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#MARTIN PRIMARY

The most comprehensive list of martin primary websites last updated on Apr 1 2020.
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The University of Tennessee at Martin UT Martin is a primary campus in the University of Tennessee System and is known for excellence and outstanding value in undergraduate education.
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Binghamton New York News - pressconnects.com is the home page of Binghamton New York with in depth and updated Binghamton local news. Binghamton New York News - pressconnects.com is the home page of Binghamton New York with in depth and updated Binghamton local news. Stay informed with both Binghamton New York news as well as headlines and stories from around the world.
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Open School: Enterprise School Management Software Open-School – A versatile school management software used by thousands of educational institutions worldwide for administration & management activities.
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ANNA WEBBER Photography Anna Webber is a commercial music and entertainment portrait photographer based in New York Los Angeles and Nashville
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Martin Gansten - Traditional astrologer - Home page Martin Gansten, traditional astrologer and historian of astrology. Astrological readings, courses and articles on astrology east and west. Primary directions, annual revolutions and horary questions.
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Home | St Martin''s C of E VA Primary School St Martin''s C of E VA Primary School
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Oscar Martin – My Thoughts
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Deceptive Practice: The Mysteries and Mentors of Ricky Jay Ricky Jay was a world-renowned magician, author, historian and actor (often a mischievous presence in the films of David Mamet and Paul Thomas Anderson) -- and a performer who regularly provokes astonishment from even the most jaded audiences. DECEPTIVE PRACTICE traces Jay's achievements and influences, from his apprenticeship at age 4 with his grandfather, to such now-forgotten legends as Al Flosso, Slydini, Cardini and his primary mentors, Dai Vernon and Charlie Miller. Featuring rare footage from his 1970s TV appearances (doing 3-card Monte with Steve Martin on The Dinah Shore Show) and told in Jay's inimitable voice, this is a remarkable journey inside the secretive world of magic and the small circle of eccentrics who are its perpetual devotees.
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Home | St Martin''s C of E VA Primary School St Martin''s C of E VA Primary School
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Open School: Enterprise School Management Software Open-School – A versatile school management software used by thousands of educational institutions worldwide for administration & management activities.
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Martin Marietta | Aggregates & Heavy Building Materials A leading supplier of construction aggregates and heavy building materials, with more than 400 locations spanning 32 states, Canada and the Caribbean.
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The University of Tennessee at Martin UT Martin is a primary campus in the University of Tennessee System and is known for excellence and outstanding value in undergraduate education.
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Martin County Alliance | Martin County Indiana – Martin County Indiana is where nature and tech connect. Martin County's DNA is defense, mining, agriculture, and small business. Our primary employment hub is NSA Crane, which is the largest DoD asset in Indiana and the world’s third largest Naval installation.
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QuestMasters Online Museum Home Page Welcome to QuestMasters - The foundation for the recovery and preservation of World War Two memorabilia for posterity. History of our Quest: The idea behind QuestMasters started during a recovery trip in Europe. After a long truck ride we realized that we were not only recovering and restoring World War Two memorabilia, but also going to the ends of the earth to do it. Hence - this is our Quest. Why we Quest? The Second World War lasted for over 6 years. For the United States, we were completely unprepared. Civilian companies quickly transformed into the American war machine. Small companies like Maytag, the washing machine company, made gun turrets for heavy bombers; Rock-Ola, a pin ball machine company, made rifles; Goodyear, the tire company, made fighter aircraft; Cadillac, the automobile company, made tank destroyers...and on and on. Farmboys, teachers, business men, barbers - men and women alike gave up their everyday jobs to put on a uniform, to fight for their country. They went to far-off lands, some unmapped - to fight and die. There was rationing and recycling. All gave some, and some gave all. Valor was a common virtue. And that is where we find ourselves, the children of a culture, responsible for the history of the sacrifice they made for us. Our goal: Our goal is the preservation of World War Two history. In the not too distant future, the breaths of those who were there making the history will no longer be able to tell the story. History is normally written by the victor, but this was a World War. It affected every country and every person, Allied and Axis. So, our focus is just that, to preserve the story, from both sides. It is our responsibility to tell their story. Webpage Header: WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts German 1940 10,5cm LFH18 - Light Field Howitzer 18 Germany 10,5cm le FH 18 leichte Feldhaubitze 18 Fried Krupp Essen 1940 Light Field Howitzer 105mm Steven Spielberg HBO mini-series Band Of Brothers Easy Company E Company 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment 506 PIR 101st Airborne Division World War Two Lt Spears D Company 506th PIR Episode 2 Day of Days QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Ford GPW ¼ Ton Truck 52712 - Jeep 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model GPW Manufacturer Ford Motor Company Date of Delivery 12 August 1942 Serial Number 52712 Hood Number 20137713 QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Ford GPW ¼ Ton Truck 69289 - Jeep Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model GPW Manufacturer Ford Motor Company Date of Delivery 30 September 1942 Serial Number 69289 Hood Number 20154290 Daimler Benz Gaggenau 1945 QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Ford GPW ¼ Ton Truck 69289 - Jeep - Page 2 Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model GPW Manufacturer Ford Motor Company Date of Delivery 30 September 1942 Serial Number 69289 Hood Number 20154290 Daimler Benz Gaggenau 1945 QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Dodge ¾ Ton Truck WC-54 Ambulance 713293 Type 3/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G502 Model WC-54 Ambulance Dodge Model T-214 Manufacturer Dodge Motor Company Date of Delivery November 1942 Serial Number 81560003 Hood Number 713293 WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts United States Willys MB ¼ Ton Truck 241969 - Jeep Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model MB Manufacturer Willys Overland Date of Delivery 1943 Serial Number 241969 Hood Number 20342091 WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts United States Willys MB ¼ Ton Truck 277074 - Jeep Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model MB Manufacturer Willys Overland Date of Delivery 1943 Serial Number: 277074 Hood Number WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts United States Studebaker T-24 Weasel Serial Number 991 Cargo Carrier Light Government Number G179 Model T-24 Weasel Studebaker Motor Company Date of Delivery 1943 Serial Number 991Registration Number prototype M-29 1942 M-29C BARGE WITH A CHARGE command vehicle HQ27 146th Engineer Combat Battalion ECB 1st Army Special Engineer Task Force Omaha Beach 1st Infantry Division June 6th 1944 H+03 hour United States 1 Ton “Ben Hur” Trailer G-518 Type Trailer 2 Wheel 1 Ton Cargo Government Number G-518 Untied States Checker Cab CC-1B 1 Ton 250 Gallon Water Trailer G-527 Type Trailer 1 Ton 2 Wheel Tank Water 250 Gallon Government Number G-527 Model: CC-1B Manufacturer Checker Cab Company Date of Delivery March 8th 1943 Serial Number 2709 U.S.A. Number Registration Number 0294301 Parts Manual TM 10-1395 Maintenance Manual TM 10-1395 United States Army Infantry Rifleman 29th Infantry Division Omaha Beach Normandy France June 6th 1944 German 2cm FLAK 38 German Germany Type 2cm 20mm FLAK 38 Model Flug Abwehr Kanone 38 Manufacturer 1944 Sonderanhanger 51 German 2cm FLAK 38 German Germany Type 2cm 20mm FLAK 38 Model Flug Abwehr Kanone 38 Manufacturer 1944 Sonderanhanger 51 Ammunition Boxes Crates German 2cm FLAK Ammunition box (left photo). This box is the early war style with metal end handles and painted ordnance tan. The partially obscured marking are "2cm Patr (Tr.)" which is for "2cm Patronen Tropen" (2cm Ammunition Tropical). This ammunition box was specifically packed for use in tropical climates.The 2cm FLAK Ammunition box in the right photo is also packaged for tropical use. Ammunition box label for 2cm High Explosive (Sprenggranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Yellow (gelb) Tracer (L''spur), left photo.Ammunition box label for 2cm Armor Piercing (Panzergranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur) Tropical (Tp) in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe), right photo. Ammunition box label for 2cm Armor Piercing (Panzergranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Red (rot) self destroying (red Z) Tracer (L''spur), in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe) left photo.Ammunition box label for 2cm High Explosive (Sprenggranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur), in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe), right photo. Ammunition box label for 2cm Incendiary (Brand) High Explosive Ammunition (Sprenggranatpatronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur), left photo. Note very late 1945 production date.Ammunition box label for 2cm Incendiary (Br.) High Explosive Ammunition (Sprgr-Patronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur), in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe), right photo. External ammunition box stenciling: Luftwaffen-Munition (Air Force Ammunition), left photo. Heeres-Munition (Army Ammunition), right photo. Equipment and ammunition was procured independently via separate contracts within the German Wehrmacht or Armed Forces during World War Two. Equipment and ammunition was specifically marked for the branch of service that it was ordered. It was not uncommon though to find supplies re-routed due to wartime shortages, United States Army Infantry Officer 36th Infantry Italy December 1943 U.S. Army Infantry Officer 36th Infantry Division San Pietro - Liri Valley, Italy December 1943 United States Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 U.S. Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 United States Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 U.S. Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 QuestMasters Aircraft United States Country United States Type: B-24J Heavy Bomber Manufacturer Consolidated Factory San Diego, Ca.Year 1944 Serial Number:B-24J-155-C0 44-40332 Country United States Type SNJ Advanced Trainer (Navy) Manufacturer North American Factory: Unknown Year 1944 Serial Number SNJ-5B 84947 Country United States Type LNE-1 Glider Trainer (Navy) Manufacturer Pratt Read Factory Deep River, Connecticut Year 1943 Serial Number LNE-1 31556 Country: United States Type UC-45F Cargo Aircraft (AAF) Manufacturer Beechcraft Factory Not Available Year 1943 Serial Number UC-45F 43-35764 Country United States / Canada Type PT-26A Primary Trainer (AAF) Cornell II (RCAF) Manufacturer Fleet Factory Ontario, Canada Year 1943 Serial Number: PT-26A 42-71104 Country United States Type CG-15A Glider (AAF) Manufacturer Waco Factory Not Available Year 1944/1945 Serial Number Not Available Country United States Type CG-4A Glider (AAF) Manufacturer Not Available Factory Not Available Year Not Available Serial Number Not Available Country United States Type P-61 Night Fighter (AAF) Manufacturer Not Available Factory Not Available Year Not Available Serial Number Not Available QuestMasters Aircraft Archeology U.S. Army/USMC Curtis A25-A (SB2C-1A "Helldiver")This is quite an unusual find. This rare aircraft started its life as a United States Navy SB2C "Helldiver". During the Second World War the Army ordered 900 "Helldivers" and renamed them A25-A. The U.S. Army later transferred the aircraft to the USMC and renamed the SB2C-1A. The history of this aircraft is unknown. The aircraft is seen (recovered from Barbers Point Naval Air Station, Hawaii) in an overall olive green paint scheme with grey undersides. It is interesting to note that two U.S. insignia are painted on the sides of the aircraft (this is due to war time repainting at different periods - exposure to the elements have uncovered both insignia). U.S. Army B-17F "Flying Fortress" named "LOS LOBOS".This is the starboard side of the nose section. Under "LOS LOBOS" is also painted "ROVER BOY". The history of this aircraft is uknown. U.S. Army B24D-13-CO-41-23938This aircraft is believed to be a Consolidated B-24D Liberator due to the fact that it crashed near several other B-24D Liberators of the same or near serial number. This aircraft was found near Wheeler Army Air Force Base, January 1996, in Hawaii. The photo depicts the forward starboard section of a B-24 Liberator painted in olive drab with the number 938 stenciled in yellow below the navigators window. This section of the B-24 has been recovered for the QuestMasters Museum for preservation. Any further information on this aircraft would be greatly appreciated. U.S. Army B24J-155-CO-44-40332This Consolidated B-24J Liberator was found in February 1993 in Aiea, Hawaii. Built in March 1944, "44-40332" crashed on May 5th, 1944 due to an on-board fuel problem. "332" was on her maiden voyage from California for final assignment to the 5th A.A.F. in Australia. All ten crew members were killed on impact having never seen a day of combat. Upon impact, "332" burst into flames nearly destroying the entire aircraft. "332" did not carry any unit markings, or nose art. Today only "332''s" right and left wing with wheels, four engines, tail turret, and many small parts remain on the impact site. The Nose section, from the cockpit forward, and the Martin 250 upper turret have been recovered for restoration in the QuestMasters Museum. U.S. Army B24J-80-CO-42-10021XThis Consolidated B-24J Liberator was found near Wheeler Army Air Force Base, January 1996, in Hawaii. Very little is known of the history of this B-24. Only part of the tail was found, as seen in this photo. No fire damage was found on the remains at the crash site. This was an early B-24J as noted by the olive-green paint that remained on the vertical stabilizer. Later B-24 Liberators were unpainted to save both materials and total aircraft weight (approximately 1000 pounds). The serial number was found to be partly obscured, so the last digit is represented by an "X". The only unit markings found on the aircraft were four horizontal lines on the vertical stabilizer. Due to extensive corrosion only the serial number section was recovered for preservation at the QuestMasters Museum. U.S. Army B24D-10-CO-41-23901This Consolidated B-24D Liberator was found on the Wailua Sugar Cane Plantation near Waimea Falls, 1994, in Hawaii. This aircraft crashed March 1942 during a routine coastal patrol of the Hawaiian coast. Three of her eight man crew died in the crash. Official Army Air Force reports concluded that the aircraft was on final approach when fuel ran out and the pilot ditched the aircraft in a sugar cane field. The aircraft remains today in a very sorry state. The aircraft was stripped in the late 1980''s for aluminum scrap, but many pieces remain on the crash site. Due to the lack of fuel on-board the aircraft, very little fire damage to the aircraft is present. The aircraft was painted in an overall olive drab paint scheme with "early" wartime U.S. insignia. Several small pieces were recovered for the QuestMasters Museum including the port wing star (seen in photo), an E-6B flight computer, several gun chutes, a mess kit, a match container, multiple .50cal armor piercing rounds and a propeller hub from one of the engines. Curtis P-36A 38-16 and P-36A 38-70This P-36A crashed on the Wailua Sugar Cane plantation, Oahu Hawaii U.S.A., due to a mid-air collision between Lt Ulysses S. O''Hern (P-36A 38-16) and Lt Richard A. Toole (P-36A 38-70) on July 12, 1941 0915 AM. Both aircraft were from the 45th Pursuit Squadron, 15th Pursuit Group, 7th Air Force. U.S. Navy TBM-1C "Avenger"This Navy TBM-1C "Avenger" was also found on Barbers Point Naval Air Station, Hawaii. The aircraft was recovered by QuestMasters and is seen prior to disassembly for shipment. This aircraft served with a training squadron on Barbers Point Naval Air Station, Hawaii U.S.A., until a young U.S. Navy Ensign "ground-looped" the ill-fated plane (his third and yes final crash). The Ensign was unhurt but the aircraft was struck from inventory due to extreme damage. This TBM-1C sat for 50 years in the runway bushes of Barbers Point NAS until recovered in the mid-1990''s. QuestMasters Artillery Country Germany Type 10,5cm 105mm LFH 18 Manufacturer Krupp Year 1940 Serial Number 17 Country Germany Type 7,5cm 75mm PAK 40 Maker Not Available Year 1944 Serial Number Not Available Country Germany Type 2cm 20mm FLAK 38 Maker Not Available Year 1944 Serial Number Not Available United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy BomberB-24J-155-CO-44-40332 CREW LISTWayne R. Kimble, 2nd Lt., Pilot - K.I.A.William E. Somsel Jr., 2nd Lt., Co-Pilot - K.I.A.Charles E. Mueller, 2nd Lt., Navigator - K.I.A.Morris Righthand, 2nd Lt., Bombardier - K.I.A.Jack J. Dowd, Staff Sgt., Gunner - K.I.A.Marion F. Norman, Staff Sgt., Gunner - K.I.A.James H. Means, Sgt., Gunner - K.I.A.Manual F. Campos, Cpl., Gunner - K.I.A.Gerald L. Weiss, Cpl., Gunner - K.I.A.Joseph J. Carlucci, Cpl., Gunner - K.I.A. This is a Motor Products hydraulic nose turret that will be used in this restoration project. This specific turret was found in a scrap yard in Macon, GA. The original nose turret for this B-24J was recovered but was destroyed beyond repair. During 1943-1944 the Consolidated San Diego factory ran out of Emerson electric nose turrets for their B-24J’s. A quick modification found the remaining B-24J’s made in San Diego with tail turrets mounted on the front of the aircraft (with the replacement of the nose turret electric systems with hydraulic systems). This production modification was only conducted at the Consolidated San Diego factory. Many earlier B-24s with "Green House" noses were converted using a very similar principal. This is the center fuselage section (frames 5.1 to 7.1) of B-24L-20-FO-44-50022. This B-24, recovered from Canada, was originaly built by the Ford Motor Company in Willow Run, Dearborn Michigan. This aircraft was transferred to the Royal Canadian Air Force as Liberator Mk VIII and served briefly with the R.C.A.F. until the end of the war (note production A.A.F. markings over painted with R.C.A.F. markings). After the war this B-24 was scrapped in Canada. This section will be used in the restoration of B-24J-155-CO-44-40332. This is the Martin 250 upper turret. This turret was also recovered from a scrap yard in Macon, GA. for the restoration of this B-24J. The original M-250 upper turret from this aircraft was completely destroyed, but was recovered. The original turret was manufactured by "MAYTAG". After World War Two Maytag produced washing machines. This is the starboard nose section of this B-24J (frames 0.1 to 0.3). This is where 2nd Lt. Charles E. Mueller and 2nd Lt. Morris Righthand lost their lives. The severity of the crash can be clearly seen. The fragment to the extreme left is the front frame (0.1) for entry into the nose turret (missing door). The fragment in the extreme bottom of the photo is the armored plate with B-7 mount for the Norden Bombsight. The C-1 Bombsight Stabilizer was recovered from the crash site, but the Bombsight was missing. On the outside of the aircraft skin is the hand painted Consolidated build number 4268. This is the port nose section of this B-24J (frames 0.1 to 0.2). The extreme right fragment shows the entry frame to the nose turret with door attached. The extreme top fragment is the Astro-Dome for the Astro-Compass. The Astro-Compass was used for nighttime navigation. The following pictures are other B-24 parts that have been recovered for the restoration of this B-24 aircraft.In the center of the left photo is the Nose Landing Gear Wheel.This wheel utilized a 36 Inch S.C. 10 ply tire. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS Stations (Frames) 1.0 through 3.0 - Pilot and Co-Pilot Pilot control wheel assembly with control wheel attached, left photo.Co-Pilot control wheel assembly, missing wheel and internal parts, right photo. Pilot (left) and Co-Pilot (right) Auxiliary Instrument Panels, left photo. Pilots Instrument Panel: (3) Type E-4 Hydraulic Pressure Gages, (1) AN-G-24 Suction Gage and Pilot vent. Co-Pilot Instrument Panel: (2) AN-5795-6 Carburetor Gages and Co-Pilot Vent.Right photo, Top Row (L to R): Radio Compass Control Indicator with mount (used only on early B-24''s), Turbo Boost Selector, Radio Compass and Mount. Bottom Row (L to R) Engine Switch Panel - Starter and Primer Switches (Co-Pilot side of cockpit), BC-451 Command Radio Control Box (mounted on Pedestal Assembly), Fast Feathering Switch for No. 4 Engine, and switch from Pedestal Mount. Pilot Seat (left photo). Pilot Seat is missing head rest, head rest cushion, back cushion, seat cushion and complete knee pad and support.Co-Pilot Seat (right photo). Complete with floor track attached. Missing head rest cushion, back rest cushion, seat cushion, arm rest upholstery and knee pad upholstery. Pilot left and right Rudder Pedals with cockpit floor, left photo.Co-Pilot right Rudder Pedal with cockpit floor, right photo. Pilot cockpit enclosure vent window, missing plexiglass, left photo. Shown from inside of window.Co-Pilot cockpit enclosure vent window, right photo. Shown from outside of window. Co-Pilot fuse box, left photo. Missing fuses and cover. Mounted on Co-Pilot side of fuselage.BC- 434 Radio Control Box (top), BC-450 Radio Control Box (bottom), right photo. Mounted on the cockpit enclosure center frame. BC-765 Radio Switchbox, left photo. This box was used to destroy the "special radio" equipment on the B-24 so that it would not be captured by the enemy. Located above the instrument panel below the windscreen.Spare Pilot or Co-Pilot cockpit floor, right photo. Note markings for Rudder Pedal settings. Instrument panel support assembly, above photo. The support assembly, was the lower part of the instrument panel and allowed the attachment of the Auxiliary Instrument Panels and Control Wheel Assemblies. The above photo shows the pilot section of the support, with oxygen gages attached and the rear of the co-pilot support assembly. Four Oxygen Regulator Mounts (left photo). Each mount contained one Type A-12 or A-12A Oxygen Regulator,AN 6021-1 Oxygen Pressure Gage and AN 6029-1 Oxygen Flow Indicator. One mount was located on either side of the Pilot and Co-Pilot.Seven BC-366 Radio Jack Boxes (right photo). The BC-366 Jack Box was used to connect the microphone and headset to the radio system. Only two BC-366 Jack Boxes would have been used in the B-24 cockpit. The other five will be used in other areas of the B-24 during this restoration. Six Type Q-1B Heated Flight Suit Rheostat (left photo). Only two Q-1B''s would be used in the cockpit, the other four will be used in other areas of the B-24 during this restoration.Operating Instructions For AN/ARN-7 Radio Plate (right photo). This plate was located next to the BC-450 Radio Control Box mounted on the cockpit enclosure center frame. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS Stations (Frames) 3.0 through 4.1 - Radio Operator and Top Turret Radio Operator Table with BC-348 Liaison Radio Receiver, AN-3047 Work Table Light Assembly, J-37 Morse Code Key and Radio Operator''s Information File. J-37 Morse Code Key and Monitor Switch, left photo. Note original "RADIO CALL" number 449157 painted below switch. This Radio Table was removed from Ford B-24L-1-FO-44-49157.BC-348 Liaison Radio Receiver with FT-154 Receiver Mount, right photo. BC-306 Antenna Tuning Unit with FT-142 Antenna Tuning Unit Mount, left photo.PE-73 Dynamotor Unit with FT-107 Dynamotor Mount, right photo. Fuel Sight Gage, left photo.Main Fuel Tank Selectors Panel, right photo. Power Panel Switch Box Cover with (4) Type E-1 Amperage Gages, left photo. Missing Power Switch Box GK32E1043and Type B-1 Voltmeter.Trailing Antenna, right photo. FT-470 Mounting (Top), M235 Antenna Wire (Left), RL-42 Antenna Reel (Right) Radio Operator Seat Support Assembly (Above). Bombardier''s seat assembly (left photo). This style of seat was only used on early B-24''s with the "greenhouse" style nose. This seat is very similar to the Radio Operator''s seat assembly, and this seat will be used with the support pictured above. BC-221 Frequency Meter (left photo).TM 11-300AE BC-211 Manual datedAugust 7th 1943(right photo). United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS Stations (Frames) 4.4 through 6.0 - Command Deck BC-357 Radio Receiver with FT-161 Mount and CD-365 Cord, left photoBC-453, BC-454 and BC-455 Radio Receiver with FT-220 Radio Rack, right photo. FT-220 Rack is missing the FT-221 Mount. BC-457 Radio Transmitter with FT-226 Radio Rack. The FT-226 Radio Rack is missing the BC-459 Radio Transmitter andFT-227 Radio Rack Mount. BC-645 Radio Receiver and Transmitter, left photo. The BC-645 is missing the FT-255 Radio Mount.Tag attached to BC-645 states: "THIS EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN ALIGNED WITH DUMMY DESTROYERS INSTALLED IN THE BASE. FREQUENCY ADJUSTMENTS SHOULD ALWAYS BE MADE WITH REAL OR DUMMY DESTROYERS INSTALLED, bottom right photo. BK-22 Relay Station, left photo.PE-101 Dynamotor Unit, right photo. PE-101 Dynamotor is missing the FT-255 Mount. TU-5 Radio Transmitter Tuning Unit, left photo.TU-10 Radio Transmitter Tuning Unit, right photo. TU-26 Radio Transmitter Tuning Unit, left photo. Bomb Hoist with handle. