life. Garfield may die from the nicotine, he may not... He defies life; he sits defiant, saying nothing, but looking as if he could say... "Then let me die... it does not matter." It does not matter. ...and we are faced with this; Could Jon behave the same? Is Jon the glimmer of hope? He seems to be unsure. Again, his question... "Now where could my pipe be?" indicates that he is wrestling with his own existence. The center panel centers the issue, and again, this hearkens to many of the great religious works of art. I''m talking about the Pipe Strip in relation to religion. It''s... it''s interesting to assign the roles of God... and anti-God, or, as many know him to be, the devil... or on a much larger scale, simply the forces of... good and evil. Garfield, the thief-cat, evil and malicious... He is the devil, placed to the right... and note, the two forms of Jon; the Jon on the left, still innocent, still draped in the... delight, of the lack of knowledge. He is... the humans in the Garden of Eden. He feels for his pipe... but he has yet to eat from the tree... and Garfield, the sinister serpent... and notice, notice how Jim Davis has framed this... The center Jon is locked in a struggle, between his innocence, and his knowledge of the truth... knowledge of the existence of evil. It is stunning. The great struggle, the struggle that transcends time... and Jim Davis floats over all this, as creator... the God, of sorts, in his own right. ... and he presents this cautionary message to us all; it is as if he is speaking from high and... he is saying, unto our awaiting ears... Where will you be, when the cat reveals himself? [-Jim 7:27:78] I can tell you where you''ll be. You will have a choice; you can face endless suffering, and eternal misery... You can be forced and beaten down with barbarians, who claw at each other just for a view of salvation. They''ll tear your eyeballs out, and rip your gizzards from end to end. They worship this cat, this... this false idol! This evil, horrible cat, do not be seduced by the cat and the pipe! Garfield... thy name is a mark of the demons of hell. Something like this, and to those listening, it is a stark reminder to follow the path of the first panel Jon; be humble, be grateful, honor the law, and honor thyself. Be true, and be good, and no harm will come to you... Pray for salvation, and it will be granted unto you. Be like Jon Arbuckle, as he lowers his head. Be like Jon Arbuckle as he lowers his paper, as he turns his head. Bow with Jon Arbuckle, and praise unto the creator, Jim Davis... and banish demon Garfield from your life. So, what is all this? What am I saying? Aha... hmm... What does all this mean? Why is this one comic strip so important to me... and why do I feel the need to share this? Obligation. I have an obligation to you all. This is a redemption, this is a belief in redemption, a sacrifice of all the obvious trappings of this false modern life. Look at the simplicity in this strip, in the pipe strip. Look at the simple clothes Jon wears, look at his simple, basic furniture... No adornments on the wall, even the very pipe his cat Garfield stole; it is a plain, modest pipe... and I have adapted this way of life, it speaks to me. In our times... well... you don''t need me to point out the hyperbole of our times; you have children being born eight or nine at a time, you have more money being spent on a single Hollywood movie than some nations can spend... feeding their starving people. Torture, distrust... Look around you, it''s overwhelming. What can you contribute? ...and every day, I look in the mirror, and I hold this comic up to the mirror, and I look into the mirror, and at this little comic strip. Be humble. Be thankful. It is a reminder, be respectful. You are a statue. You are fragile... and when you break, when you shatter... Where will those pieces go? Ask... ask, ask, ask this question. Will you ask? Humankind is only as great as you, YOU, the individual, it begins and ends with you! You must treat this expedition, this search, this... life, with a reverence and intensity found only in the smallest sticks. The littlest leaf, the tiniest stone! The most miniscule grain of sand... on a beach of billions! This is the secret. Do you want the pipe? Do you want to know where the pipe has gone? You ask yourself, you ask... you ask... you ask... Now where could my pipe be? When I was a young man... remember, now, I first saw this comic when I was eighteen years old... Ages ago... but I was youthful, vibrant. For weeks, I didn''t hide that a comic strip was having such a profound effect on me. I was much like Jon Arbuckle. In this middle panel, he says, "Now where could my pipe be?"... you could look into his eyes, his half-lowered eyes, and think to yourself... "Now, surely, Jon... Surely, you cannot be this naive... This is nothing new for you..." And if you''ve read more of the Garfield comic strips by Jim Davis, you understand what I am saying now; Garfield the cat does things like this all the time. He will take things from Jon; food, items, anything... This is his very nature. So you see this, and you want to say, "Jon Arbuckle, come now. You are lying to yourself. You are lying to yourself, and to all of us, if you pretend to have not... any idea of where your pipe has gone. Perhaps you think you''ve left it somewhere else, but... hmph, you''re not so forgetful. You are lying to yourself, ah... yes... You are lying to yourself, Jon Arbuckle. You know that Garfield has the pipe... somewhere, deep down, you know this. You don''t even need to think the question." And that was me when I saw this strip. One week passed, and each morning I''d open my drawer and slam it shut again. I would go to look at the comic... but I''d pause, and think... "Oh no, I don''t need this comic, I don''t n... I don''t NEED to look at it..." But there I was, lying to myself. I DID need to see it, and so I did, it''s... cathartic. You give in, and that is the transition, from the second panel of life, to the third panel of life! It is a simple story structure, the passage from the second act to the third, the twilight of things. Jon gives into his suspicions; he knows the truth, he''s ALWAYS known the truth, he yells out, "GARFIELD! GARFIELD! GARFIELD!" It is like... pressure from a steam valve, being released; the buildup is unbearable, and then... PSSHHWW, it''s gone. So it is like this... when I speak about the truth... the truth, the light, the radiance, this... this is the kind of thing I''m talking about. This is the essence of this brilliant work of art, the practical mixing, meeting, agreeing with the spiritual, it is all HERE. ...but spirituality is not an easy thing to confront. You might find yourself able to wrap your mind around a simple math problem, or a basic newspaper article, or... but intellect... is much less subjective. What is spirituality... and how have I found spiritual peace and serenity in Garfield? A long time ago, after I encountered the Pipe Strip... I spent some time, as I mentioned before, soul-searching. When something impacts you, or alters your very perception so greatly, there is a long period of confusion, recovery time... It''s as if you don''t know who you are, and that can be a... a very scary prospect, especially if you thought you had a good grasp on that sort of thing. Imagine if Jim Davis did not know who he was. Would he be capable of shaping the cultural landscape as he''s done? No. No, of course he wouldn''t. ...and how about his characters? Jon... what if Jim Davis suddenly woke up, and didn''t know who Jon was? What if he couldn''t make the informed decisions to accurately depict Garfield''s personality, because of... he could no longer specify, or demarcate the boundaries of Garfield''s behavior? What kind of comic would THAT be? You see? So draw the parallel. I saw this comic and, yes, I was disoriented... and if I didn''t reconcile this issue with myself, what kind of person would I be? Undoubtedly dire circumstances, but remember; this was not a math problem, this was not an article, this was not something I could just... figure out... and as skeptical as I was, I realized that faith and spirituality were avenues that... required exploring. At first I tried... long nights, reading Garfield by candlelight, or... aromatic meditation settings, while thinking of Garfield, but... nothing snapped. Nothing clicked, I still felt lost... but I kept it up, I hired a shaman, and a young... personal Yogi Sikh Guru; Avram Dahb Singh Sahib. I pushed and pushed, determined to find myself. And then, a miracle happened. Upon retrieving my morning paper, to clip the Garfield comic... I noticed a young girl, selling lemonade two houses down. She sat, occupied at her stand. She had no customers in sight. So, I approached, and saw that she was coloring. I looked at her drawing... Three rectangular boxes. A man, in a blue shirt. An orange cat. I knew what this was. Even in her crude scribbles, I knew EXACTLY what this was. She was drawing a Garfield comic. I looked at her words, and I saw that, in her strip, Jon asked Garfield to retrieve a newspaper. Heh, funny... since I''d done just that with myself... Garfield is sarcastic, but agrees to. He returns and calls Jon... "Sahib". Jon exclaims that the paper''s all chewed up, but then Garfield says, and I quote, "Sahib asks fish, paper is wet. Sahib asks cat, paper is holey." I remember the words, and ran back to my house, and thought, "How odd that Sahib shows up in the strip, and my spiritual advisor''s name is Avram Dahb Singh Sahib!" Coincidence surely, but, nonetheless, I spent the next sixteen hours poring through my clipped Garfield comics, looking for the strip this young girl had been coloring... I couldn''t find it... and I eventually fell asleep, right on my kitchen table. Next morning, I retrieved my paper again, and I clipped the Garfield comic. The date was July 12th, 1983. There it was. The Sahib Strip, in all its glory. The girl had been drawing the next day''s strip! So, I ran right out of my house, I ran back to where she was... but she was gone, and in place of the lemonade stand was a "For Sale" sign. They''d moved out. I rushed back to my house to call Avram, but... I was informed that he''d moved away as well. I reeled, for several hours, and then it all connected for me. It was meant to be. It w... it was meant to be this way! Jim Davis... Jon, Garfield... It was always meant to be this way for me.... They move to the forefront, and everything else fades away, EVERYTHING else; the girl, the lemonade stand, Avram Dahb Singh Sahib, it all existed to show me the way, and when I''d found the way... Everything else melted away. It was a beautiful miracle... and if July 27th, 1978, the day I first saw the pipe strip... was the first day of my life, then that day, July 12th, 1983, was the second day of my life. I''ve never looked back. Garfield has transformed me... and I am a man, born anew, because of Garfield. When I was in my mid-thirties, I was interviewed for a documentary... It was a documentary on the subject of cat behavior. Now, I''ve had cats my whole life; I have three cats now, and at the time of this documentary interview, I had four cats. I sat down for the interview and was joined by a veterinarian who specialized in felines: Doctor Caroline Wellmitz was her name, I believe... and the doctor discussed colorblindness in animals, and how it affects their behavior. She specifically brought up the fact that cats are red-green colorblind; they can see colors, but they can''t tell the difference between red and green ...and look at the color choice in this strip here. Garfield sits on a green floor, behind a pinkish red wall. I heard this, and I immediately pulled a copy of the comic from my wallet to show to the doctor... I moved so fast, I''m sure I nearly scared her, I... pointed at the paper and said, "Like this! Like this! Look, at this here! This cat, Garfield, he''s colorblind, he must be! That must be the answer here... like this." As over-excited as I was, I managed to take in her response; she said "Yes, a cat in this room would have a hard time differentiating the wall from the floor. Add to that a cat''s known spatial confusion, and you have the makings of a Cat Rage room." Now, she informed me that this isn''t exactly common knowledge among cat owners... but a seasoned cat owner, or someone particularly perceptive will have picked up on it. So what''s incredible here is not only is Garfield''s behavior symbolic of the devil, and all the evil constructs in the world, but... but, but... but also, it is rooted in science and scientific fact. Look at that. You cannot spell fact without "cat". Hah, just a little joke there... just some wordplay, but getting back on track... ...and you can''t spell track without "cat." Okay... I digress. I gotcha, I gotcha, enough... kidding around. It is established here that Garfield is in a rage; an ultimate rage of fury and hatred, caused by colorblindness. We know the "what", we know the "why"... but let us examine the "how", the how of his rage is particularly interesting here. We''ve looked at his posture and called it "powerful", "in control", "statuesque", "etc., etc." Composed rage... It''s peculiar, and I''ve talked to a number of psychologists and psychiatrists, and even a couple of anger management therapists