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber NOSE PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber NOSE PARTS Stations (Frames) 0 through 1.1 - Bombardier and Navigator Station Type M-9 Norden Bomb Sight on original shipping mount, left photo. M-9 Bomb Sight nomenclature plate, right photo. This Bomb Sight was made by the Victor Adding Machine Company. Type A-1 Astrograph with storage case, left photo. The Astrograph used translucent maps of the constellations.These maps allowed the Navigator to plot a course at night. Also shown in the photo are spare bulbs and tools that were stored in the Astrograph case. The Type A-1 Astrograph was used with the MK II Astrocompass.Type B-5 Drift Meter, right photo. Type B-3A Bomb Release, left photo.Navigator''s Astrodome Window, right photo. MK II Astrocompass with storage box, left photo.Bombardiers heater assembly, right photo. This heater was made by The Stewart Warner Corporation. Nose Landing Gear Leg and Support Arms, left photo.Nose Landing Gear Doors, above photo.The B-24 Liberator was produced with two styles of Nose Landing Gear Doors, inward opening and outward opening.Port inward opening door, extreme left; and three starboard outward opening doors, right. Nose Landing Gear Hydraulic Leg Operating Assembly, above photo. The B-24 used only one hydraulic assembly per aircraft.- Nose Landing Gear Parts -Left photo, top to bottom, left to right:Support Arm Pivot, Door Bearing (for outward opening door), Port Door Opening Housing (for inward opening doors), Door Opening Arms (for left and right outward opening doors) and two Leg Scissors (only one would be used per aircraft). United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS Stations (Frames) 6.1 through 10Ball Turret, Waist Guns and Tail Turret Type E-13 Gun Mount Adapter for left and right waist guns. The Type E-13 Adapter held the M-2 .50 caliber Machine Gun in the Type K-7 Side Gun Mount with C-19A Mount Adapter. The E-13 Adapter utilized the Type K-13 Compensating Gun Sight. This configuration was used in late B-24 Liberators that were produced with enclosed waist gun positions. Waist or Side Gun Ammunition Box, left and right photo. One ammunition box was provided per gun and contained 600 rounds of .50 caliber ammunition. The white label states: EMERGENCY, TO REMOVE AMMUNITION BOX, PULL HINGE PIN AFT, LIFT EDGE OF BOX AND REMOVE. The ammunition box in the left photo is show with a portion of the feed chute attached. Tail Turret Ammunition Boxes, left and right photo.These boxes were stacked just aft of the waist gun position and fed the tail turret via a long rigid feed chute. Tail Turret Hydraulic System, left photo. Missing from the system is the Hydraulic Turret Pump Motor.Main Entrance Door Installation, right photo. Mounted in Station 7.4 - 7.6. Hanger and Retraction Cylinder Assembly for the Type A-13 Ball Turret, left photo. Spare Parts Box for A-13 Ball Turret, above center photo.Spare Parts Box, inside view, above right photo. The spare parts box held extra fuses and brushes that may be needed for replacement during flight. Type LP-21 ADF "Football" Radio Antenna (left photo).This antenna was originally black, with stenciling "Do Not Paint". Contrary to instruction, this antenna has been painted silver with unit markings applied. It will be restored, when mated to the fuselage, in it''s original war-time flat-black finish.LP-21 Dehydrator, Loop Antenna (right photo). The LP-21 Dehydrator was used to draw moisture away from the LP-21 Antenna. The attachment brackets are also shown. Left photo: Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box, Tail Turret Power Switch Box and Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box.The Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box is located under the Radio Operator''s floor near Station (Frame) 3.1. Only one Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box was used per aircraft.Right photo: Unknown electrical box cover and unknown fuselage access panel, top row.Fuze Box Cover (Station 4.0), Bomb Release Signal Tail Light Shield and Wing Access Plate, center row.Wing Landing Light Relay Box Assembly Cover, bottom row. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber WING PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber WING PARTS B-24 Main Landing Gear Tire with Hub Cap, left photo.The B-24 Liberator used a 56 Inch S.C. 16 ply tire with tube for the Main Landing Gear. This example was made by theRoyal Aircraft Tire Company. B-24 Main Landing Gear Tire with Hub , left photo.This example was made by the BF Goodrich Tire Company. B-24 Main Landing Gear Tire with Hub , left photo.This example was made by the Good Year Tire Company. Fairing Assembly - Wing Streamlined Wheel (left photo). This was mounted on the bottom of the wing, behind the landing gear wheel.Starboard Main Landing Gear Door (right photo). Port side Main Landing Gear Leg (left photo).Starboard side Main Landing Gear Leg(right photo). Main Landing Gear wing attachment parts (left photo). Other wing parts (right photo). Main Landing Gear Wheel Brake Assembly.(left photo).Two brake assemblies were used on each wheel. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber BOMB BAY PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber BOMB BAY PARTS Stations (Frames) 4.0 through 6.0 - Bomb Bay Bomb racks (left and right photo). Two racks were located on each side of the bomb bay. Bomb Bay Doors, inside view (upper left and right photo, and above lower left and right photo). Bomb Bay Door damage, possibly from wartime anti-aircraft United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber ENGINE PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber ENGINE PARTS Cowl Flap (left photo). Cowl Panel (right photo). Engine parts (left photo). Oil tanks (right photo). One oil tank was mounted behind each engine on the B-24. United States Heavy Bomber Carry-On Equipment HEAVY BOMBER CARRY- ON EQUIPMENT Type A-4 Walk Around Oxygen Bottle with AN 6022-1 Regulator (left photo). Close-up of decal on Type A-4 bottle (right photo). This bottle was specifically made for the B-24 Liberator and has a part number of 32F24125. Type E-1 Bombardier''s Case (left photo). Type E-2 Bombardier''s Case (right photo). Type A-4 Navigator''s Dead Reckoning Case (left photo). Type A-6 Celestial Navigation Case (right photo). Type A-10A Sextant (left photo). Type AN 5854-1 Sextant (right photo). Pilot''s Navigation Kit (left photo). B-24 Flight Check List and B-24 Load Adjuster with case (right photo). Type A-1 Aircraft Food Container (left photo). Type FTG-3-1 Food Tray Galley (right photo). Type E-5 Emergency Sustenance Kit (left photo). Oil tanks (right photo). AN-R-2A One-Man Life Raft Parachute Kit (right photo). Type K-20 Aircraft Camera (left photo). Type A-14 Oxygen Mask with Storage Box and Stowage/Carry Bag (right photo). AN 6511-1 Seat Type Parachute Pack (left photo). Shipping boxes for .50 caliber ammunition (right photo). Ammunition for aircraft machine-guns was usually pre-linked when shipped. Ammunition would be removed from the shipping crate, carried onto the aircraft and stowed in the onboard ammunition boxes. AN-CRN-1 Navigation Buoy. The AN-CRN-1 was a low frequency buoy used for homing purposes on pre-set frequencies between 1400-1750KC by aircraft equipped with any production model of Radio Compass SCR-269. This system keyed at a rate of 180 times a minute and interrupted every thirty seconds by a signal code letter which may be either K, M, O, Q, X or Y. The SCR-578-B Gibson Girl radio set was the primary aircraft survival radio set used during World War Two. This system was used for survival communications when an aircrew was forced out of their aircraft. It had a reported range of 50 to 300 miles, dependent upon conditions affecting radio transmission. The nick-name Gibson Girl was given to this radio set due to its'' feminine curvy shape. The BC-778-D, or AN-CRT-3, radio set shown in the left photo is a crystal controlled radio that operates in the 500KC, Kilo Cycle range (known as Kilo Hertz/KHz today) and 8280KC International Maritime Frequency range. The 8280KC range was determined by the Joint Chiefs of Staff as the world-wide Air Sea Rescue Frequency. Oxygen bottle for oxy-acetylene welding set (left photo). This bottle was used by ground personnel for repairing aircraft. The center photo shows property markings: U.S. ARMY and AIR FORCES. The right photo shows bottle type: ICC-3A2260 H170928, W D (War Department) and dated 2 43 (February 1943). United States Heavy Bomber Carry-On Equipment United States Heavy Bomber Carry-On Equipment Type H-1 Emergency Bail Out Oxygen Bottle (left photo). This is one of the few examples of wartime aircraft equipment being marked U.S. AIRFORCE vice U.S. Army Air Force. Aircraft Instrument and Machine Gun Lubricating Oil can (right photo). Type B-2 Jungle Emergency Parachute Back Pad (left photo).This kit contained a Type E-3A Emergency Sustenance Kit, 2 Carlisle First Aid Kits, Folding Machete, Pocket Compass, Waterproof Match Container, Mosquito Lotion, 1 Box of 20 rounds of .45 caliber ammunition plus other items. Survival Food items (right photo).Type C; Ration Biscuits, Type C Ration Can, Wrigley''s Juicy Fruit Gum, Wrigley''s Doublemint Gum, Beech-Nut Gum, Malted Milk Tablets 1oz., Hershey''s Tropical Chocolate 2oz., Hershey''s Tropical Chocolate 1oz.,Nestle''s All-Weather Chocolate 2oz., Type D Ration 2oz., Type D Ration 4oz., Life Raft Ration Container, Cryst-O-Mint Lifesavers and Beech-Nut Rummies Survival Items (left photo).Emergency Fishing Kit container, Emergency Fishing Kit, Type JJ-1 Sea Water Desalting Kit, Type & A Life Boat Ration, Air Crew Lunch box and Emergency Ration. Tobacco Items (right photo).Chesterfield Cigarette Carton (10 packs of cigarettes), Camel Cigarette Carton (10 packs of cigarettes),4 packages of pre-1942 Lucky Strike Cigarettes, & Phillip Morris Cigarette Package and Chelsea Cigarette Page from a Type K Ration. The Lucky Strike Cigarette Package was changed from green to white between 1942 and 1943 to save green dye for other war production items. Signal Drift, Day, AN-MK-1 (top, left photo).Signal Drift AN-MK-IV (bottom left photo).These devices were used as a navigational aid over water for determining drift. These devices could also be used for marking a life raft position temporarily, when a longer burning smoke was not available. Type F-2 Utility Heater (left photo). This heater was used for heating aircraft components during cold weather operations. Type K-2 and Type K-3 (C-3A) Inter-Aircraft Control Lamp Assemblies (right photo).These lamps were used to signal from one aircraft to another. Type A-3 Headlight Flashlight Assembly (left photo). Type 42D4499 Ultra-Violet Headlight Flashlight Assembly (right photo).The Type 42D4499 Assembly was used to illuminate switches and gages during low light or night time flying operations. Type A-5 Inspection Flashlight Lamp Assembly (left photo). Army Air Force 5 gallon gasoline cans (left photo). Two variations of gasoline cans are shown marked: PROPERTY AIR FORCE U.S.A. (United States Army), above top and bottom right photo. Container, Liquid, Heat Insulated, 1 Gallon (left photo).Container, Liquid, Heat Insulated, 2 Gallon (right photo). Kit, First Aid, Jungle (left photo). This first aid kit was used for aircraft flying over jungle areas. United States Army Air Force Cargo Pilot AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND This Type A-2 Flight Jacket belonged to Captain August J. Kieser, USAAF. "Gus", as his friends call him, was born on February 11th, 1921. He entered the service in 1942 from New York. He received his training and went on to fly C-87 "Liberator Express" Cargo Aircraft with theA.T.C. in Tezpur, India from December 1944 to May 1945. During this time frame "Gus" logged over 750 Hours and 75 “Hump” Missions to China. The blue paint on the sleeves of the jacket are from when Gus painted his house after World War Two while wearing this jacket. On the left sleeve of the A-2 Jacket is the C.B.I. patch. This multi-piece patch was hand made in Tezpur, India in 1944. On the right sleeve of the A-2 Jacket is the A.A.F. patch. This multi-piece patch was hand made in Tezpur, India in 1944. On the left chest of the A-2 Jacket is a hand made name tape. The name tape was written in three different languages. This patch was hand made in Tezpur, India in 1944. This Type A-2 Flight Jacket was made by the MONARCH MFG CO. under contract W535A.C-23378. This is a photo of Captain Kieser wearing the A-2 Jacket in India, 1944-1945. Note the unofficial A.T.C. patch on the jacket and the privately purchased, non-regulation boots. "Gus" had these made in Brazil when he was passing through to Africa/Asia. Also note the other A-2 with "Blood Chit" on the chair next to "Gus". This jacket belonged to the gentleman taking the photo. This is the un-official A.T.C. patch. "Gus" removed this patch from his A-2 after the war, so that it could be displayed in his office. This patch was also made in Tezpur, India in 1944. This is the exact patch seen in the photo above. This patch will be re-applied to the A-2. This is one of the other patches that "Gus" had. It is a multi-piece squadron patch made for the India China Wing Air Transport Command. This patch was also made in Tezpur, India in 1944. This is the inside view of the hat that is on display with Captain Kieser''s A-2 Jacket. This hat was made by the "Streamline Company" of Los Angeles California. It is marked "FLIGHT CAP" for specific sale to Army Air Force Officers. This hat was specifically made with the "crushed" look, preferred by Army Air Force pilots. This is not an issue hat, but rather one privately purchased by service members. United States Army Air Force Cargo Pilot AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND August J. Kieser U.S. Army Air Force Cargo PilotAIR TRANSPORT COMMAND - A.T.C. China-Burma-India Theater 1944-1945 The is one of the pictures from Gus'' photo album. The original hand written caption read "50 CHINKS CHENGTU". These are Chinese soldiers that were being transported via C-87. Note the C-87 in the background with tail number 228. Also noteworthy are the civilian trucks unloading cargo from the front and side of the C-87. This photo is a C-47 in Chinese markings. U.S. and Chinese soldiers are in the foreground. Gus could not remember why he circled the man in the door. Here is a photo of Gus sitting on a surf board in Accra, British West Africa. Gus flew C-47s and C-46s for the A.T.C. in Accra from July 3 - Dec 26 1944. The non-regulation flight boots were made in Brazil. Note the issue summer pith helmet with Officers'' insignia. This is one of the pages from Gus'' pilot logbook. Note the various aircraft and tail numbers. In the A.T.C., C.B.I. cargo pilots were not assigned to specific aircraft. On this page Gus flew both C-87s and C-109s. This is another page for Gus'' pilot log. Note the entry on March 30th 1945 "HIT CHINK". During the take-off taxi, a local Chinese civilian ran in front of Gus'' C-87. The propeller blade killed the civilian. Gus recalled that some of the Chinese civilians that worked on the runway believed that running in front of the aircraft would pull the evil spirits away into the propellers. Many Chinese civilians were killed during this practice. United States Cargo GMC Truck 2 1/2 Ton G-508 Type: Truck, Cargo, LWB, 2 1/2 Ton, 6x6Government Number: G-508Model: CCKW 353Manufacturer: Yellow Truck & Coach Mfg Co. (Division of the General Motors Company, Pontiac Michigan) Date of Delivery: September 1942Serial Number: 189590Maintenance Manual: TM 9-801 Truck Details: Weight: Net 11,250 lbs., Payload 5,000 lbs., Gross 15,050 lbs. Ground Clearance: 10 inches Tires: 7.50 x 20 Split ring rim United States Waco CG-15A Glider United States Waco CG-15A Glider A.A.F. Serial Number: Unknown The Waco CG-15A Glider was the late war improvement of the earlier Waco CG-4A Glider. Three of the improvements made in the CG-15A was the use of stronger and thicker tubing for crew protection during landing, the addition of pilot/co-pilot doors in the cockpit for disembarkation after landing and the increased windscreen area which afforded the crew a better field of vision during flight and landing. CG-15A Glider in Europe (note the German aircraft in the background), left photo.CG-15A Glider being loaded/unloaded with a 1/4 Ton Truck, right photo. CG-15A Glider tow and radio connection, left photo. CG-15A Glider data plates, left top and bottom photos. Both plates are mounted above the center inside cockpit window frame. Waco CG-15 Specifications and Production Info: Type: Troop/Cargo Glider Payload: Ferrying/Troop Condition: 16 (Pilot/Co-Pilot plus 14 Troops) Jeep Condition: Pilot/Co-Pilot, 4 Troops plus Jeep Howitzer Condition: Pilot/Co-Pilot, 3 Gun Crew plus 75mm Gun Litter Condition: Pilot/Co-Pilot plus 6 Patients Specifications: Length: 48'' 10"Wingspan: 62'' 2.25"Empty Weight: 4000 lbs. Max Weight: 8035 lbs. Maximum At Takeoff Max Towing Speed: 180 mph Production: 1944/1945Total Aircraft Produced: XCG-15 (1), XCG-15A (2), CG-15A (875)Known Serial Numbers:45-5276 through 45-5660 CG-15A (385)45-12743 through 45-12784 CG-15A (42)45-12785 through 45-13232 CG-15A (448) United States Waco CG-4A Glider United States Waco CG-4A Hadrian Glider A.A.F. Serial Number: Unknown CG-4A Glider Cockpit, above photo. This cockpit has been used as a source of spare tubing for some time. The bottom section of the cockpit has been removed as well as the rear seat area and top tubing. CG-4A Glider Cockpit, above photo. Rear view of the glider cockpit. The Pilot and Co-Pilot seat support area remains intact with the seat belt D Rings still attached. The instrument panel support tubing also remains intact. This cockpit section does not appear to have had a Griswold Nose Crash Protection System United States Clark Airborne Bulldozer CA-1 Type: Airborne Bulldozer (Tractor Crawler) Government Number: G-XXX Model: CA-1Manufacturer: Clark Equipment Company Buchanan, Michigan Date of Delivery: March 25th 1944 Serial Number: 441475Registration Number: 9113429Maintenance Manual: TM 5-3020. Left side of the CA-1. The original side mounted stowage boxes are missing, as well as many small parts. The front blade is held in place with a section of chain due to loss of hydraulic pressure. Rear view of the CA-1, left picture. The original rear mounted winch is missing. Clark Equipment Company nomenclature plate, left picture. This plate is located on the right side of the engine compartment, just behind the blade. The original color of the plate was silver on green. Waukesha Motor Company nomenclature plate, right photo. This plate is located on the left side of the engine, just below the head. Auxiliary Shipping Name Plate, left picture. This plate is mounted under the Clark nomenclature plate. This style of plate was added to vehicles for overseas shipment. Corps of Engineers nomenclature plate. This plate is mounted on the rear of the front blade. The original Army registration number is visible on the right side of the hood. The only numbers still visible are "11342".The registration number "9113429" would have been painted on both sides of the hood. The Clark CA-1 Bulldozer was designed to be delivered by air. The left picture shows a CA-1 loaded for delivery by Glider Borne troops. The right picture shows a CA-1loaded for delivery by a C-47.This specific C-47 is painted in Normandy; air recognition markings for the invasion of France, June 1944.The CA-1 was used in the European and Pacific Theaters. Clark CA-1 Production Info: The following is a partial list of the Contract Numbers, Clark Serial Numbers and Army Registration Numbers for the Clark CA-1. The Clark Serial Number can be broken down to the following: Example: CA-1(Vehicle Type)43(Year of Production)162(Vehicle Number) Contract No. W-145-A eng.-511Tractor Serial No. CA-1431 to No. CA-143162 (162 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 953463 to 953624Contract No. W-1088 eng. (MSP)-2460Tractor Serial No. CA-143193 to No. CA-143228 (135 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 977511 to 977546Contract No. W-1088 eng. 2155Tractor Serial No. CA-143229 to No. CA-1431015 (716 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 963300 to 964086Contract No. W-1088 eng. 2165Tractor Serial No. CA-1431016 to No. CA-1431121 (205 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 963144 to 963249 German Afrika Korps Pioneer (Engineer) North Africa 1941 U.S. Army Engineer Special Brigade - Omaha Beach Normandy France June 6th 1944 U.S. Army Engineer Special Brigade - ESB Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 The Engineer Special Brigade or ESB was organized in England from existing Engineer Combat Groups to support the landings and subsequent supply operations over Omaha Beach during the Normandy landings. The ESB Engineers found themselves helping out the assault troops in the early fighting for Omaha Beach. The uniform set shown to the left is from the 5th or 6th ESB unit that fought in the DOG and CHARLIE sector of Omaha Beach Normandy. The M-1 flex bail helmet has the 5th/6th ESB white arc painted over the ESB insignia. A black rubber M-5 Assault gas mask is suspended from the soldiers neck. This soldier wears a Flannel OD issue shirt under his M-1941 Field Jacket. His M-1928 khaki haversack supports a M-1923 M-1 Garand Cartridge Belt, M-1916 Pistol Holster with M-1911 .45 cal. Pistol, three Mk II Fragmentation Hand Grenades and One CN-DM Gas Hand Grenade. Around the waist of this soldier is the USN made Duel Type Invasion Life Belt. Additionally this soldier carries two spare bandoleers for 8 clips of .30-06 M-1 Rifle ammunition. Reverse view of the ESB uniform showing a white horizontal band on the rear of the M-1 Helmet for NCO’s (Non Commissioned Officers). The reverse of the M-1923 Haversack shows the M-1 Bayonet with M-7 Scabbard on the left side, M-1910 Entrenching Tool with carrier and stowed M-1942 Mess Kit. Suspended from this soldiers M-1923 Cartridge Belt is a M-1910 Canteen and a M-1942 First Aid Kit. On the left side of the ESB uniform is a bag that contains Demolition Chain Blocks of M-1 High Explosive. This is a close-up view of the ESB uniform with the Demolition Bag being show. This bag was made of olive cotton material. Espria, Italy 1943/1944Espria, Italy lies on the western flank of Monte Cassino, between Naples and Rome. This area was the focal point of the French Expeditionary Corps during the Allied drive toward Monte Cassino during late 1943 through early 1944. The F.E.C. was primarily comprised of Moroccan soldiers. These Moroccan soldiers were specifically chosen for operations in Espria for their mountain fighting ability. The Moroccan soldiers fought swiftly and surgically in this campaign. The summit above Espria is home to a Middle-Age Monastery, which is now in ruins. This area was occupied by the German Army and was used as an observation point for the western control of the Winter Line. QuestMaster Jonny Reb& Ray is pointing eastward toward Monte Cassino. This photo illustrates how well this mountain top controlled much of the movement in the Lire Valley. This photo shows QuestMasters conducting archeology work within the ruins. Several U.S. .30-06 caliber fired projectiles were found in the soft-face of the Monastery slopes, as well as a vintage Coca-Cola bottle and one German 5 liter gas can. Additionally, on the road leading to the summit, a German gas mask carrier, a German 5cm 3 round mortar carrier and a World War One German 8cm Trench Art shell casing was found. Untied States SCR-578-B Gibson Girl Radio Set Untied States SCR-578-B Gibson Girl Radio Set BG-155-A Bag and M-390-A Parachute (left photo). The BG-155-A Bag held the entire SCR-578-BRadio Set.BC-778-D, or AN-CRT-3 Radio Set (right photo). T-69F/AMT-2 Radiosonde Transmitter, M-278-A Hydrogen Balloons (2 balloons were used in this set to fly the kite mast), M-308-B Signal Lamp (head mounted) and Flashlight (left photo).M-357-A Kite Assembly (used to fly the antenna), M-315 Hydrogen Generator Inflation Tubes and the Kite and Tube Storage Bag (right photo). M-315 Hydrogen Generator Containers (left photo).The M-315 Hydrogen Generator was used to inflate the M-278 Balloons. Pill Box Glyfada, Greece Herculanium Italy Herculanium Italy Herculanium, Italy lies to the southwest of the Italian volcano, Mount Vesuvius. During the year 79 A.D. Mount Vesuvius erupted, showering the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculanium with molten rock and ash burying the two cities for almost 2000 years. Archeology work is still being conducted to reveal covered portions of the two cities. QuestMasters visited this famous city in 1998. QuestMasters has added this section to the Quest page for this specific photo. The emblem most frequently associated with Nazi Germany is the Swastika. This symbol was actually used several thousand years prior to the reign of the Third Reich. The left photo, taken in Herculanium, is a Greek cross with the ends of arms bent at counterclockwise right angles. This symbol was used as a sign of good luck, and was usually placed in the main doorway of a home or building as done in the left photo. The symbol of Nazi Germany was very similar, but was the exact mirror image with the arms bending clockwise. QuestMasters Home Page Welcome to QuestMasters - The foundation for the recovery and preservation of World War Two memorabilia for posterity. History of our Quest: The idea behind QuestMasters started during a recovery trip in Europe. After a long truck ride we realized that we were not only recovering and restoring World War Two memorabilia, but also going to the ends of the earth to do it. Hence - this is our Quest. Why we Quest? The Second World War lasted for over 6 years. For the United States, we were completely unprepared. Civilian companies quickly transformed into the American war machine. Small companies like Maytag, the