about this concept... Could we see the same kind of behavior in a human? Is Garfield representative of something more specific than just chaos and rage? Deciphering this is going to take some perseverance. for sure. The psychologists pointed to a phenomenon in humans, and, yes, I believe one of the anger management counselors brought it up as well. The idea that people, oftentimes, will bottle their rage... Garfield the cat, here... well, he could be bottling his anger, inside, shoving it deep into his cat gut, to ignore and deal with at a later time. Eh, well... No, that''s not exactly right. Garfield has already acted out, he''s already stolen the pipe... he''s SMOKING the pipe, he''s already dealt with his anger. He''s already lashed out, so, psychologically, what is going on here? What is this cat doing, and how does it impact his owner, Jon Arbuckle... psychologically? Well, Garfield is angry. He is acting on his anger... but is this passive anger, or aggressive anger? Passive. It is passive because if Garfield has a problem with Jon specifically... he''s choosing a passive way of dealing with that problem. He has not confronted Jon, and said, "Jon, I have a problem with the way you''ve decorated this room; as a cat, I am colorblind, and this room sends me into a rage... You''ve created a rage room for me here, and I don''t like it; I want you to change it." Instead of that confrontational approach, though, Garfield has chosen to steal Jon''s pipe... and that, in turn, angers Jon... but Jon decides to be aggressively angry, and yell at Garfield, so... now, instead of a calm conversation between two respectful parties, you have two... heated, angry individuals, each with a problem and no direct line to solving it. The layered emotions here tell a story with tight, focused brevity that would make Hemingway weep. This is an entire drama, in just three panels, people. ...but let''s not be remiss, and miss the humor of the situation, the... absurdity of it all... for certainly, there is a reason that the visual shorthand for drama includes both the crying mask AND a laughing mask. Comedy and tragedy complement each other, and meld together to create drama, tension, the height of humanity, the peak of art, that reflects back to us our own condition... ...and here... in its basest form, we can laugh at this comic... yes, COMIC, in which a cat smokes a pipe... Hah... when was the last time you''ve SEEN such a thing in your life? Never, I presume... I certainly never have... The Greek muse, Thalia''s presence is strong in this work of art, here. Comedy, it is COMEDY... and if you look at the structure again, you''ll see this perfect form of thirds works magically for the transmission of, yes, YES, a JOKE. The joke.... is as old as time... even cavemen told jokes, and the joke here is that Jon has lost his pipe... or he thinks he has... but lo and behold, it is the cat, Garfield, who has the pipe. Surprise, surprise, the cat is smoking! Again, the transition, from set-up to punchline takes place between the second and third panels... but make no mistake, the comic is more than just a comic... Yes, it IS funny, of course it is... it is operating at the height of sophisticated humor, on par with any of Shakespeare''s piercing wit. On the one hand, Garfield the comic, with Jon the man, humor as art... the other hand, Garfield comic, with Jon the man, stirring... no, RIVETING drama... as with everything, it is tension, and release. TENSION... and RELEASE... A cycle. I keep returning to this idea, because it is so omnipresent. Yes, you could... and yes, I have done this, on more than one occasion... you could print this comic strip on a giant piece of paper. The dimensions would be something like... thirty-four inches by eleven inches. Now, tape the ends together, with the comic facing inward. Stick your head in the middle of this Garfield comic loop and READ, start at the first panel; Jon is reading the newspaper... he feels for something on the end table. Second panel; he sets the newspaper down, something is not right... "Where could my pipe be?" he thinks. ...and then, the payoff; the third panel, Garfield has Jon''s pipe, and is smoking it. But, aha! The paper is in a loop, around your head... so that you can see that, once again, Jon is in his seat, reading the paper... and so on, and so on, you can literally read the comic strip for an eternity! I spent many a relaxing Sunday afternoon reading this strip, over and over... reminded of the Portuguese death carvings, which always begin and end with the same scrawled image. [fig. 6b - Portuguese Death Carving c. 1330] So, this idea of repetition, of the beginning being the end, and the end being the beginning... It''s not new, it is an ageless tradition among the best storytellers humanity has ever offered... and I''m not wrong to include cartoonist Jim Davis in that exalted set for this particular strip alone I''m not foolish enough to deny that great art is subjective... divisive, even, and that some people see this Garfield comic and shrug with no real reaction... but I will say that I believe everyone in the world should see it; at the very least, see it! You should all see it. Read it. Spend some time with it. Spend an hour reading it... what''s an hour? Yes, you could watch some television program, you could play some fast-paced video games or computer games, yes, you could do all those things... But it''s just an hour... and if you give this strip a chance, if you look into Jon Arbuckle''s eyes... if you look into Jon Arbuckle''s SOUL... You might find that you''ll really be looking into your own soul. It is self discovery, that is what I''m talking about here... YOU have the opportunity, the possibility... it could change you. Don''t be afraid. You know, just last week, I was eating lunch near the Municipal Court... like I do every Thursday, and... there was a plumbing banner... a plumbing van, parked out in front, uh... and a man, a plumber, would step out from the court, and retrieve something from this every so often. A few times, this happened... I thought nothing of it; just a plumber, doing some work at the Municipal Court... but then he came out, and looked through his van, and it was clear... He couldn''t find something. I noticed, and thought, "Well, that''s sort of similar to the Garfield comic, in a way. Someone looks for something, can''t find it,"... but, yes, that probably happens billions of times a day around the world... ...but then, this plumber... put his hands on his hips... then, he scratched his head, and he said aloud... "Now, where could my pipe wrench be?" Well, at this, I leaped off the bench, sandwich still in hand, and I rushed over, I shouted, "What was that you said!?" He looked at me and said, "What? I can''t find my pipe wrench, " and I said, "No! No, no, say it... like how you just said it..." He scratched his head, and repeated, "Now where could my pipe wrench be?" I slapped him on the back and said, "Garfield!" He looked so confused, so I said it again... then, I said "Your orange cat took it!" Heh... ah, then I laughed and laughed... and he smiled, and went back into the courtroom. I walked away, knowing that the plumber and I, two complete strangers, bonded over this Garfield comic... You see, life imitates art, becomes a common ground. I have a feeling that if I see this plumber again, we''ll be sharing stories like two old friends... because we''ve been united by art. We have a common love for Jim Davis and his characters, his writings... The humor, the drama, the... that rascal Garfield, the cat... Oh, and by the way, if you''re wondering what I was having for lunch that day, it was a ham sandwich with an apple and potato chips... in a bag, I had a soda as well. I think it''s important to view the Pipe Strip in philosophical terms... We''ve touched briefly on the notion of existentialism; that theme is very prevalent in this strip. Garfield is, in fact, a modern existential anti-hero... but if Garfield embodies the bewilderment in a meaningless life, what is Jon? What are the telltale signs that inform Jon''s philosophical standpoint? His approach, what style of thinking he represents? Jon is depicted as being grounded in the material world... a world of things; he is surrounded by objects, and he touches these objects, he interacts with them. The newspaper, the end table, the chair... his clothes, all these physical things make up Jon''s world. In some sense, even his cat Garfield is an object to him, a thing... The first ideology that comes to mind when thinking of objects in the tangible world... is pragmatism... Is Jon Arbuckle a pragmatist? His beliefs stem from a useful, coherent view of his environment... a sort of cause-and-effect understanding of his world helps him. A: Deduce that his pipe is missing... and B: Catches his cat, Garfield, using the pipe. This kind of empirical and logical thinking lends credence to the idea that Jon is, indeed, a pragmatist... Although, it is hard to entirely ignore the rest of the Garfield comic canon. While Garfield is consistently anarchic, and embraces the chaos and absurdity of life... Jon Arbuckle exhibits an erratic, unpredictable mix of philosophical behaviors. At times, he is borderline; delusional, an idealist, an almost slap-happy version of Don Quixote. Other moments, he is rigid, nearly to the point of being obsessive... somewhat like a structuralist, and certainly has streaks of sarcasm and negativity that might classify him as a skeptic. ...But isn''t there some universal truth in this approach? How can any one man, how can Jon Arbuckle be just one thing? How can any of us be just one thing? We''re... an amalgamation of ideas, of emotions... conducts and functions, thoughts and feelings... Jon Arbuckle may very well inhabit tenets of nearly every major philosophical tract known to man. We all might. Characters are reduced, to make them recognizable, definable; a story needs a good guy, a story needs a bad guy... but rarely is one person defined in such black and white terms. Even Garfield, with all his bad behavior, Machiavellian motivation and general ne''er-do-well attitude, can be kind and thoughtful. You just have to find that rare strip. Speaking philosophically about the entire Garfield franchise, it''s an incredibly accurate depiction of life. Its bold lines and bright colors are merely a facade, a... a red herring, a lie. This cartoon is not a cartoon at all, it is not a... caricature. It is not caricature despite adopting caricature as its visual style and tone. ...but I don''t really like to speak in broad sweeping generalizations about Garfield. The comic has been running for over thirty years, and to try and boil that all down is just, well... it''s impossible. I think the only way that any historian worth his salt will agree with me is to look at individual moments... isolated instances, single comic strips. Can I discuss this one strip in the context of the entire run of Garfield? Yes, I do that just as a film historian might analyze one movie in relation to the history of all movies, or a war enthusiast might look at a single battle''s impact on an entire war. The Pipe Strip is just an instance in the lives of Jon and Garfield. Perhaps Jon is not a pragmatist at all... let''s look at this again. Maybe Jon is exhibiting the traits of a rationalist thinker; his question, "Now where could my pipe be?" is a clue that his thought process stems from the early rationalist questions posed by René Descartes. The well-known quote, "I think, therefore I am," attributed to Descartes, is applicable. Another close look at the strip, and we see that Jim Davis chose to draw Jon thinking his question. "Now where could my pipe be?" Jon does not speak this question aloud, so Jim Davis is also exploring the mind/body duality... Jon''s question operates on the level of a literal question... but it also examines the nature of reality. Jim Davis'' epistemological approach tells us something about the human condition; Jon''s thoughts remain the focal point of this strip. The comic is, quite literally, centered around his thought. "Now where could my pipe be?" This is his reality, this is where cognition, and the power and function of the mind take over. As Plato believed, the body is just a shell for Jon Arbuckle; yes, he can use his physical body to read his paper or cross his legs, but these inputs of touch, sight, hearing, et cetera, these senses are the triggers of the mind, as we see here, the mind... is something greater. It is the originator of ideas, and ideas are forever. Immortal. Immortality through thought, a... a major theme in literature and philosophy... ...and isn''t that what Mister Jim Davis himself has achieved? Will he live forever? The universe will continue to spread, and spread outward, and... entropy will turn a chaotic infinity into a homogenous, controlled system. This will take billions of years, and in that time, humans will push technology to heights we can''t imagine. We''ll explore and inhabit space, and occupy more and more of the universe, just as time allowed our ancestors to... multiply in numbers, and populate more and more of the Earth. ...and as the specific people come and go, their physical bodies will be born, and grow, and die... but their thoughts will remain... and Jim Davis'' comics, his glorious Garfield comics... are recorded ideas of his, that will still be here. Even when the Earth is no longer inhabitable, and humanity has long since moved away to bigger planets, they''ll carry with them a record, a record we all keep; mark my words... and look at what we''ve started, what is... What is the internet? What is the online world, if not a record? Never-ending feed of ideas, immortal ideas... forever placed in the ether of dualism. What is an idea? Where does it live? How does it manifest itself? Can it live forever? Will it live forever, outside of these physical husks of ours, our bodies? ...and Jon Arbuckle, and Garfield, started merely as thoughts... but they''ve become so much more. That old cliché rings true, they''ve taken on a life of their own... and life may not be what we think. Life brings to mind a beating heart, breathing lungs, blinking eyes... ...but the real life is in our imaginations... and who better embodies the definition of imagination if not a simple man... a cartoonist, who puts his ideas to paper so that they may live on, so that our children, and our children''s children, and their children''s children''s children can access the wealth of ideas that have accumulated thus far... They will plug themselves into an information grid, and they will have access... They will read every Garfield comic, 80,000 years from now, a child will see a simple Jon Arbuckle, reading a newspaper. He will feel around for something, but that something is not there... He will lift his head and think... "Now where could my pipe be?" ...and Garfield will be smoking the pipe, and Jon will yell "GARFIELD!" ...and what then? 80,000 years from now? The child reading this comic will smile... and that smile will transcend space and time and the physical limitations of this existence, whatever they may be, however many dimensions exist... There will always be Garfield... and there will always be its creator... Jim Davis. "It is through art, and through art only, that we can realize our perfection." -Oscar Wilde