washing machine company, made gun turrets for heavy bombers; Rock-Ola, a pin ball machine company, made rifles; Goodyear, the tire company, made fighter aircraft; Cadillac, the automobile company, made tank destroyers...and on and on. Farmboys, teachers, business men, barbers - men and women alike gave up their everyday jobs to put on a uniform, to fight for their country. They went to far-off lands, some unmapped - to fight and die. There was rationing and recycling. All gave some, and some gave all. Valor was a common virtue. And that is where we find ourselves, the children of a culture, responsible for the history of the sacrifice they made for us. Our goal: Our goal is the preservation of World War Two history. In the not too distant future, the breaths of those who were there making the history will no longer be able to tell the story. History is normally written by the victor, but this was a World War. It affected every country and every person, Allied and Axis. So, our focus is just that, to preserve the story, from both sides. It is our responsibility to tell their story. German Infantry Cart 18 German Type: Trailer 2 Wheel, Infantry, Hand Model: Unknown Manufacturer: Unknown Serial Number: Unknown This German trailer was recovered from Germany. The model or type is currently unknown. It is slightly larger than the Infantry Field Kart 8 (IF8 or JF8). The restoration of this cart (kart) was done in Germany. The original tires are present on the cart. The size of the tires is 3.50-19. Both tires are made by the Continental Tire Company. United States Navy Pratt Read LNE-1 Glider Trainer United States Navy Pratt Read LNE-1 Glider Trainer Aircraft LNE-1 Glider Mfg: Pratt Read & Co. Inc., Gould Aero. Div., Deep River ConnecticutMfg’s Model No.: PR-G1 Serial Number: 52U.S. Navy Serial Number: LNE-1 BuNo 31556U.S. Army Serial Number: TG-32-PR-43-39557Date Produced: 23 March 1943Maximum Glide or Dive Speed: 86 Knots; Wingspan: 54’ 6”; Length: 26’ 3”History:In 1943, a contract was ordered for 100 Type LNE-1 Gliders for the U.S. Navy from the Gould Aero Division of the Pratt Read Company. The LNE-1 was a two seat glider trainer. The proposed design was made for the training of Navy/Marine Corps glider pilots to land Marines in the Pacific during World War Two. The Navy glider program was quickly disbanded, as glider landings in the Pacific during WWII was not practical and 73 LNE-1’s were transferred to the United States Army Air Force. These LNE-1''s were re-designated TG-32''s. All 73 TG-32’s were put into storage at Souther Field, Americus Georgia through the end of WWII and sold through the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. By 1944, the LNE-1''s (now turned into U.S.A.A.F. TG-32''s) were selling for $500 (FOB Americus GA). The price could be reduced if the buyer went to Americus, assembled the glider at Souther Field, and flew it away as a complete aircraft. The only thing left behind was the shipping crate. These crates were then sold to local African-American share croppers who would use them for components of their houses. Markings/Paint: The LNE-1 had a fabric covered forward metal frame with wooden wings and tail. The vertical stabilizer. LNE-1 was painted in black on both sides of the rudder. No national insignia has been noted to have been painted on either side of the wings. When the LNE-1 Gliders were transferred to the U.S.A.A.F. the aircraft remained painted in Navy yellow with the addition of A.A.F. serial number painted on the shipping crate. The LNE-1/TG-32''s were not uncrated by the U.S.A.A.F. The instrument panel was painted black. Interior cockpit was painted “interior green” to include the plywood seats. Release knob was painted red. Several LNE-1’s have been noted with black group markings painted forward of “U.S.NAVY” on the tail boom.LNE-1 BuNo 31556 still retains the original nose tire, release knob, control sticks and rudder pedals. The fabric covering, windows and plywood seats have long since rotted away. Known serial number range:XLNE-1 BuNo 31505 - 31506LNE-1 BuNo 31507 - 31585 (Contract cancelled at Serial Number 31580)andBuNo 34115 - 34134 (Not Delivered) Army Air Force Serial Numbers: TG-32-PR 43-39509 - 43-39578 and 43-43329 - 43-43331Known surviving examples:#31506 Factory prototype: Wings of Eagles Discovery Center, Elmira Corning Regional Airport, NY.#31508 (The first TG-32): Under restoration for flight-status at Tehachapi, CA.#31509 Cockpit Only: In private storage in California.#31518: Under restoration: Seattle Museum of Flight in Renton, WA.#31521: THE ONLY AIRWORTHY LNE-1: Scott Airpark in Lovettsville VA.#31523: In storage: National Museum of the United States Air Force Dayton, OH.#31525 Cockpit Only: In private storage in California.#31527: Under restoration for flight status: Sandhill Crane Soaring, Richmond Field Gregory, MI.#31537: On public display: Hoosier Warbird Museum, DeKalb Regional Airport Auburn, IN#31540: In storage: Southern Museum of Flight in Birmingham, AL.#31542 In storage: Silent Wings Museum in Lubbock, TX.#31543: In storage: Tehachapi, CA#31556 Cockpit Only: QuestMasters Collection.#31558 In storage: Silent Wings Museum in Lubbock, TX.#31561: On public display: New England Air Museum Bradley International Airport in CT.#31569: In storage: Sandhill Crane Soaring: Richmond Field near Gregory, MI.#31570 Fuselage Only: In private storage in Tennessee.#31572: On display: Bonanzaville Aviation Museum in Fargo ND.#31577 Cockpit Only: In private storage in MI.#31578: On display: Aviation Museum of Kentucky; Bluegrass Airport in Lexington, KY. United States Airborne 75mm Howitzer M18 Paracaisson Cart United States Airborne 75mm Howitzer M18 Paracaisson Cart The M18 was used by Airborne Artillery units to air drop 75mm ammunition for the M8 Airborne Pack Howitzer. The M18 was air dropped via parachute as a cylindrical container. The container separated into two parts: the cart bottom and the top cover. The top cover was a simplified version of the cart bottom. The top cover was discarded after assembly. When the M18 was deployed, the wheels, tow handle and cables were stored inside of the container. The M18 could carry 18 rounds of ammunition in cardboard storage containers. The ammunition/storage dividers are missing on the inside of this cart. Additionally, the tire shown on this cart is not original. The original 4.00-8 tires were made by Goodyear. The above two pictures are from an original wartime manual. The picture to the left shows six M9A2 paracaissons mounted under a C-47 Cargo Aircraft. The photo to the right is a deployed empty and then fully loaded M9A2 ready for towing. This tire was made by the GOOD YEAR Tire Company. Two of these tires were found on a Cub Cadet 102 tractor. The tread style is exactly the same as the original M9A2 tire, but the size is slightly larger. The size on this tire is 4.80/4.00-8. These tires will be used on the restoration of this M18. This tire, left and above, is mounted on a museum M9A2 Paracaission. The tire is made by BF GOODRICH - SILVERTOWN, size 4.00-8.To view this M9A2 click here: HANDCARTZ M9A2 This tire (above four photos) is made by GOOD YEAR, size 4.00-8.This is one of two tires that will be used to restore the M9A2 owned by Handcartz To view this M9A2 click here: HANDCARTZ M9A2 The original rims have been disassembled for restoration, left photo. The inside of the rim reveals the original color of the M18 as well as the original primer. The M18 was primed in Yellow Zinc Chromate due to being made of aluminum. This M18 will be restored using Olive Drab 33070. Restored rim with Yellow Zinc Chromate Primer, left photo. The outer rim half is stamped with the part number 7131535 The inner rim half is stamped with the part number 7131536 The center hub is stamped with the part number B7119364 History Three types of Airborne Paracaissons were used during World War Two: M9 (Wood),M9A2 (Steel) and the M18 (Aluminum Alloy).The Aluminum Alloy Paracrate Load for the M8 Howitzer was deployed in 9 loads: Paracrate Load M1:Howitzer Trail Assembly, Paracrate M1, Drawbar, Lifting Bar. Paracrate Load M2:Howitzer Rear Trail, Howitzer Axle and Traversing Mechanism, Howitzer Trail Handspike, Bore Brush Staff, Spare Parts and Tool Box, Caster Wheel and Paracrate M2.Paracrate Load M13:Howitzer Bottom Sleigh, Aiming Circle with Case, Lifting Bar and Paracrate M13.Paracrate Load M14:Howitzer Cradle, Howitzer Top Sleigh, Lifting Bar and Paracrate M14.Paracrate Load M15:Howitzer Tube, Lifting bar and Paracrate M15.Paracrate Load M16:Howitzer Breech Assy., Telescope and Mount, Paracrate M16.Paracrate Load M7A1:Howitzer Wheels (2) and Paracrate M7A1.Parachest Load M17:Ammunition (10 rounds in fiber containers) and Parachest M17.Paracaisson Load M18:Ammunition (8 rounds in fiber containers) and Paracaisson M18. Untied States Martin M-250 Top Turret Untied States Martin M-250 CE B-24 Top Turret Untied States Willys Trailer 1/4 Ton MB-T Type: Trailer 2 Wheel 1/4 Ton Government Number: G-605Model: MB-T Manufacturer: Willys Overland Date of Delivery: November 1942Serial Number: 12494Parts Manual: TM 10-1230Maintenance Manual TM 10-1230 This is the original data plate that was found on this MB-T. The two holes in the center of the plate are from a bracket that was added after the war. It should be noted that the two "4''s" in the serial number "12494" are different fonts from different stamping sets. The first "4" has an open top, the second "4" has a closed top. This is a replica plate from Dataplates4u in Holland: http://www.dataplates4u.com New Old Stock Inter-Vehicle cable, left photo. The bakelite connector is made by the Warner Electric Brake MFG Co. Left and Right Tail Light Assy, above photo. The Willys MB-T used Corcoran-Brown tail light assy''s. The face of the light is marked C-B and the housing is marked Corcoran-Brown on the top. Trailer Details: Weight: Net 550 lbs., Payload 500 lbs., Gross 1050 lbs. Loading Height: 22 inches Ground Clearance: 12 1/2 inches Tires: 6.00x16 with two piece combat rims Tail Lights and Reflectors made by: Corcoran-Brown United States Navy Sailor NCDU Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 U.S. Navy Sailor NCDU - Navy Combat Demolition Unit 7 Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 QuestMasters Ordnance QuestMasters Ordnance Back row: Schrapnellmine 35 (S.Mi.35) storage box for three mines, Fuze crimping tool,1 Kilogram Demolition Charge with Z.Z.42 Fuze and 3 Kilogram Demolition Charge.Center row: S-Mine 35 (S.Mi.35) with S.Mi.Z.35 Fuze, Stock-Mine 43 (STo.Mi.43) with Z.Z.35 Fuze, Glasmine 43 (Gl.Mi.43) with Hebelzunder Fuze and Kraftstoff Granate (Gasoline Grenade).Front row: Zeit Zunder 37 (Zt.Z.f. SpBu 37) time fuze, two Z.Z.35 Fuzes, Z.Z.42 Fuze, D.Z.35 Fuze, S.Mi.Z.35 Fuze, Sprengkorper 28 Mine Charge with Z.Z.42 Fuze, Teller Mine Zunder 35 (T.Mi.Z.35)Trip Wire Mine Fuze and Blendkorper 2 H (M2H) Glass Smoke Grenade. 8,8cm Raketenpanzerbuchse (Rocket Launcher)Ordnance tan painted carrying box (top of photo) and natural wood carrying box (bottom of photo).Raketen Munition 4322 (Rocket) in center of photo.The 4322 Rocket could be used with the Raketenpanzerbuchse 43 or 54. The RPzB 43 and 54 were nicknamed Ofenrohr (Stovepipe) and Panzerschrek (Tank Terror) by the Germans. It had an effective range of 150 meters and could penetrate all Allied Armor during World War Two. United States Army Air Force Northrop P-61 Black Widow U.S. Army Air Force Northrop P-61A Black Widow Night Fighter P-61A Black Widow nose section, left photo. The nose section of the P-61 is made of fiberglass for the SCR-720A Radar set. This Radome was found in Hawaii in the mid 1990''s. Some of original black paint and red stenciling remain on the outside of the Radome. Unfortunately the radome is slightly cracked due to 50+ years of unloving exposure. P-61A Black Widow gunners canopy, left photo. The P-61 had two canopies: one for the pilot and one for the gunner (as seen in the above black and white photo). This canopy was recovered from a scrap yard in Ewa, Hawaii U.S.A. Many P-61''s and B-24''s were scrapped at Ewa after the war. This canopy was traded to the Mid-Atlantic Air Museum for the restoration of their P-61 in 1996. P-61A Black Widow engine propeller assembly for the R-2800 engine, left photo. This assembly retains almost all of its original paint and stenciling. This propeller assembly was not recovered by QuestMasters. German 7,5cm PAK 40 Anti-Tank Cannon Country: Germany Type: 7,5cm PAK 40Model: Panzer Abwehr Kanonen 40 Manufacturer: Not Available Date: 1944Serial Number: Not Available Right side of the PAK 40. The wheels on this cannon are the late-war style with holes. The holes were added to save rubber. Two 7,5cm (75mm) Shell Casings. The PAK 40 used the model 6340 shell casing with C/12nA percussion fired primer. The suffix St was applied to the shell casing or primer type if it was made of Stahl or Steel, i.e. 6340 St or C/12nASt. PAK 40 Cleaning Rod, top of photo. PAK 40 Bore Brush, bottom of photo QuestMasters is currently looking for additional shell casings, projectiles, ammunition cans, and a gun sight for the restoration of this PAK 40. German Panther V Road Wheel German Panzerkampfwagen V