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Prototype | Prototyping Your Future / HCI IxD Any large organisation, be it public or private, monitors the media for information to keep abreast of developments in their field of interest, and usually also to become aware of positive or negative opinions expressed towards them. At least for the written media, computer programs have become very efficient at helping the human analysts significantly in their monitoring task by gathering media reports, analysing them, detecting trends and – in some cases – even to issue early warnings. We present here trend recognition-related functionality of the Europe Media Monitor (EMM) system, which was developed by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) for public administrations in the European Union (EU) and beyond. EMM performs large-scale media analysis in up to seventy languages and recognises various types of trends, some of them combining information from news articles written in different languages. EMM also lets users explore the huge amount of multilingual media data through interactive maps and graphs, allowing them to examine the data from various view points and according to multiple criteria. A lot of EMM's functionality is accessibly freely over the internet or via apps for hand-held devices. Introduction Automated Content Analysis (ACA) is likely to be more limited than human intelligence for tasks such as evaluating the relevance of information for a certain purpose, or such as drawing high-level conclusions. Computer programs are also error-prone because human language is inherently ambiguous and text often only makes sense when the meaning of words and sentences is combined with the fundamental world knowledge only people have. However, computers have the advantage that they can easily process more data in a day than a person can read in a life time. Computer programs are particular useful in application areas with a time component, such as monitoring the live printed online media, because they can ingest the latest news articles as soon as they get published and they can detect changes and recognise and visualise trends. Due to the amount of textual information they can process, computer programs can be used to gain a wider view based on more empirical evidence. These features make ACA applications powerful tools to complement human intelligence. At least for the written media, the manual paper clipping process of the past – cutting out newspaper articles and combining them into a customised in-house news digest – has to a large extent been replaced by automatic systems. Computers can take over repetitive work such as gathering media reports automatically, categorising them according to multiple categories, grouping related documents, recognising references to persons, organisations and locations in them, etc. Using this filtered and pre-processed data, human analysts can then focus on the more demanding tasks of evaluating the data, selecting the most relevant information and drawing conclusions. The work of analysts will be more efficient if the computer programs can extract more information and the more high-level information they can recognise. Trend recognition is deemed particularly useful as it partially summarises events and it may help users detect hidden developments that can only be seen from a bird's perspective, i.e. by viewing very large amounts of data. Trend visualisations may serve as early warning tools, e.g. when certain keywords are suddenly found frequently or when any combination of other text features suddenly changes, compared to the usual average background. Trend prediction would then be the next logical step: based on regular historical observations specifically co-occurring with certain trends, it should be possible to predict certain trends when the same feature combinations occur again. Such an effort was described by O'Brien (2002) for the challenging domain of conflict and instability. A major challenge for complex subject domains such as societal conflict or war is that the data needed for making a reliable prediction may simply not exist and/or that some specific factors may decide on whether or not a conflict arises, factors that lie outside the realm of statistical analysis (e.g. the sudden sickness or death of a political leader). In any case, features for predictions should probably include data that can only be found outside the document corpus, such as statistical indicators on the economy and on the society (More REFS). The main disciplines contributing to ACA are called computational linguistics, natural language processing, language engineering or text mining. In recent years, this field has made a leap forward due to insights and methods developed in statistics and in machine learning, and of course due to the strong increase of computer power, the availability of large collections of machine-readable documents and the existence of the internet. In Section 2, we will give an overview of EMM, its functionality and its users. We will particularly point out the usefulness of aggregating information derived from the news in many different languages, which has the advantage of reducing any national bias and of benefitting from information complementarity observed in media sources written in different languages. In Section 3, we will then present a variety of trend presentations and data visualisation techniques used in EMM. These include time series graphs using numbers of articles on a certain subject, the usage of automatically extracted information on named entities mentioned in any selection of news, map representations combining geographical and subject domain information, opinion trends, graphs comparing information derived from the social media with that from the online version of printed media, and more. In Section 4, we summarise the benefits of automatic media monitoring, not without pointing out limitations of ACA and the potential dangers of relying on automatically derived information based on large volumes of textual data. Europe Media Monitor (EMM) A brief Overview 2.1 Overview Europe Media Monitor (EMM) stands for a whole family of media gathering and analysis applications, including NewsBrief, NewsExplorer, the Medical Information System MedISys, BlogBrief, NewsDesk and more (Steinberger et al. 2009). EMM was entirely developed at the JRC. While the main users are the EU institutions and the national authorities of the 28 EU member states, EMM was also made accessible to international organisations (e.g. various United Nations sub-organisations, the African Union and the Organisation of American States) and to the national authorities of selected partner countries of the EU. The first version of NewsBrief came online in 2002 while NewsExplorer came in 2004, but both systems processed smaller volumes of news and they had less functionality. EMM currently gathers a daily average of about 220,000 online news articles per day in seventy languages from approximately 4,000 different web sources (status May 2015). The news sources were manually selected with the purpose to represent the major newspapers of all countries in the world and to include European-language news (especially English) from around the world. For reasons of balance, it was decided not to include all easily accessible news sources, but to monitor a comparable number of news sources per country, with a focus on Europe. EMM additionally processes news feeds from over twenty press agencies. It visits news-like websites such as governmental and non-governmental web pages and it monitors social media such as Twitter, FaceBook and selected blog sites. The public versions of EMM do not show commercially acquired documents and usually have less functionality than the EC-internal versions. Separately for each language, the news articles then undergo a series of processing steps, including language recognition, document duplicate detection, Named Entity Recognition (NER) for persons, organisations and locations, quotation extraction, sentiment/tonality analysis, categorisation into one or more of the over 1,000 different subject domain classes. EMM then clusters related articles into groups, which allows users to examine the load of articles in an organised fashion. The different EMM applications provide different functionality, described in the next section. Family of EMM news monitoring applications NewsBrief (Figure 1) is the most widely used system. It provides users with near-real-time information on their field of interest in all seventy languages. Separately for each language, news gathered within a sliding four-hour window (8 hours for some languages) are clustered, but older articles remain linked to the cluster as long as new articles arrive. For each cluster, automatically extracted meta-information such as named entities and quotations are displayed. Continuously updated graphs show the ten currently largest clusters and their development over time. By clicking on any of the clusters, users can see the list of all articles and click on each article to read the entire text on the website where it was originally found. For fourteen languages, an automatically pre-generated translation into English is available. For event types with relevance to health, safety and security, NewsBrief also displays automatically extracted event information (eight languages only), including the event type, location and time of the event, number and type of victims (dead, injured, infected), and – where this was mentioned – the perpetrator (the person or group inflicting the damage). The limitation of the event types is due to the user groups, which are mostly concerned with providing support in case of disasters, epidemics, etc. NewsBrief offers subscriptions for automatic updates per category by email, for institutional users also via SMS. BlogBrief provides the same functionality as NewsBrief, but instead of news, it processes English language blogs by bloggers who have been hand-selected due to their importance or impact (e.g. politicians and journalists). MedISys is rather similar to NewsBrief, except that all its content categories are related to issues that are relevant for Public Health monitoring. Its news categories include all major communicable diseases and other Chemical, Biological, Radiological or Nuclear (CBRN) dangers, symptoms, as well as subjects of scientific or societal value such as vaccinations and genetically modified organisms. NewsExplorer provides a more long-term view of the news (in 21 languages only) and it provides a cross-lingual functionality. Rather than displaying and grouping the current news, NewsExplorer clusters the news of a whole calendar day and displays the clusters ordered by size. For each cluster, hyperlinks lead users to the equivalent news clusters in any of the other twenty languages (where applicable) and to historically related news. NewsExplorer also includes hundreds of thousands of entity pages (persons, organisations and more), where historically gathered information on each entity is aggregated and displayed, including name variants, titles, clusters and quotes where the entity was mentioned, quotes issued by that person, other entities frequently mentioned together with this entity, and more (see Figure 2). NewsDesk is a tool for human moderation. It