Panther; Ausf. G tank outer road wheel. The German Panther tank utilized 8 outer road wheels (four on each side). This road wheel was recovered from Bastogne Belgium in 1998. This history of this specific vehicle is unknown. The large shell hole is approximately 75mm''s. This Panther was moving when it was hit, which is clearly indicated by the track teeth indentations on the rubber wheel. Manufacturer markings on the rubber portion of wheel: No 935 jnk, left photo; 860/100-D, right photo. B-24 Nose Turret The Emerson A-15 Electric Nose Turret was used on all late war B-24 Liberators, except those produced at the Consolidated San Diego plant.B-24 Liberators produced at the Consolidated San Diego plant used modified A-6B Hydraulic Tail Turrets mounted in the front of the aircraft (as seen on the B-24 in the black and white picture above).Early B-24 Liberators that were produced with " Green House " noses were also depot modified with A-6 or A-6B Hydraulic Tail Turrets mounted in the nose. A-15 Gunner Seat area, above left and right photo. The control column grip assembly is missing from this turret. AN-M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun left mount, above left photo. Turret Control box, above right photo. Oxygen System Assembly, above left photo. The A-15 Nose Turret used an A-12A Diluter Demand Oxygen Regulator with Oxygen Blinker and Pressure Gauge to regulate the oxygen to the turret gunner during high altitude flight.K-11 Gun Sight Mount and Drive Box, above right photo. K-11 Compensating Gun Sight, left photo.K-11 Compensating Gun Sight Nomenclature Plate, above photo. The K-11 Compensating Gun Sight was a late war innovation that used the aircraft altitude and speed with the direct correlation of where the weapon was pointed to calculate the reticle. The aircraft altitude and speed was programmed on the rear of the sight. The correlation was determined by drive lines that connected the K-11 Sight to the turret. E-3 Generator Type: Generator, 3.0 KW, 1 Phase Government Number: None Model: E-3Manufacturer: O''Keefe & Merritt Co. Date of Delivery: 1944Serial Number: 2188 Model E-3 Generator Set nomenclature plate, left photo. This plate is mounted on the outside of the control panel door. Control panel with door open, right photo. The control panel is located on the end of the generator set. Note that this generator has several different styles of 120 volt receptacles. Engine compartment with doors open, left photo. O''Keefe & Merritt Model E-3 Synchronous 1 Phase Generator nomenclature plate, above photo. Right side of E-3 Generator Set, left photo. Rear of the E-3 Generator Set, right photo. The rear of the E-3 Generator houses the fire extinguisher. The door for the fire extinguisher is marked in raised letters " FIRE EXTINGUISHER INSIDE HERE ". The bracket is the standard style used on most U.S. WWII military vehicles. B-24 Waist Guns Left Waist Gun Assembly, above photo. The late B-24 waist gun comprised of an AN-M2 .50 caliber machine gun attached to a Type E-13 Gun Mount Adapter, Type K-7 Mount with Type C-19A Mount Adapter and a Type K-13 Compensating Gun Sight. On the top cover of theAN-M2 is a Type J-4 Gun Heater. This configuration was only used in late B-24 Liberators that were produced with enclosed waist gun positions. E-13 Gun Mount Adapter, above left photo. This is what the E-13 Adapters looked like when they were originally obtained. The E-13 in the rear of the photo was missing the "duck bill" sight mount, and grips when this photo was taken. This has been corrected.E-13 Gun Mount Adapter Nomenclature Plate, above right photo. AN-M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun, above photo. The AN-M2 was used in all positions on the B-24 Liberator - the Ball Turret, Nose Turret, Top Turret, Tail Turret and both Waist Gun Positions. The two AN-M2s pictured above are compliant with BATFE standards by having a replica 1/2" thick right side plate, prohibiting the fitting of any internal machine gun parts. The AN-M2 pictured above is shown prior to restoration. One of the details that differentiates the AN-M2 .50 Caliber Aircraft Machine Gun from the M-2 Ground Machine Gun is the top cover. The top cover has the added provisions to aid opening while wearing heavy gloves, as seen on the rear side and top of the cover. This photo also shows the thick cuts made during the demilitarization process. This AN-M2 has not been fully restored. K-7 Mount, rear and front, above two photos. The K-7 Mount supported the entire AN-M2 .50 caliber machine gun to the side of the aircraft. Note the large springs housed on the inside of the mount. These springs were added to compensate for the weight of the gun assembly. This afforded the gunner a better ability to handle the weapon and not fight the weight of the weapon when engaged. J-4 Gun Heater, left photo. The Gun Heater was electrically powered and kept the guns warm at high altitudes to avoid freezing when not firing.C-19A Gun Mount Adapter, right photo. This connected the E-13 Gun Mount Adapter to the K-7 Mount. K-13 Compensating Gun Sight, left photo.K-13 Nomenclature Plate, above photo. The K-13 Compensating Gun Sight was a late war innovation that used the aircraft altitude and speed with the direct correlation of where the weapon was pointed to calculate the reticle. The aircraft altitude and speed was programmed on the rear of the sight. The correlation was determined by drive lines that connected the K-13 Sight to the K-7 Mount. U.S. Army 1st Lieutenant 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This officer illustrates the equipment that was worn by an officer assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944. The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view, left photo. Close-up view of Rangers patch, above photo. This patch was specifically designed for the Invasion of Normandy to replace the earlier Ranger Battalion Scroll patch. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, left photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond painted over a white vertical stripe, which was the designation for officers. Inside view of M-1 Helmet Liner, right photo. This liner was made by Westinghouse. The suspension is made from Triple Herringbone Twill (THBT) and is held to the liner with green A washers. Service Boots with M-1938 Leggings, left photo. The M-1938 Leggings shown here were made by Meyers & Son MFG. Co. 2-25-42.Service Boots, right photo. The Service Boots were all leather with ten eyelets and featured a full capped toe. The rubber soles were made by BF Goodrich. These boots are a size 8EE. BC-611-F Handie-Talkie Radio, left photo. M-1 Thompson Submachine-gun, above photo. This M-1 Thompson Submachine-gun has a replica all aluminum BATFE approved dummy receiver from IMA-USA. M-1 Helmet and Camouflage Net with Officer markings on front and rearM-1 Helmet Liner, made by WestinghouseM-1941 Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on right sleeveM-1936 Pistol Belt, made by A.M.Co.1943M-1936 SuspendersM-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by J.A. Shoe 1943M-1910 Canteen, made by S.M.CO 1944M-1910 Canteen Cup, made by FOLEY MFG. CO. 1944M-1910 First Aid Pouch, made by J.Q.M.D. 1942 and owner marked S1216M-1916 Pistol Holster, made by MILWAUKE SADDLERY CO. 1943M-1923 Pistol Magazine Pouch, made by B.B. INC. 1942Submachine-gun Magazine Pouch, five pocket M-1936 Field Mussett Bag, made by HAMLIN CANVAS GOODS CO. 1942 and owner marked G-8490M-1938 Dispatch Case, made by HOFF -42-M-7 Assault Gas Mask CarrierM-17 Binocular CaseBC-611-F Radio, made by ELECTRICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES INC.USN Life Preserver, made by EAGLE RUBBER CO. INC. ASHLAND OHIO Service Boots, soles made by BF GoodrichM-1938 Leggings, made by MEYERS & SON MFG CO. 2-25-42M-1 Thompson Submachine-gun, made by - UNKNOWN - original receiver replaced U.S. Army Sergeant 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) Sergeant illustrates the equipment that was worn by a NCO assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944.The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view, left photo. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, above photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond painted above a white horizontal stripe, which was the designation for Non-Commissioned Officers. Inside view of M-1 Helmet Liner, left photo. This liner was made by Mine Safety Apparatus (MSA). The suspension is made from Single Herringbone Twill (SHBT) and is held to the liner with early zinc plated A washers. M-1 Helmet and Camouflage Net with NCO markings on rear M-1 Helmet Liner, made by Mine Safety Apparatus (MSA) Winter Combat Tanker Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on left sleeve M-1923 Dismounted Cartridge Belt, made by M.E.CO. 1943 (BRITISH MADE) M-1928 Haversack with M-1928 Pack Carrier, made by M.W.&S. CO. LTD 1944 (BRITISH MADE) M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by BAKER-ATWOOD LTD. CO. 1941 M-1910 Canteen, made by A.G.M.CO. 1918 M-1910 Canteen Cup, made by T.A.U.CO. 1941 M-1923 First Aid Pouch, made by M.W.&S. CO. LTD 1944 (BRITISH MADE) M-1916 Pistol Holster, made by SEARS 1942 M-1910 Entrenching Tool Cover, made by W.L. DUMAS MFG. CO. 1943 M-1910 Entrenching Tool M-7 Assault Gas Mask Carrier USN Life Preserver, made by EAGLE RUBBER CO. INC. ASHLAND OHIO M-1 Bayonet, made by United Cutlery (U.C.) M-1 Fragmentation Grenade M-1 Garand Cloth Bandoleer U.S. Army Medic 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This Soldier illustrates the equipment that was worn by a Medic assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944.The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, left photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond with Medic red crosses painted on the sides and front. Helmet Liner, right photo. This liner was made by FIRESTONE. The suspension is made from Triple Herringbone Twill (THBT) and is held to the liner with green A washers. Service Boots with M-1938 Leggings, left photo. The M-1938 Leggings shown here were made by Meyers & Son MFG. Co. 2-25-42.Service Boots, right photo. The Service Boots were all leather with ten eyelets and featured a full capped toe. The rubber soles were made by EJ HTS. These boots are a size 7 1/2 E. Medic''s bags with contents, left photo. Four types of Carlisle bandages, right photo. Early copper can with orange paint (made by BAUER & BLACK) top, early copper can with olive paint (made by BAUER & BLACK) left center, early steel can with olive paint (made by BAUER & BLACK) right center and late steel can with olive drab paint (made by HANDY PAD SUPPLY CO) bottom. Reverse of Medic''s Arm Band (left photo).The arm band is marked: PROPERTY OFMEDICAL DEPARTMENT, U.S. ARMYIN CONFORMITY WITHARTICLE 21 INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS CONVENTIONGENEVA 1929IDENTITY CARD NO. _________This arm band has the Medic''s Geneva Convention Number V 37489. M-1 Helmet and Camouflage Net with Medic''s markings M-1 Helmet Liner, made by FIRESTONE M-1941 Field Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on left sleeve M-1923 Dismounted Cartridge Belt, made by NERIS 1943 M-1936 Field Musette Bag, made by AIRTRESS MIDLAND 1943 M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by FOLEY MFG CO. 1942 M-1910 Canteen, made by S.M.CO. 1943 M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by H.S.CO. 1942 M-1910 Canteen, made by VOLLRATH 1943 M-1942 First Aid Pouch, made by JQMD 1944 Medical Bag, pair M-7 Assault Gas Mask Carrier USN Life Preserver, made by THE FIRESTONE TIRE & RUBBER CO. AKRON OHIO U.S. Army Private First Class 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This Soldier illustrates the equipment that was worn by a rifleman assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944.The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, left photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond. Inside view of M-1 Helmet Liner, right photo. This liner was made by Westinghouse. The suspension is made from Single Herringbone Twill (SHBT) and is held to the liner with black brass A washers. M-1 Helmet M-1 Helmet Liner, made by Westinghouse M-1941 Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on left sleeve M-1936 Pistol Belt M-1910 Haversack, made by L-D INC. 7-18 M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, owner marked M. KRPAN K-7540 M-1910 Canteen, made by S.M.CO. 1943 M-1942 First Aid Pouch, made by B.B.S.CO. 1943 M-1 Carbine Magazine Pocket, made by AVERY 1943 M-1 Carbine Magazine Pocket, made by KADY 1943 M-1942 18” Machete, dated 1944 M-7 Assault Gas Mask Carrier USN Life Preserver, made by DURKEE-ATWOOD CO. MPLS. M-1 Carbine Ammunition Bandoleer 1944 B-29 "Super Fortress" 42-24791 "The Big Time Operator"
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Maple Medical™, LLP Maple Medical, a Westchester multi-specialty medical group based in White Plains NY with top-rated, award-winning board certified doctors providing integrated healthcare in primary care, internal medicine, pulmonary care, cardiology, gastroenterology, endocrinology, rheumatology, critical care and hospital medicine.