allows media monitoring professionals to view and select the automatically pre-processed news data and to easily create readily formatted in-house newsletters. EMM Apps for mobile devices such as iOS and Android phones and tablets first became publicly and freely available in 2013 (See Figure 3). Due to the personal nature of such devices, it became first possible to display customised starting pages for each user. For the iOS EMM App alone, about 26,000 downloads were recorded up to May 2015. This customisable version of EMM became very popular so that this functionality was implemented in a new web version of EMM, called MyNews (see below). The EMM App uses a whole new concept and way to interact with EMM Metadata, referred to as Channels. A channel is a stream of EMM articles that all share the same metadata: Channels can be (a) any News Category, (b) the Top 20 Stories in a particular language, (c) a Country/Category combination, (d) an entity recognised by EMM or (e) a search in the full-text index. Users can create such channels for themselves and they can group channels into sets, allowing them to browse freely between channels in any of these sets. When users open a channel, they get access to all the articles that are present in the channel at the time, plus the other metadata that EMM has identified and associated to that channel. Users can of course also browse the attached meta-data, turn them into new channels and pin them to the current set. Crisis management tools and products have been found to be challenging to design and produce due to the complexity of dynamic customisable data-sets defined by each individual user. The main problems in designing such tools are ambiguity, multi-platform support, data representation and other pitfalls commonly seen in mobile technology development. We adhere to a model-based methodology focusing on core functionality and logical interactions with the data-set, user-centric design and data visualisation while supporting other development activities including a requirement analysis for a wide set of devices and operating systems, verification and validation. The result of the development cycle is a layout structure in which a wide scale of EMM crisis management tools has been developed. There are many digital solutions aiming to support humanitarian and emergency response tools by means of open source information gathering and text analysis. A strong trend among those tools is the ability to detect and analyse vast amounts of data, highlighting important developments relevant to each user and use. Many solutions are already operational today, the majority of these solutions requires the user to open a webpage a few times every day to get updated. Other solutions are relying on communicating with external servers, which is expensive and demanding in maintenance. They additionally usually require user authentication, which can compromise privacy and security. Our own solution allows custom notifications based on changes in the specific data set the user has defined. When a logical threshold is activated the system displays a notification directly on the user's mobile device. By merging our notifications with the core system notification system of the mobile device, we alert the user only when it is appropriate. For example, notification will wait silently when the user is asleep and will schedule the notifications to be presented a few minutes after the user has started using the device. This is being done without any user intervention or pre-settings. This novel solution differentiates itself from most notification solutions in the fact that it does not rely on any server side technology. The application itself calculates when and how notifications are presented to the user based on an internal logic crossed with background fetching of the current total data set. MyNews is the first customisable web interface to the news items supplied by the EMM engine designed for desktop browsers. It only became available in 2015. It requires logging in and is only available in-house, i.e. it is not accessible to the wider public. MyNews is highly customisable, since it allows users to define their own specific view by selecting the topics they are most interested in. This is achieved – similarly to the EMM mobile apps – by allowing users to tune news channels focused on very specific topics. They can create as many channels as they like, and they can organise them into sets (see Figure 4). There are many different ways to create new channels, which increases greatly the flexibility of the tool, combining as a union or as an intersection of article selections based on (a) text language, (b) news categories, (c) entities, (d) news from a certain country or (e) news about a certain country, (f) top stories (i.e. the biggest clusters of news talking about the same event) or (g) freely chosen search words. When visualising the contents of any of the channels, the meta-data relating specifically to this selection of news is displayed visually (see Figure 5). The Big Screen App, available since 2014, offers a view of EMM that is visible on large screens in central locations at user organisations. It shows a revolving and continuously updated view of what is happening around the world, targeted to the respective user communities, using text, maps and graphs. Citizens and Science (CAS) is a project that aims to gauge the relative importance of reporting on Science & Technology (S&T) in traditional and social media. It does this by comparing the reporting volume from a number of European Nations and the USA of items that correspond to a number of predefined S&T categories. The sources of these items are taken from the traditional online news media, public posts from FaceBook and tweets from Twitter. CAS allows investigating the relative dominance of certain themes across different media (traditional vs. social), languages and countries and it can help find empirical evidence of biased reporting (see Figure 6; more detail in Section 3.2). Details on ingested news, sources, numbers, geographical distribution Event extraction Multilinguality in EMM Multilinguality is an extremely important feature in this news monitoring application. Covering so many languages is not only important because the European Union consists of 28 Member States with 24 official EU languages. The coverage of news in 70 different languages is also due to the insight that news reporting is complementary across different countries and languages, both regarding the contents and the opinions expressed in the media. By gathering and analysing different languages, EMM reduces any national or regional bias and it increases the coverage of events and of opinions. While major world events such as large-scale disasters, major sports events, wars and meetings of world leaders are usually also reported in English, there is ample evidence that only a minority of the smaller events is reported on in the press outside the country where the event happens. Many EMM users have specialised interests such as the monitoring of events that may have negative effects on Public Health (e.g. disease outbreaks, reports on food poisoning, lack of access to medicines) or on the stability or welfare of a country (e.g. clashes between ethnic groups, accidents, crime). An analysis has shown that the vast majority of such events is not translated or reported abroad (Piskorski et al. 2011 – PROVIDE DETAILED NUMBERS). The links between related clusters across different languages in NewsExplorer show that only some of the news items in each country or language have an equivalent in other languages while the majority of news clusters talk about subjects of national interest. Figure 7, taken from the live EMM news cluster world map, also gives evidence of the uneven distribution of language reporting for locations on the globe: News mentioning locations in Latin America are mostly reported in Spanish and Portuguese; there is little news on Russia and China that is not written in Russian or Chinese, respectively, etc. Only by combining the world news in all different languages do we get a fuller picture of what is happening . Trend observation and distribution statistics in EMM In this section, we want to give some concrete examples of trend monitoring, as well as of bird's views of large amounts of media data giving insights in the relative distribution of news contents. The selection of examples shown here is based on wanting to present different visualisation principles or types, but it is naturally also driven by the interests of EMM users. Since EMM monitors in near-real time (time stamp) large amounts of media reports from around the world and it keeps track of the information (e.g. news provenance, news source, publication language, URL, media type, time of publication, etc.) and it additionally extracts categories and features (e.g. subject domain; number of related articles; names of persons, organisations and locations; sentiment; combinations of features; average values, etc.), it is in principle possible to produce and visualise statistics on any feature or feature combination. This can be done for a specific point in time (most EMM users are interested in now), it can be done for any moment back in time, it is possible to compare current values to average values, and it is possible to perform a time series analysis, i.e. it is possible to show any change over time. Note, however, that, while all such meta-data extracted by EMM can be stored, the original full text of the news has to be deleted after the analysis, for copyright reasons. Users will thus be able to see the meta data and a snippet of the news text (title and the first few words), but if they want to see the full text, they have to follow the hyperlink provided. Whether or not the full text is still accessible then depends on the news source. In the following sub-sections, we will present some types of trend observations and visual presentations of distribution statistics. Bar graphs and pie charts The simplest and probably clearest way of presenting static data is achieved using bar graphs and pie charts. Figure 5 shows three different bar charts to visualise different aspects for the same selection of news documents (provenance of the news, countries mentioned in the articles, and subject domains/entities referred to). These charts give the reader an overview of the whole collection of documents and it thus helps them evaluate and categorise the contents before reading them in detail. Figure 7b shows the language distribution of a multilingual set of European news articles talking on the subject of Science & Technology and comparing it with the language distribution in all articles covering the same time period. It is immediately visible that English and Polish language articles (left) are over-proportionally talking about S&T, while German and French S&T articles are under-represented, compared to the average. Maps visualising geographical distributions Map views are rather popular and intuitive. Figure 5 shows an aggregated map view (number of articles per continent/country/region, depending on the zoom level) while Figure 7 shows all news clusters (or those in a selection of languages). Many types of map data are available, allowing to combine any EMM information with third-party information, as seen in Figure 8 . Any map data in EMM is hyperlinked to the underlying news articles together with the extracted meta-information so that users can verify the contents and read the underlying news sources. Trend graphs Trend graphs show a simple correlation between at least two variables, of which one is time. Typically, they take the shape of line graphs or bar graphs where one axis represents time. Figure 1 shows the size (number of news articles) of the ten largest English language news clusters and their development over the past 12 hours, with a ten-minute resolution (update frequency). The interactive graph clearly shows which stories are most discussed. By hovering with the mouse over any of the points, the most typical news article header of that moment in time is shown so that users can get informed of the development of that story. The system decides on the most typical article header statistically by selecting the medoid, i.e. the document that is closest to the centroid of the vector. By clicking on any of the curves, a new page will open showing the articles that are part of that cluster plus all meta-information available to the system. This graph thus shows ten trend lines in one graph, for the sake of comparison. Similarly, Figure 6 visualises the numbers of news articles and of Social Media postings over time on four science areas. The graph shows longer-term developments. The chosen resolution is one day. For each of the four science areas, two trend curves are displayed to facilitate the visual understanding of the relative long-term development. Such graphs can be rather revealing. For instance, Figure 9 compares Science & Technology reporting in Europe and in the US. For better comparison, the numbers have been normalised: the x-axis shows the percentage of S&T articles compared to all articles, instead of absolute numbers. This graph reveals that the intensity of reporting on S&T in Europe lags behind that observed in US-American media (0.5% of all articles in all languages in the EU vs. 2.8% in the USA report about S&T). Comparing only English language articles in predominantly English-speaking countries (UK and Ireland in Europe; graph not shown here) with the English language articles in the USA, the difference is smaller, but it still notable (1.5% of articles in the UK and in Ireland vs. 3.2% in the USA). To put these numbers into perspective: the reporting on the reference categories Conflict, Ecology, Society and Sports, considering only the English language, was respectively 2.56%, 0.14%, 0.59% and 5.46% for the USA and 1.93%, 0.09%, 0.45% and 6.63% for the EU. This means that the reporting on S&T issues does not fall far behind the reporting on Sports in the USA, but in Europe reporting on Sports is 4 times more than on S&T issues. Note that, in EMM, sports articles are additionally only taken from general news streams because EMM does not scan sports pages of news sites. Looking in detail at a specific topic such as Space, we observe that there is a very strong correlation between the peaks, but the volumes are much smaller in the UK and Ireland, compared to the USA (See Figure 9). Other than a weak correlation between product announcements in the media and on twitter, we have not observed a clear media-driven discussion on the social media, i.e. we have not been able to establish any correlation between media reports and the user-driven content. Such data is a good starting point for the work of social scientists, who can then search for an interpretation and for explanations. Economists and politicians may then think of possible remedies (if needed and wanted). Figure 10 shows the interactive long-term news story timeline produced in EMM-NewsExplorer. The graph shows the number of news articles per day in the daily news clusters about the same event or subject. By hovering over any of the bars, the news cluster title is displayed so that users can explore what happened that day. By clicking on that day, the users are taken to the page with information on that day's news cluster in order to read the articles, see the related meta-information and follow hyperlinks to related reports in other languages. The graph allows exploring developments over longer periods of time and refreshing one's memory on what happened when. Figure 11 shows the development of positive or negative tonality (or sentiment) measured in English and French news articles, using a one-week resolution. Early warning graphs Figure 8 visualises results on the most recent events of a certain type, allowing stakeholders to become aware of the latest developments, to deepen their understanding of what happened (by reading the related news articles) and to take action, if needed. Another type of early warning is achieved with statistical means, as shown at the top of Figure 10, taken from EMM's Medical Information System MedISys. The graph called daily alert statistics shows the currently biggest threats world-wide, with decreasing relevance from left to right (the red threats are the ones with the highest alert levels). MedISys counts the number of articles in the last 24 hours for any country-threat combination (e.g. tuberculosis and Poland) and compares it to the two-week average count for this same combination. This ratio is then normalised by the number of articles for different days of the week (there are less articles on the weekend). The alert statistics graph then shows the results of all calculations, ranked by the value of this ratio . Note that the ratio is entirely independent of the absolute numbers as it rather measures the unexpectedness. Each country-threat combination is shown in two columns: the left one (light blue) shows the observed number of articles while the right one (red, yellow or blue) shows the expected two-week average. An important feature of this graph and of MedISys/EMM as a whole is that this alert is language-independent. The same categories for countries and for threats exist for (almost) all EMM languages, meaning that the articles may be found in one language only (e.g. Polish or Arabic), which often is different from the languages spoken by the MedISys user. The graph is interactive: Users can click on any of the bars to jump to a new page where all relevant articles for this country-threat combination are displayed, together with a heat map and a trend line showing the development over the past 14 days. The Spain-legionellosis threat combination in Figure 10 no longer is a top threat as it had already been reported on for four days. Further graph types used in EMM Figure 11 shows a node graph visualising co-occurrence relations between people. For each person, the 100 most associated entities (persons or organisations) are displayed. The subset of common entities is highlighted in red. The graph is interactive: by clicking on any of the entity nodes, they jump to a page with the news mentioning that entity and displaying all automatically extracted meta-information (e.g. Figure 2), or to the Wikipedia page for that entity. Further entities can be added to the same graph. EMM-NewsExplorer produces the correlation data by counting which entities are mentioned together with which other entities in the same news items. In order to suppress media VIPs such as the US president from the purely frequency-based correlation lists (called 'related entities' in NewsExplorer), a weighting formula is used that brings those entities to the top that are mostly mentioned together with this person and not so much with other persons. The data, referred to in NewsExplorer as 'associated entities', is produced on the basis of mention co-occurrence in the news in 21 different languages, i.e. it is less biased by the reporting language than data produced by a monolingual media monitoring system. EMM recognises direct speech quotations in the news in about twenty different languages and keeps track of who issued the quotation and who is mentioned inside the quotation. Figure 12 shows a quotation network indicating who mentions whom (arrows). Persons most referred to are automatically placed closer to the centre of the graph. During the 2007 presidential elections in France, it was observed that Nicolas Sarkozy, who was the winner of the elections, was consistently more central than his opponent Ségolène Royal. Quotation networks are no longer used in EMM. The same applies to topic maps, which display the most prominent subject matters referred to in a document collection. The topics are grouped into islands of relatedness (using a method known as Kohonen Maps). The more prominent a group of topics is in the collection, the higher the mountains on the island, with peaks being snow-covered. Summary and conclusions, pitfalls Computers have the ability to sieve through large volumes of data in little time and the technologies required for Automated Content Analysis (ACA) have matured to a level where automatically produced results can be useful for the human analyst. We have argued that a man-machine collaboration for the analysis of large volumes of media reports will produce best results because people and computers have complementary strengths. We have presented the main functionality of the European Commission's family of Europe Media Monitor (EMM) applications, which currently gathers an average of 220,000 online news articles per day from about 5,000 online news sources in seventy languages (and also from social media postings about certain themes), categorises the news into about 2,000 different categories, groups related articles, extracts various types of information from them, links related articles over time and across languages and presents the analysis results in a variety of ways to the human end user. Moderation tools support the users in viewing the data, in selecting and amending it and in producing in-house newsletters for the information-seeking decision takers. Monitoring not only English or some widely spoken languages is important in order to avoid bias and also because the news is complementary across languages, both for contents and for the sentiment contained therein. Automatic tools that process and analyse documents turn unstructured information into a structured format that can easily be processed by machines and that also provides useful data for the human user. This results in a data collection, where for each article, we know the news source, the country of origin, the language, the timestamp of the publication, the news categories, the persons, organisations and locations mentioned therein, related articles within the same and across different languages, quotations by and about persons. Additionally, we have data about trends, i.e. whether news related to the same event or subject are increasing or decreasing in numbers over time, and there is some information on sentiment/tonality. This structured collection makes it in principle possible to produce any statistics and to establish any trends related to these types of information. For selected subjects and feature combinations, the JRC regularly publishes its analysis, allowing EMM users to have a deeper insight into the publications on subject areas of their interest. In this article, we presented a range of different types of analyses and visualisations in order to give an overview of distributions and trends observed during large-scale media analysis. Such an extraction and aggregation of data is not usually the final objective, but it normally is the starting point for an intellectual human analysis. Analysts can get inspired by the data, questions may arise, suspicions may get confirmed or contradicted. Used carefully, we believe that the analyses produced by EMM or similar systems can be very useful because they may be used as an inspiration and as empirical evidence for any argument human analysts may want to make. However, we find it extremely important that users be aware of the limitations and of possible pitfalls when using such data, be it from EMM or from other automatic systems: First of all, media monitoring is not reality monitoring. What the media say is not necessarily factually true and media attention towards certain subjects usually differs from the real-life distribution of facts or events, giving media consumers a biased view. Media reporting is heavily influenced by the political or geographical viewpoint of the news source. It is therefore useful to analyse a large, well-balanced set of media sources coming from many different countries world-wide. EMM aims to reach such a balance, but sources are also added on request of users, it is not always known what political standpoints newspapers have, and not all news sources are freely accessible. For this reason, EMM displays the list of media sources so that users can form their own opinion. Any analysis, be it automatic or man-made, is error-prone. This is even true for basic functionalities such as the recognition of person names in documents and the categorisation of texts according to subject domains. Machines might make simple mistakes easily spottable by human analysts, such as categorising an article as being about the outbreak of communicable diseases when category-defining words such as tuberculosis are found in articles discussing a new song produced by a famous music producer, which is easily spottable by a person. On the other hand, machines are better at going through very large document collections and they are very consistent in their categorisation while people suffer from inconsistency and they tend to generalise on the basis of the small document collection they have read. For these reasons, it is crucial that any summaries, trend visualisations or other analyses can be verified by the human analysts. Users should be able to verify the data by drilling down, e.g. viewing the original text data in the case of peaks or unexpected developments, and especially to get an intuitive confidence measure by viewing a number of cases that lead to conclusions. Most of EMM's graphs are interactive and allow viewing the underlying data. It would be useful if system providers additionally offered confidence values regarding the accuracy of their analyses. For EMM, most specialised applications on individual information extraction tools include such tool evaluation results and an error analysis (e.g. XXX-REF). However, the tools can behave very differently depending on the text type and the language, making the availability of drill-down functionality indispensable. End users should be careful with accuracy statistics given by system providers. Especially commercial vendors (but not only) are good at presenting their systems in a very positive light. For instance, our experience has shown that, especially in the field of sentiment analysis (opinion mining, tonality), high accuracy is difficult to achieve even when the statistical accuracy measurement Precision and Recall are high. Overall Precision (accuracy for the system's predictions) may for instance indeed be high when considering predictions for positive, negative and neutral sentiment, but this might simply be because the majority class (e.g. neutral) is very large and the system is good at spotting this. Accuracy statistics may also have been produced on an easy-to-analyse dataset while the data at hand may be harder to analyse. Sentiment, for instance, may be easier to detect on product review pages on vending sites such as Amazon than on the news because journalists tend to want to give the impression of neutrality. Machine learning approaches to text analysis are particularly promising because computers are good at optimising evidence and because machine learning tools are cheap to produce, compared to man-made rules. However, the danger is that the automatically learnt rules are applied to texts that are different from the training data as comparable data rarely exists. Manually produced rules might be easier to tune and to adapt. Again, statistics on the performance of automatic tools should be considered with care. Within EMM, machine learning is used to learn vocabulary and recognition patterns, but these are then usually manually verified and generalised (e.g. Zavarella et al. 2010; Tanev & Magnini 2008). To summarise: we firmly believe that Automated Content Analysis works when it is used with care and when its strengths and limits are known. Computers and people have different strengths which – in combination – can be very powerful as they combine large-scale evidence gathering with the intelligence of human judgement. References Atkinson M, Keim D, Schaefer M, Franz W, Leitner-Fischer F, Zintgraf F. (2010). DYNEVI - DYnamic News Entity VIsualization. In: J.Kohlhammer, D.Keim (eds). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology. Golsar (Germany): The Eurographics Association. pp. 69-74 . 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Early Alerting Reporting Project Of The Global Health Security Initiative. Evaluation of epidemic intelligence systems integrated in the early alerting and reporting project for the detection of A/H5N1 influenza events. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57252. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057252. Epub 2013 Mar 5. Jakub Piskorski, Hristo Tanev, Martin Atkinson, Erik van der Goot & Vanni Zavarella (2011). Online News Event Extraction for Global Crisis Surveillance. Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science LNCS 6910/2011, pp. 182-212. Krstajic, M.; Bak, P.; Oelke, D..; Atkinson, M.; Keim, D.A. (2010). Applied Visual Exploration on Real-Time News Feeds Using Polarity and Geo-Spatial Analysis. Web Information Systems and Technologies WEBIST 2010, Valencia, 7-10 April 2010. Krstajic, M.; Mansmann, F.; Stoffel, A.; Atkinson, M.; Keim, D.A. (2010). Processing online news streams for large-scale semantic analysis. 26th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE) Workshops, pp.215-220, 1-6 March 2010. Linge Jens, Ralf Steinberger, Thomas Weber, Roman Yangarber, Erik van der Goot, Delilah Al Khudhairy & Nikolaos Stilianakis (2009). Internet Surveillance Systems for Early Alerting of Health Threats. EuroSurveillance Vol. 14, Issue 13. Stockholm, 2 April 2009. Linge, J.P., Mantero, J. Fuart, F., Belyaeva, J., Atkinson, M., van der Goot, E. (2011). Tracking Media Reports on the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany. In: Malaga. P. Kostkova, M. Szomszor, and D. Fowler (eds.), Proceedings of eHealth conference (eHealth 2011), LNICST 91, pp. 178–185, 2012. PUBSY JRC65929. Piskorski Jakub, Jenya Belyaeva & Martin Atkinson (2011). Exploring the usefulness of cross-lingual information fusion for refining real-time news event extraction. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP'2011), pp. 210-217. Hissar, Bulgaria, 12-14 September 2011 Pouliquen Bruno, Hristo Tanev & Martin Atkinson (2008). Extracting and Learning Social Networks out of Multilingual News. Proceedings of the social networks and application tools workshop (SocNet-08) pp. 13-16. Skalica, Slovakia, 19-21 September 2008. Pouliquen Bruno, Marco Kimler, Ralf Steinberger, Camelia Ignat, Tamara Oellinger, Ken Blackler, Flavio Fuart, Wajdi Zaghouani, Anna Widiger, Ann-Charlotte Forslund, Clive Best (2006). Geocoding multilingual texts: Recognition, Disambiguation and Visualisation. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'2006), pp. 53-58. Genoa, Italy, 24-26 May 2006. Pouliquen Bruno, Ralf Steinberger & Clive Best (2007). Automatic Detection of Quotations in Multilingual News. In: Proceedings of the International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP'2007), pp. 487-492. Borovets, Bulgaria, 27-29.09.2007. Pouliquen Bruno, Ralf Steinberger & Olivier Deguernel (2008). Story tracking: linking similar news over time and across languages. In Proceedings of the 2nd workshop Multi-source Multilingual Information Extraction and Summarization (MMIES'2008) held at CoLing'2008. Manchester, UK, 23 August 2008. Pouliquen Bruno, Ralf Steinberger, Camelia Ignat & Tamara Oellinger (2006). Building and displaying name relations using automatic unsupervised analysis of newspaper articles. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Statistical Analysis of Textual Data (JADT'2006). Besançon, 19-21 April 2006. Pouliquen Bruno, Ralf Steinberger, Jenya Belyaeva (2007). Multilingual multi-document continuously updated social networks. Proceedings of the Workshop Multi-source Multilingual Information Extraction and Summarization (MMIES'2007) held at RANLP'2007, pp. 25-32. Borovets, Bulgaria, 26 September 2007. Sean P. O'Brien (2002). Anticipating the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. An Early Warning Approach to Conflict and Instability Analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 46 No. 6, December 2002, pp. 791-811 Steinberger Ralf & Bruno Pouliquen (2009). Cross-lingual Named Entity Recognition. In: Satoshi Sekine & Elisabete Ranchhod (eds.): Named Entities - Recognition, Classification and Use, Benjamins Current Topics, Volume 19, pp. 137-164. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 978-90-272-8922 3. ( Steinberger Ralf (2012). A survey of methods to ease the development of highly multilingual Text Mining applications. Language Resources and Evaluation Journal, Springer, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp. 155-176 (DOI 10.1007/s10579-011-9165-9). Steinberger Ralf, Bruno Pouliquen & Erik van der Goot (2009). An Introduction to the Europe Media Monitor Family of Applications. In: Fredric Gey, Noriko Kando & Jussi Karlgren (eds.): Information Access in a Multilingual World - Proceedings of the SIGIR 2009 Workshop (SIGIR-CLIR'2009), pp. 1-8. Boston, USA. 23 July 2009. Steinberger Ralf, Flavio Fuart, Erik van der Goot, Clive Best, Peter von Etter & Roman Yangarber (2008). Text Mining from the Web for Medical Intelligence. In: Fogelman-Soulié Françoise, Domenico Perrotta, Jakub Piskorski & Ralf Steinberger (eds.): Mining Massive Data Sets for Security. pp. 295-310. IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Tanev Hristo & Bernardo Magnini (2008). Weakly supervised approaches for ontology population. In: Paul Buitelaar & Philipp Cimiano (eds.): Ontology learning and population: Bridging the Gap between Text and Knowledge. IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 167. Tanev Hristo & Josef Steinberger (2013). Semi-automatic acquisition of lexical resources and grammars for event extraction in Bulgarian and Czech. Proceedings of the 4th Biennial International Workshop on Balto-Slavic Natural Language Processing, held at ACL'2013, pp. 110-118. Tanev Hristo (2007). Unsupervised Learning of Social Networks from a Multiple-Source News Corpus. Proceedings of the Workshop Multi-source Multilingual Information Extraction and Summarization (MMIES'2007) held at RANLP'2007, pp. 33-40. Borovets, Bulgaria, 26 September 2007. Tanev Hristo, Bruno Pouliquen, Vanni Zavarella & Ralf Steinberger (2010). Automatic Expansion of a Social Network Using Sentiment Analysis. In: Nasrullah Memon, Jennifer Jie Xu, David Hicks & Hsinchun Chen (eds). Annals of Information Systems, Volume 12. Special Issue on Data Mining for Social Network Data, pp. 9-29. Springer Science and Business Media (DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-6287-4_2). Tanev Hristo, Jakub Piskorski & Martin Atkinson (2008). Real-time News Event Extraction for Global Crisis Monitoring. In V. Sugumaran, M. Spiliopoulou, E. Kapetanios (editors) Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (NLDB 2008 ), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Cool. 5039, 24-27 June, London, UK. Tanev Hristo, Maud Ehrmann, Jakub Piskorski & Vanni Zavarella (2012). Enhancing Event Descriptions through Twitter Mining. In: AAAI Publications, Sixth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp 587-590. Dublin, June 2012. Tanev Hristo, Vanni Zavarella, Jens Linge, Mijail Kabadjov, Jakub Piskorski, Martin Atkinson & Ralf Steinberger (2009). Exploiting Machine Learning Techniques to Build an Event Extraction System for Portuguese and Spanish. In: linguaMÁTICA Journal:2, pp. 55-66. Available at: . Turchi Marco, Martin Atkinson, Alastair Wilcox, Brett Crawley, Stefano Bucci, Ralf Steinberger & Erik van der Goot (2012). ONTS: "OPTIMA" News Translation System. Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL), pp. 25–30, Avignon, France, April 23 - 27 2012. Van der Goot Erik, Hristo Tanev & Jens Linge (2013). Combining twitter and media reports on public health events in MedISys. Proceedings of the 22nd international conference on World Wide Web companion, pp. 703-718. International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee, 2013. Zavarella Vanni, Hristo Tanev, Jens Linge, Jakub Piskorski, Martin Atkinson & Ralf Steinberger (2010). Exploiting Multilingual Grammars and Machine Learning Techniques to Build an Event Extraction System for Portuguese. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Processing of Portuguese Language (PROPOR'2010), Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27-30 April 2010. Springer Lecture Notes for Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 6001, pp. 21-24. Springer. Observing Trends in Automated Multilingual Media Analysis Authors: Ralf, Aldo, Alexandra, Guillaume, Hristo, Martin, Michele, Yaniv, Erik European Commission – Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra (VA), Italy e-mail: Ralf.Steinberger@jrc.ec.europa.eu ( corresponding author )
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Citizen Science Academy | Chicago Botanic Garden Learn how to better engage your students, visitors, or program participants with the natural world through citizen science. Citizen Science Academy courses use Budburst as a case study for learning about citizen science as a field, how to use citizen science effectively in a variety of educational settings, and how to create compelling activities and opportunities to engage
Jhankar – Sachin Verma I'm Sachin, an Android Developer living and working Bangalore, Karnataka. I love connecting with real people and helping others to develop their skills.
Quia Create your own educational games, quizzes, surveys, and web pages. Search millions of games and quizzes created by educators around the world.
Javier Tordable – Technology executive, investor, entrepreneur. AI @ Office of the CTO, Google Cloud. Technology executive, investor, entrepreneur. AI @ Office of the CTO, Google Cloud.
Tech-Labs | Training Systems for Industry and Education Tech-Labs sells educational and training equipment to schools and universities. We have a diverse selection resources to teach tomorrow's technology today. Our products include industrial skills trainers from Amatrol, 3D printers from Stratasys, Simlog heavy equipment simulators, Lincoln Electric welding trainers and U/LINC curriculum, EduSmart Science, LJ Create, and more!
Playpower - Powering the future of learning Empower your organization to produce best-in-class learning experiences based on cognitive science, machine learning and human-centered design.
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Customer experience | Cravety | United States Cravety aligns Employee Experience with Customer Experience to create a total Brand Experience. Combining cultural analytics and design thinking, Cravety uses data science and creativity to create the brands and cultures people crave. The firm offers public speaking, experiential learning, and consulting services.
Zike''s Blog Hi there! I am currently a second master student in Data Science track looking for full-time job. Strong Coder with Great Coding Style, Good Understanding of Machine Learning, Catching up on Deep Lear
His Holiness the 17th Karmapa Orgyen Trinley Dorje – in Word and Deed - Startseite/ Karmapa Quotes Wisdom Quotes from the 17th Gyalwang Karmapa Ogyen Trinle Dorje
CumoyTech | We're Changing the world with technology Some computer scientists create applications to control robots. Computer scientists build algorithms into software program packages that make the info easier for analysts to use. Learn whatever data the instruction requires from cells in reminiscence (or perhaps from an enter gadget). Write programs to analyze photos, implement characteristic extraction, and recognize objects using deep learning … Read More Read More
Educational Software by EvaluNet - South African Education Create school worksheets and tests! South African school curriculum software and educational software.
iRobo Education is an (STEM Education) science, technology , engineering and Maths iRobo classes are devoted for helping the young mind to discover and develop a passion for (STEM) Science, Technology , Engineering and Maths .