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Chris Martin | I am a machine learning enthusiast, python programmer, part time quant, and coffee lover. I am a machine learning enthusiast, python programmer, part time quant, and coffee lover.
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Martin Friedrich Architects - Architects Melbourne || Architectural / Interior / Landscape Design Martin Friedrich Architects is a Melbourne Architecture practice who''s primary focus is on high-end residential, multi-residential and commercial projects.
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Anita Rogers Gallery | New York Contemporary Art Anita Rogers Gallery represents a diverse roster of emerging, mid career and posthumous artists whose work speaks to the contemporary landscape of the 20th and 21st century while remaining timeless and truthful. The gallery, active in both primary and secondary markets, strives to cultivate the careers of exceptional painters and sculptors, both figurative and abstract, who have earned their place in the contemporary art market.
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The Corpus | A collaborative, open online space maintained by the graduate students of the Physical Cultural Studies research group at the University of Maryland, College Park. Dedicated to critical discussions of physical culture in all its sociocultural, historical, and everyday material forms. Public ideas/writings welcomed and encouraged. A collaborative, open online space maintained by the graduate students of the Physical Cultural Studies research group at the University of Maryland, College Park. Dedicated to critical discussions of physical culture in all its sociocultural, historical, and everyday material forms. Public ideas/writings welcomed and encouraged.
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Farbypd.sk Novinky zo sveta farieb, lakov, sprejov, no takisto novinky a akcie z nášho obchodu a sortimentu. Informácie o pobočkách Farby laky Prievidza a Martin.
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Home page - Primary Exotics - Exotic Cars for Sale Advertise your Exotic Car for Sale, Luxury Car for Sale, or Try searching through our Listings to see what Supercars for Sale are currently for Sale Right Now!
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A Ferret Named Phil - The Anti-Bullying Children's Book The Tale of a Small Ferret Overcoming a Big Bully If you're worried about your child being bullied, read this book to them.  Phil is the happiest of ferrets as he sits by the lake with Jane, until the mean Hugo the Hawk decides to ruin their picnic. Instead of feeling scared and afraid, Phi ...
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LebensWelt - Пространство для феноменологических исследований   Сайт LebensWelt (нем. Жизненный Мир) посвящен феноменологическим исследованиям, в философии и психологии par excellence. Это пространство для всех неравнодушных к подлинным философским разысканиям, для тех, у кого ведущая потребность - жажда истины. Проект LebensWelt призван способствовать публикации оригинальных феноменологических исследований в Интернете и организации виртуального сообщества, нескованного границами и расстояниями. На страницах сайта вы также найдете базовую информацию по феноменологии (основные представители движения, их биографии и библиографии; Феноменологический словарь; рецензии на новые книги и журналы; обзоры феноменологических ресурсов Всемирной Сети),''конференц-зал'' (чат) для проведения конференций в режиме реального времени и гостевую книгу. Русская и английская версии. Содержание сайта постоянно пополняется. Нашим девизом всегда была и остается максима: прочь от назойливой схоластики, словоблудия и бесплодных спекуляций, назад к живой жизни, к самим вещам! Site LebensWelt (German, Life-World) is dedicated to phenomenological researches, in philosophy and psychology par excellence. It is the space for all those who is not indifferent to genuine philosophical investigations, for those whose primary need is the thirst for truth. The project is aimed at publishing original phenomenological works in the Internet as well as organizing ''online community'' free from borders and distances. On the pages of our Site you can also find many useful information on phenomenology (main representatives of the Phenomenological Movement, their biographies and bibliographies; Encyclopaedia of phenomenological concepts; review of new books/journals and Web-resources), real time Web-conference, guest-book. There are English and Russian versions. The content of the Site increases constantly. Our motto is: away from philosophical scholastic, phrase-mongering and fruitless speculations back to the original experience, to the things themselves!
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Martin Sarsini | Freelance Full Stack Web Developer in Berlin Full Stack freelance Web Developer based in Berlin with primary expertise in designing Web Applications with back-end technologies such as PHP and Symfony.
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Nathaniel Atakora - Outdoor Photography Nathaniel Atakora Martin is an outdoor/adventure photographer based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. His primary aesthetic is focused on vast landscapes and how people connect and interact with them.
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St Martin's Primary School, Runcorn St Martins's Primary School, St Martin's Primary School Runcorn
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ChangingWind.Org: News ChangingWind.Org, an interactive website related to the book Gold Baron by A. Dru Kristenev, which plunges into a fictional world using factual and current events. The site also features real articles and events correlated with the subject matter of the book.
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Your Dream School Chaplaincy & Seminars Your Dream Inc is a chaplaincy provider in NSW & VIC. We have Chaplains in over 100 schools. We also present our Primary School & High School seminars regularly
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Cristina Martin Design CMD is graphic design firm based out of Austin, Texas with a primary focus is on visual branding and digital, print and packaging design.
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Furious Artisans - Modern American Music and Beyond Furious Artisans is a unique record label dedicated to modern classical music, also called 'New Music'. Our primary focus is on contemporary American composers such as Jonathan Dawe, Matthew Greenbaum, Frank Brickle, Robert Martin and others. Our current and past advisory board has included such notable figures as Milton Babbitt, Chester Biscardi and Mark Rimple. We are also interested in forgotten or under appreciated composers of the 20th century, such as Dane Rudhyar and Giacinto Scelsi.
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Open School: Enterprise School Management Software Open-School – A versatile school management software used by thousands of educational institutions worldwide for administration & management activities.
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Archer Books - a Publisher of Fiction, Non-fiction and Poetry - Archer Books Archer Books, a nationally distributed, independent publisher of fiction, non-fiction and poetry books
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Republican Committee of Beaver County | Official Site of the Republican Committee of Beaver County Official Site of the Republican Committee of Beaver County
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School - St. Martin De Porres Ghana School Private elementary school in Dansoman Accra Ghana. Highly Respected source of primary education established in 1973. Award Recognized School.
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Riesige Auswahl von Quad und ATV Teile und Zubehör! - quadzubehor.de quadzubehor.de Riesige Auswahl von Quad und ATV Teile und Zubehör! - quadzubehor.de Riesige Auswahl von Quad und ATV Teile und Zubehör! - quadzubehor.de RÄDER Reifen Reifenreparatur Felgen TEILE Motor und Auspuff Motortuning Auspuffanlagen Zylinder-Sets Nockenwelle Dichtung-Sets Kolben Auspuff-Schalldämpfer Kurbelwelle Pleuel kit Lenkung Lenkungsdämpfer Lenkung-Vorbauten Lenkung-Stabilisatoren Lenker Achsen & Spurverbreiterungen Achsgehäuse Keilriemen A-Arme Tieferlegungssätze Hebel Schwinghebel Stoßdämpfer Stabilisator Heizkörper Antriebswellen Kupplungen Kupplungskorb Innere Nabe Druckplatten Kupplungsdeckel Anti-Hopping Kupplungen Kette Kraftstofftank Radnaben Ersatzteile Kabel Elektronische Teile Stator Anlasser FRACHT Taschen Harte Taschen Weiche Taschen Reserverad Halterung Fracht Kraftstoffbehälter Hitch receiver SCHUTZ Stoßstangen Haltegriffe Nerf Bars Rüstung A-Arm Schutz Trittbleche Unterfahrschutz Kühlerschutz Handprotektoren Fußstützen Windschutzscheiben Anhängekupplung Abdeckung Kotflügelverbreiterung Stein-Blocker Abdeckung Kotflügelschutz Pegs Karosserieteile aus Kunststoff Kettenraddeckel LANDWIRTSCHAFT Bohrer Baggerlader Forstanhänger Holzspalter Mäher Rasenmäher Mulcher Halter für Motorsäge Sprühgeräte Streuer Dreh-Besen Bodenfräse Anbaugeräte Anhänger Holzhäcksler Staubsauger WINTER Schneepflüge Heizungen Raupenkit Schneeketten Schneefräse Beheizte Kleidung Eisbohrer-Halterung UTV TEILE Stoßstangen Sicherheitsgurte Taschen & Regale Türen Dach Sitze Auspuffanlage Windschutzscheiben Rüstung Trittbleche A-Arm Schutz Overfender-Set Scheinwerfer-Schutz A-Arme Spiegel Nummernschild-Halterung Nerf Bars Kabinengehäuse Kompressor-Set Grafik-Sets Motortuning ANDERE Action-Cams Seilwinden Seilwinden anbauplatte Lichter GPS und Tacho Jagd Gewehrhalter Schutzausrüstung Bluetooth-System Sound-System Batterien Auffahrrampen Ladegeräte Fahrer-Ausrüstung Grafik-Sets
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TOWARDS LIFE-KNOWLEDGE "Knowledge always win in the end, but not unless and until it is known." - Professor John McMurtry
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Children''s Mathematics Network The Children''s Mathematics Network is an international, non-profit-making organisation for teachers, practitioners, students, researchers and teacher educators working with children in the birth-8 year age range. We focus on children''s mathematical graphics and the meanings children make. We explore ''written'' mathematics within the context of multi-literacies, including art and writing. Our work is based on extensive, evidence-based research with children, teachers and families and within the context of our own teaching. We advocate a spirit of freedom and creativity for teachers: more importantly the freedom for children to explore their own meanings in creative ways. Our aim is to hear the voice of the child.