Home | CreativKits | Fun Learning Activities for Kids aged 5 to 15 CreativKits sparks creativity in kids and saves time for busy parents and care-givers by providing all of the inspiration and materials necessary for hours of fun creating art, doing science experiments and learning simple technology behind everyday things. With monthly deliveries of activities designed to help kids discover, explore, and create things, CreativKits brings hands-on fun right to your doorsteps. Choose between a range of kits based on Age, Interests and Budget, now there are ample opportunities for every parent or care-giver to engage their children creatively.
First Impressions HQ | Communication Skills at Work WATCH PREVIEW Communication Skills at Work& Writing Body Language Most companies will teach you the specific skills needed to accomplish your job tasks, but they will not teach you innovative communication skills that are most often the determining factor for promotions and raises and a vital factor in leadership. We will teach you innovative communication and leadership skills. Our greatest leaders in the world of business, politicians, and movie stars know how to use their bodies to lead us to think and feel what they want us to think and feel. You've no doubt seen "experts" on reading body language on television, or perhaps you've read their books. But reading body language is the act of following someone and trying to figure out what he or she is thinking or feeling. Writing Body Language is the art and science of leading others to think and feel what you want them to think and feel. That's what great leaders do, and that's what we've been teaching lawyers, doctors, engineers, actors, teachers, and businessmen and women from every imaginable profession how to do … since 1993. Isn't it time you stopped trying to read people, and start learning how to become a master at leading people? Now anyone can have 24/7 access to this self-paced video course that includes the same communication skills training we've given during workshops at small, medium and large companies since 1993. LEARN MORE Whether you are on stage in front of a large audience, leading a weekly departmental meeting or making a sales presentation to one prospect, this video course is a step-by-step guide that will enable you to create great presentations. LEARN MORE Corporate Programs Forgive us for bragging, but our audiences have been telling us for years that our presentations and workshops have been the most informative and entertaining they've ever seen. We can tailor our workshops to cover Communication Skills, Presentation Skills… or both. Our programs boost employee morale, corporate cultures and customer service. contact us
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COMANSAYS HOME Comansays.com is a website that allows its users to upload and download anything the want, COMANSAYS.COM also allows users to learn and teach others anything the want to teach e.g How to sing, how to play musical instruments like drums, piano, bass guitar, lead guitar, sax or saxophone, trumpet, violin and lots more. COMAMsays.com also allow educational teaching & learning. software and games are allowed for user to upload and download, learn how to create games and software. We also give expo and teaches candicates more about waec, neco, jamb. waec expo, neco expo, jamb expo.
Lia Prins I seek to inspire a curiosity and enable an understanding of the natural world. | I’m an information designer with an unflagging affection for science communication, learning, and, perhaps less predictably, antiquated office supplies. Hailing from the Pacific Northwest, I studied biology, art, and design at the University of Washington before moving to Austin a few years ago to collect on my sunlight debt.
Coding Lady Colonials – Come to laugh, code, and create something. We are the Coding Lady Colonials of Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology.  We are on a mission to create a supportive learning environment where members can learn new things outside of the curriculum, conduct CS outreach to younger students, and help members learn about how computer science is integrated in many different kinds…
SATs Tests Online | SATs Revision | KS2 SATs | KS2 SATs Tests | SATs Revision Papers | KS2 SATs Papers | Practice SATs SATs Tests Online is an online subscription assessment service for schools - designed to emulate real SATs Papers. Pupils can create their own Maths, English and Science tests - at school and home. This service allows pupils to highlight their personal learning needs by finding strengths and weaknesses in Maths, English and Science.
Arizona Science Center: Inspire, Educate & Engage Curious Minds Arizona Science Center is one of the nation's premier science and education destinations. Join us for hands-on learning exhibits and programs for kids, adults, and teachers.
Educational and Inspiring News Articles for Students | Articles Hub Articles Hub publishing platform is a treasure trove of interesting news articles for students. Find the most relevant content concerning higher education in one place.
Precision Learning Group | Applied Behaviour Analysis and Education for Autism It is our goal at Precision Learning Group to support all individuals along the Autism Spectrum. Through the science of Applied Behaviour Analysis, we create an individualized education and behavioural program to help any individual achieve their fullest potential.
The National Center for Photonics and Optics Education, OP-TEC | The National Center for Photonics and Optics Education A center funded by NSF that provides support to community and technical colleges to develop and encourage optics, laser, and photonics education. OP-TEC is a consortium of two-year colleges, high schools, universities, national laboratories, industry partners, and professional societies funded by the National Science Foundation’s Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. The participating entities of OP-TEC have joined forces to create secondary-to-postsecondary as well as returning adult “pipelines” of highly qualified and strongly motivated students and to empower two-year colleges to prepare technicians in optics and photonics.
PACE Learning Center | PACE Learning Center | 888-489-9791 PACE Learning Center has been teaching and exciting students to learn since 2000. PACE Learning Center''s mission has always been to hire quality teachers who are personally vested in the academic success of their students and create a nurturing environment that fosters learning and a positive attitude towards academics. Multiple learning centers and academic programs established in schools throughout the San Francisco/Bay Area are testament to the success of it’s programs, teachers and students.
The Intelligence Augmentation Design Toolkit by Futurice The intelligence augmentation design toolkit and the associated workshop demystifies machine learning and helps non-tech experts to create smart service concepts.
Hawker Brownlow Education - Educational Resources, Classroom Strategies and Teaching Tools Hawker Brownlow Education (HBE) is Australia’s leading provider of educational resources, classroom strategies and teaching tools that have been proven to raise staff and student achievement levels. For over 27 years our teacher and student resources have helped teachers and administrators, from Foundation to year 12, to create classrooms and schools where ALL children can succeed. Hawker Brownlow Education’s publishing list is extensive and comprehensive and provides both teacher and student resources in Reading and Reading Comprehension, Mathematics, Assessment, Classroom Management and Instruction, Differentiated Instruction, Brain-Based Learning, Thinking Skills 21st Century Skills, Science, Leadership, Curriculum Planning, Integrating Technology, The Art & Science of Teaching, Professional Learning Communities, Bullying and more.
Blue Ridge Virtual Governor's School - Home The Blue Ridge Virtual Governor''s School will create a collaborative learning community for academically motivated high school students that emphasizes service, leadership and the development of skills necessary for success in the 21st century, with an instructional focus on Math, Science and Technology.
Home Page WATAN,leading,Civil,Society,Organization,delivering,emergency,relief,third,sector,support,long,term,internationa,development,projects,committed,helping,people,reviving,communities,independent,non,governmental,apolitical,nonsectarian,organization,operate,several,integrated,programs,aim,addressing,humanitarian,emergency,response,sustainable,community,revival,through,holistic,transformative,approach,believe,role,various,phases,intervention,invest,supporting,developing,areas,reach,create,platform,coordination,integration,maximize,impact,communities,served,achieve,goal,seek,preferred,partner,international,agencies,specialization,reach,established,2012,framework,merging,number,organizations,groups,extensive,community,development,2006,mission,develop,sustainable,healthy,educated,communi,based,inclusive,society,positively,engages,supports,improves,lives,each,individual,regardless,gender,faith,ethnicity,deliver,programs,rebuild,lives,maintain,community,social,cohesion,providing,transformative,programs,reliefs,post,conflict,peace,building,education,economic,empowerment,advocacy,development,strong,vision,envision,free,dignified,society,based,tolerance,respec,social,justice,focus,center,because,fragmented,intervention,would,lead,sustainable,impact,believe,building,strong,thrive,innovation,agility,continued,transformation,values,creativity,transparency,partnership,respect, work,watan,currently,working,syria,turkey,address,emergency,response,sustainable,community,revival,bringing,about,real,positive,change,millions,people,Izmir,Istanbul,Ankara,Mersin,Adana,London,United,States,Germany,Jordan,Canada, Global, international,WATAN,Watan,Board,Leadership,governed,volunteer,unpaid,Board,plays,active,role,governance,provides,advic,policy,advocacy,fundraising,public,relations,Moaz,AlSibaai,Chairman,Founder,Anas,AlSibaai,CPA,Vice,Chairman,Co,Founder,founding,members,years,experience,finance,management,audit,including,being,finance,manager,volunteer,work,addition,Focus,governance,compliance,Mazen,Halabi,Joined,team,2012,information,technology,non,profit,organizations,various,capacity,Board,member,Treasure,Secretary,Program,manager,donor,relations,leader,US,Iman,Ahmado,responsible,network,management,Canada,registration,Abdulrahman,Alhamdo,business,enterepenurship,information,technology,start,up,initiatives,growth,plan,economic,empowerment,Fatema,Obaied,2012,education,Advocacy,Youth,Fateh,Hawa,legal,field,human,rights,Majed,Salem,2014,sales,marketing,business,development,strategies,SME׳s,trainer,consultant,local,international,organization,internal,processes,quality,Moaz,Al,Sibaai,founded,seed,organization,WATAN,2006,expanded,activities,2011,response,need,humanitarian,response,aid,inside,war,torn,Syria,formed,current,name,2012,since,services,mill,beneficiaries,USD,annual,budget,based,Moaz,passiona,civil,society,development,education,sustainable,aid,women,empowerment,youth,renowned,expert,digital,strategi,years,experience,working,leading,international,technology,providers,financial,services,telecom,companies,Moaz,worked,UK,Gulf,region,currently,Digital,Director,SAP,Digital,Transformation,Office,EMEA,South,responsible,managing,SAP''s,task,force,Saudi,National,Transformation,Program,NTP,2020,Saudi,Vision,2030,Founder,chairman,WATAN,foundation,Moaz,non-profit,organization,volunteer,founder,co-founder,Focus,overall,strategy,program,integration,EDUCATION,PROGRAM education,program,facilitates,learning,acquiring,knowledge,skills,values,formal,informal,WATAN,runs,supports,schools,Syria,Turkey,contributing,development,students,personality,trust,help,develop,unique,talents,abilities,graduate,university,providing,activities,seminars,sharing,achieve,scholarship,opportunities,Workshops,established,promote,cohesion,discuss,common,causes,challenges,integrating,environment,expertise,areas,equipment,buildings,training,curricular,refugee,language,courses,clubs,athletic,displaced,persons,communities,host,urgent,started,children,classes,psychosocial,provided,psychodrama,center,number,beneficiaries,benefited,Summer,geographically,number,packages,recreational,voluntary,campaigns,Projects,respond,emergencies,significant,improving,goals,rebuild,landscape,professional,important,network,partners,generations,society,circumstances,specialists,institute,staff,quality,life,future,youth,hope,Project,Higher,Geography,history,mathematics,engineering,science,music,drawing,Literatur,Language,Poetry,Curriculum,Stationery,Bag,Back,Camps,foundation,humanitarian,human,field,support,sustainable,sustainability,organization,work,NGO,reviving,People,Parents,Primary,high,volunteer,Exam,Donation,funding,International, Emergency
Home The corporate EHS function, which oversees environmental, health and safety compliance began to merge at the management level around 1990. The first area is environmental management, which emerged as a profession in the 1970s, following the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other state-level regulatory systems. As companies began limiting waste to prevent pollution, they needed engineers to adapt scrubbers, filters, and other process changes to existing manufacturing systems. Workplace safety and occupational health also grew in importance during this time, with the passage of legislation such as the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Over time, companies developed systematic way of complying with environmental, health and safety regulations. Corporations began tracking key measures and looking for ways to improve their performance. Then, in the 1990s, improvements in data technology management made it easier for an organization to analyze its operations. Around that time, corporations began to merge oversight for environmental, health and safety programs through a new management role called EHS. The newly appointed leaders, who began their careers in one of the three sub-disciplines, started to create systems to drive EHS progress across all operations. Today, with the advent of sustainability, EHS professionals are leading corporate efforts toward sustainability. Building on their decades of experience, EHS leaders are striving to meet this challenge, creating systems to reduce energy use, conserve water, and better communicate with stakeholders. Indeed, a 2009 survey found that two-thirds of the sustainability initiatives at member companies are being led or managed by the EHS
Prepared Foods | Food Industry News & Trends Food industry news and trends about food ingredients, new foods and beverage products, food processing, food innovation, gluten-free, GMOs, food science.
Vikrama Simhapuri University vikrama simhapuri university,VSU Nellore,VSU Nellore, in its seminal role as a higher institute is grooming the careers of the youth to create a think-tank of resourcefulness for macro stakes in nation-building. The University is currently offering eleven courses keeping in view the resources of the region and the employability of the graduates. Sri Potti Sreeramulu Nellore District is the jurisdiction of the University. Vikrama Simhapuri University, Andhra Pradesh ,Krishnapatnam Sercurity Services (Pvt) Limited, Krishnapatnam, Muthukur mandal, vision and mission of the university , significance of the emblem , territorial jurisdiction of sri venkateswara university, tirupati , core purpose & values , Effecting academic excellence , Learning , Accountability and Equitable opportunity , Leadership , objectives , high-end research, field-study, project management, interpretative and evaluative insights,
Ultimate Programming Tutorials VB.NET, C#, Java, HTML, JQuery, Javascript, PHP, Software Reviews, Computer Tips and Tech News
Kahoot! Kahoot! is a game-based platform that makes learning awesome for millions of people all over the world. Sign up to create and play fun quiz games!
Blog | Daniel’s Software Engineering Blog Writing software is my passion. I’m a software engineer by trade and have been doing home automation, electronics and micro-controller programming for the last 2 years. My entire set up runs on Docker containers. I enjoy reading science fiction, watching movies (love interesting cinematography), and 3D printing. This blog offers a way to share my experience and pass on knowledge aquired the hard way.
Top Law, Management, Engineering, Pharmacy and Agriculture College in Delhi-Jaipur | Raffles University Neemrana Raffles University provides unprecedented opportunities to be taught by experts in their respective fields with the help of latest technological aids. Students have the option to study Law, Engineering, Sciences, Commerce, Social Science and Management courses at Graduate, Post Graduate, Ph.D. levels, diploma courses and Certificate courses. The University also offers scholarship and free ship to help the deserving students to pursue their education and research. Raffles University would evolve as an institution of excellence where scholars, who develop informed and inquiring minds, shall broaden the frontiers of pure and applied knowledge. Scholars, who shall not merely undergo the humdrum learning of how things are done but shall move onwards, exploring problems and solutions that have tended to challenge human ingenuity. In this endeavour, Raffles Faculty shall diligently work alongside the ablest, best and globally acknowledged centers of research and academia. Added to this would be systems and processes that would create an ambience conducive to the spirit of inquiry and the pursuit of excellence within the University. The Mission of Raffles University, Neemrana, is scholasticism of a high order through education, not instruction. Teaching, in the various disciplines, would be a collective exploration of the boundaries of knowledge, by the teachers and the taught, so as to look and reach beyond them.This would enable the students to emerge from the University portals as fully developed global citizens prepared to function as agents for change in an era where technology and commerce are rapidly transforming human lives. The capacity to usher in change shall be specially ingrained among Raffles students so that they may discover, nurture and expand their individual talents, skills and interests while standing forth as leaders and path breakers in their future careers. Raffles University, Neemrana established as per Section 2(f) of UGC Act is a multi discipline university providing world class education. The sponsoring body is Gomber Education Foundation, a voluntary, not-profit making, non-sectarian charitable organization registered under the Indian trusts Act, 1882 established by Founder president, Mr. V.K. Gomber with Internationally renowned trustees. The Gomber Education Foundation decides on scholarships and fee concessions on a case to case basis depending upon the merit of the student, the requirement and the corpus available for the purpose. Raffles University has taken an initiative to offer 25% tuition fee waiver for all girl students for the first academic year. The Alabbar School of Management (ASM) derives its ethos from the life and ideals of the late Mr. Vinod Kumar Gomber who established the Gomber Education Foundation and the leadership as well as robust business vision of Mohamed Al Abbar, the head of the EMAAR Group which is ranked highly in the Forbes list of global business entities. It was the fire, drive, energy and commitment of Mr. V. K. Gomber and the futuristic perspective of Mohamed Al Abbar, which enabled the construction of the world’s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, a towering tribute to our founder and the dynamism of those who conceived and built this architectural marvel whose pinnacle symbolizes the aspirations and achievements of men and women who dare to accept and overcome challenges. VKG Memorial Library of Raffles University is primarily meant for Students, Researchers and Faculty & Staff. It is housed in double storied with a carpet area of 588 Sq. Mtr. It is located in building of School of Law.
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Indus Insights | Advanced Analytics | Decision Sciences Indus Insights is a specialized management consulting firm. We create extraordinary value for our clients through Advanced Analytics
Home Page WATAN,leading,Civil,Society,Organization,delivering,emergency,relief,third,sector,support,long,term,internationa,development,projects,committed,helping,people,reviving,communities,independent,non,governmental,apolitical,nonsectarian,organization,operate,several,integrated,programs,aim,addressing,humanitarian,emergency,response,sustainable,community,revival,through,holistic,transformative,approach,believe,role,various,phases,intervention,invest,supporting,developing,areas,reach,create,platform,coordination,integration,maximize,impact,communities,served,achieve,goal,seek,preferred,partner,international,agencies,specialization,reach,established,2012,framework,merging,number,organizations,groups,extensive,community,development,2006,mission,develop,sustainable,healthy,educated,communi,based,inclusive,society,positively,engages,supports,improves,lives,each,individual,regardless,gender,faith,ethnicity,deliver,programs,rebuild,lives,maintain,community,social,cohesion,providing,transformative,programs,reliefs,post,conflict,peace,building,education,economic,empowerment,advocacy,development,strong,vision,envision,free,dignified,society,based,tolerance,respec,social,justice,focus,center,because,fragmented,intervention,would,lead,sustainable,impact,believe,building,strong,thrive,innovation,agility,continued,transformation,values,creativity,transparency,partnership,respect, work,watan,currently,working,syria,turkey,address,emergency,response,sustainable,community,revival,bringing,about,real,positive,change,millions,people,Izmir,Istanbul,Ankara,Mersin,Adana,London,United,States,Germany,Jordan,Canada, Global, international,WATAN,Watan,Board,Leadership,governed,volunteer,unpaid,Board,plays,active,role,governance,provides,advic,policy,advocacy,fundraising,public,relations,Moaz,AlSibaai,Chairman,Founder,Anas,AlSibaai,CPA,Vice,Chairman,Co,Founder,founding,members,years,experience,finance,management,audit,including,being,finance,manager,volunteer,work,addition,Focus,governance,compliance,Mazen,Halabi,Joined,team,2012,information,technology,non,profit,organizations,various,capacity,Board,member,Treasure,Secretary,Program,manager,donor,relations,leader,US,Iman,Ahmado,responsible,network,management,Canada,registration,Abdulrahman,Alhamdo,business,enterepenurship,information,technology,start,up,initiatives,growth,plan,economic,empowerment,Fatema,Obaied,2012,education,Advocacy,Youth,Fateh,Hawa,legal,field,human,rights,Majed,Salem,2014,sales,marketing,business,development,strategies,SME׳s,trainer,consultant,local,international,organization,internal,processes,quality,Moaz,Al,Sibaai,founded,seed,organization,WATAN,2006,expanded,activities,2011,response,need,humanitarian,response,aid,inside,war,torn,Syria,formed,current,name,2012,since,services,mill,beneficiaries,USD,annual,budget,based,Moaz,passiona,civil,society,development,education,sustainable,aid,women,empowerment,youth,renowned,expert,digital,strategi,years,experience,working,leading,international,technology,providers,financial,services,telecom,companies,Moaz,worked,UK,Gulf,region,currently,Digital,Director,SAP,Digital,Transformation,Office,EMEA,South,responsible,managing,SAP''s,task,force,Saudi,National,Transformation,Program,NTP,2020,Saudi,Vision,2030,Founder,chairman,WATAN,foundation,Moaz,non-profit,organization,volunteer,founder,co-founder,Focus,overall,strategy,program,integration,EDUCATION,PROGRAM education,program,facilitates,learning,acquiring,knowledge,skills,values,formal,informal,WATAN,runs,supports,schools,Syria,Turkey,contributing,development,students,personality,trust,help,develop,unique,talents,abilities,graduate,university,providing,activities,seminars,sharing,achieve,scholarship,opportunities,Workshops,established,promote,cohesion,discuss,common,causes,challenges,integrating,environment,expertise,areas,equipment,buildings,training,curricular,refugee,language,courses,clubs,athletic,displaced,persons,communities,host,urgent,started,children,classes,psychosocial,provided,psychodrama,center,number,beneficiaries,benefited,Summer,geographically,number,packages,recreational,voluntary,campaigns,Projects,respond,emergencies,significant,improving,goals,rebuild,landscape,professional,important,network,partners,generations,society,circumstances,specialists,institute,staff,quality,life,future,youth,hope,Project,Higher,Geography,history,mathematics,engineering,science,music,drawing,Literatur,Language,Poetry,Curriculum,Stationery,Bag,Back,Camps,foundation,humanitarian,human,field,support,sustainable,sustainability,organization,work,NGO,reviving,People,Parents,Primary,high,volunteer,Exam,Donation,funding,International, Emergency