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Gran selección de piezas y accesorios de cuádruple y ATV! - accesoriosquad.es accesoriosquad.es Gran selección de piezas y accesorios de cuádruple y ATV! - accesoriosquad.es Gran selección de piezas y accesorios de cuádruple y ATV! - accesoriosquad.es RUEDAS Llantas Reparación de llantas Rines PARTES Motor y Escape Ajuste del motor Escapes Juegos de Cilindros Árbol de levas Juegos de juntas Pistones Silenciador de escape Cigüeñal Juego de biela Dirección Amortiguador de Dirección Columna de Dirección Estabilizadores de Dirección Manillares Ejes y Separadores de Llantas Carcaza del Eje Correas en V Triángulos de Suspensión Kits de Rebaje Manetas Rodamientos Basculantes Amortiguadores Barra Antivuelco Radiadores Ejes de Transmisión Embragues Campana de embrague Buje Interno Placas de Presión Tapa de Embrague Embragues Deslizantes Cadena Depósito de Combustible Cubos de Rueda Piezas de Mantenimiento Cables Partes Electrónicas Estator Motor de arranque CARGA Bolsas Bolsas duras Bolsas suaves Montaje del neumático de repuesto Portaequipajes Contenedor de Combustible Receptores para remolque PROTECCION Parachoques Barras de soporte Estribos Blindado Protecciones para triángulos de suspensión Protector de cárter Cubrecárter Protector para radiador Protectores de manos Reposapiés Parabrisas Cubierta del enganche del remolque Guardabarros Protector contra rocas Funda Cubierta para Guardabarros Apoyapiés Piezas de plástico para el carenado Protector del piñón AGRICULTURA Barrena Retroexcavadora Remolques forestales Divisor de troncos Segadoras Cortacésped Segadora Caso motosierra Pulverizadores Esparcidor Escoba Giratoria Azada rotativa Remolcables Remolques Astilladora de madera Aspiradora INVIERNO Quitanieves Calentadores Orugas para nieve kit Cadenas de nieve Sacanieve Ropa Calentada Soporte para taladros para hielo PIEZAS para UTV Parachoques Cinturones de seguridad Bolsas y Portaequipajes Puertas Techo Asientos Escape Quad Parabrisas Blindado Protector de cárter Protecciones para triángulos de suspensión Kit de guardabarros Protectores de faros Triángulos de suspensión Espejo Soporte de matrícula Estribos Cabina Equipo de sobrealimentación Kit gráfico Ajustes del motor OTROS Levas de acción Cabrestantes Equipo para de montaje de cabrestantes Iluminación GPS y Velocímetro Caza Fundas para Armas Ropa Protectora Sistema Bluetooth Sistema de sonido Baterías Rampas Cargadores Ropa para Piloto Kit gráfico
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Physicians for a National Health Program - Western Washington Physicans for a National Health Program - Western Washington Chapter
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Benedict''s Boardies *site under re-construction* Alice in Wonderland*, English. 22nd January 2014 ~ Those red board shorts flashed on my screen and absolutely nothing has been the same since... Psst. This is the primary...
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LufTex.com aka Eddie Bryant''s Home Page Primary areas of family research AL, GA, KY, KS, MO, MD, NC, OK, PA, TN, TX, VA
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Neuigkeiten - Kloster Neustadt Leidenschaft für die Mission Schwester Theresita Wanitschek OP feierte am Mittwoch 3 April ihren 80 Geburtstag im Kloster St Josef in Neustadt wo sie am 1 August 1952 auch in den Orden der Missionsdominikanerinnen der heiligen Katharina von Siena eingetreten ist Ich wollte Missionsdominikanerin werden und mein sehnlichster Wunsch war nach Afrika zu gehen und zu helfen wo die größte Not herrschte erzählt die Jubilarin Sie wurde am 3 April 1933 als Helga Wanitschek in Wichstadtl im Adlergebirge in Ostböhmen heute Tschechien geboren und musste schon als Zwölfjährige am 2 Juni 1945 mit ihrer Mutter über Nacht von Haus und Hof fliehen Sechs Wochen wanderten wir durch ein vom Krieg zerschossenes Deutschland erzählt sie Vom Berliner Spreewald über Sachsen seien sie in der damaligen Ostzone in der Nähe von Bad Schmiedeberg gelandet und von dort aus nachts über den Stacheldraht in den Westen Bei Bad Neustadt Saale fand die kleine Familie mit dem inzwischen aus dem Krieg heim gekehrten Vater zusammen Nach dem Noviziat im Missionshaus St Josef absolvierte Sr Theresita eine Ausbildung zur Erzieherin Eigentlich habe sie in einem Heim für Kinder aus sozial geschädigtem Umfeld arbeiten sollen das der Orden damals in der Nähe von Hamm in Westfalen eröffnen wollte Das Vorhaben habe sich jedoch zerschlagen und so ging Sr Theresitas Herzenswunsch in Erfüllung Sie wurde im August 1957 vom Orden nach Swaziland Südafrika gesandt Dort studierte sie Lehramt für Grund und Hauptschule unterrichtete Mathematik und im kreativen Bereich an der St Theresas School in Manzini Swaziland einer vom Orden geführten Primary und HighSchool mit rund 900 Schülerinnen Sr Theresita leitete die 350 Schülerinnen zählende Primary School Eine ehemalige Schülerin trat eines Tages mit der Bitte an die Ordensschwestern heran elf Meilen von Manzini entfernt eine zweite Schule zu eröffnen damit den Kindern der tägliche kilometerlange Fußmarsch zur Schule erspart bliebe Man erhielt ein Stück Land und im April 1973 wurden dort zum ersten Mal 23 Kinder unterrichtet bei schönem Wetter sogar im Klassenzimmer unter einem großen Baum Als Schulglocke diente eine am Ast hängende ausgediente Pflugschar und die Kinder schrieben auf Schiefertafeln Durch Spenden aus Deutschland konnten wir jedes Jahr ein neues Klassenzimmer anbauen erzählt Sr Theresita Was damals im Kleinen begann ist heute eine Schule auf der die Kinder bis zur Mittleren Reife unterrichtet werden 1981 kehrte Sr Theresita nach Deutschland zurück Ihre Gesundheit ließ einen weiteren Aufenthalt in Südafrika nicht zu Im Missionshaus St Josef übernahm sie andere Aufgaben zurzeit hat sie das Amt der stellvertretenden Priorin inne Sie arbeitete eineinhalb Jahre lang im Reha Zentrum St Michael und seit 1989 in der Provinzverwaltung der Missionsdominikanerinnen Ebenso lange schon betreut und verwaltet sie das Provinzarchiv des Ordens Sr Theresita ist interessiert an allem was ihre Heimat Böhmen betrifft und führt Interessierte durch Neustadts Historie Quelle Artikel aus der Mainpost vom 03 04 2013 Autorin Martina Schneider Schwester Nicoletta Koser feierte am 29 Oktober 2012 im Missionshaus St Josef in Neustadt am Main die Vollendung ihres 75 Lebensjahres Ein Dankgottesdienst zelebriert von Weihbischof Dr Karl Heinz Dietz aus Fulda mit Konzelebration ihres Bruders Pfarrer Gerd Koser bildete das Herzstück ihres Ehrentages Weihbischof Dietz langjähriger Freund von Schwester Nicoletta und der Dominikanerinnen verglich das lange Leben mit einer Pilgerreise zum einen die Pilgerreise der Erinnerungen die zur Pilgerreise des Herzens werden können das entdeckt dass das eigene Leben berufen ist sein Ziel in Gott zu finden so manche Erinnerungen stellen sich als Offenbarungen Gottes heraus Zum Mittagessen hatte Schwester Nicoletta ihre Mitschwestern Geschwister und Freunde ins Gasthaus Engel in Neustadt eingeladen die Gelegenheit sich der Jubilarin und einander in Ruhe im Gespräch zu widmen Liebe Schwester Nicoletta von Herzen Gottes Segen Kraft und Freude für dein neues Lebensjahr Aus dem Unterrichtsgespräch heraus hatte sich die Idee ergeben am 4 Juli kamen 28 Drittklässler aus der Grundschule Sackenbach mit ihrer Lehrerin Frau Krug ins Kloster Neustadt um zu sehen wo und wie ihre Religionslehrerin Sr Eva Angelika lebt Die Kinder hatten viele Fragen mitgebracht und waren ganz begierig das Missionshaus St Josef von innen kennen zu lernen Viel Freude machte den Kindern und ihrer Lehrerin das Picknick im Innenhof bei Sonnenschein Redlich müde nach dem spannenden Vormittag verabschiedeten sich die Kinder Danke dass du uns eingeladen hast dein Kloster ist echt schön Am Sonntag dem 1 Juli erlebten die Schwestern Demetria Greis und Liboria Menke im Gottesdienst eine besondere Überraschung Pfarrvikar Sebastian Herbert ehrte sie für ihren langjährigen treuen Dienst in der Pfarrgemeinde Neustadt Zugleich dankte er Herrn Robert Völker herzlich für seinen Einsatz als Lektor und Kommunionhelfer und verabschiedete ihn mit einem guten fränkischen Bocksbeutel Herr Völker hatte diese Dienste fast 40 Jahre lang versehen Sr Demetria hat seit 1987 den Küsterdienst inne Sr Liboria spielt die Orgel und leitet den Kirchenchor Pfarrvikar Herbert überreichte den beiden Schwestern eine Urkunde und steckte ihnen die Ehrennadel mit dem Wappen der Diözese Würzburg ans Skapulier Am Samstag dem 23 Juni waren die Kommunionkinder der Pfarreiengemeinschaft St Laurentius Marktheidenfeld mit ihren Eltern zu Besuch im Kloster Neustadt um ihre Sr Magdalena zu besuchen und sich das Kloster von innen anzuschauen In zwei sich abwechselnden Gruppen wurden die Kommunionfamilien durch die Pfarrkirche von Neustadt und das Mssionshaus St Josef geführt Fazit des Besuches Es war ein gelungener Abschluss des Erstkommunionkurses Einblicke in das Treffen der Schwestern Seit dem Fronleichnamsfest sind die Schwestern des Kongregationsleitungsteams im Missionshaus St Josef in Neustadt zu Gast sie beraten über wichtige Dinge die die Zukunft der Gemeinschaft der Missionsdominikanerinnen betreffen Ebenfalls in Neustadt sind die Schwestern der Kommission Charisma Identität und Sendung die zusammen mit dem Leitungsteam über Leitbild und Sendungsauftag der Kongregation in heutiger Zeit berät Die Neustädter Missionsdominikanerinnen feierten am 29 April dem Gedenktag der Ordenspatronin Katharina von Siena in ihrem Dießener Haus ein Doppeljubiläum Vor 60 Jahren gelobten die Schwestern Adelinde Ostheimer und Mellita Wolf ihre Treue zu Gott und der Ordensgemeinschaft Ihr eigentlicher Professtag ist der 30 April damals im Jahr 1952 noch der Gedenktag der heiligen Katharina der nach der Liturgiereform des II Vatikanischen Konzils auf den 29 April verlegt wurde den Todestag Katharinas Schwester Adelinde 82 Jahre alt stammt aus Großostheim und ist die Älteste von 12 Geschwistern Da ihr Vater Schneider war wuchs sie mit diesem Handwerk auf Lange Jahre ihres Ordenslebens verbrachte Schwester Adelinde in Kalifornien USA und Argentinien in Deutschland führte ihr Weg sie nach Neustadt Bad Brückenau Volkersberg und Dießen dort verbringt sie auch ihren aktiven Ruhestand Schwester Adelinde ist bekannt für ihr Talent sich in jeder Situation zurecht zu finden ob als Provinzoberin in Kalifornien als Priorin in verschiedenen Gemeinschaften als Mitschwester in der Gemeinschaft tatkräftig und nimmermüde packt sie überall mit an und lässt sich kaum durch die Beschwernisse des Alters in ihrem Tatendrang bremsen Schwester Mellita Wolf 81 Jahre alt stammt aus Hausen bei Kleinwallstadt Sie gehörte zu den ersten Schwestern die in Oakland Kalifornien im Seminar St Albert s der Dominikanerpatres zu arbeiten anfingen 1974 kam sie als Pionierin nach Argentinien und baute die Mission dort mit auf Schwester Mellita war vor allem in Hauswirtschaft und Küche tätig Nach Jahren in Argentinien kam sie nach Flörsheim ins Marienkrankenhaus und war dort Chefin der Bettenzentrale Ihren Ruhestand verbringt sie in Dießen die immer froh gestimmte und humorvolle Frau kocht für ihre Schwestern den Frühkaffee und setzt sich im Gästebetrieb des Hauses und an der Pforte ein Gottes Segen und Freude zu eurem Jubiläum und herzlichen Dank für all euren Einsatz Generalvikar Dr Karl Hillenbrand begrüßte Schwester Dagmar Fasel OP am 15 März 2012 mit einem Blumenstrauß im Bischöflichen Ordinariat Sie übernimmt die neu geschaffene Aufgabe als Referentin für die Koordinations und Fachstelle Prävention sexualisierte Gewalt Die Präventionsarbeit gilt der Vorbeugung von sexueller Gewalt an Kindern Jugendlichen und erwachsenen Schutzbefohlenen im kirchlichen Bereich und kann und soll wesentlich dazu beitragen dass Fälle von sexuellem Missbrauch künftig verhindert werden betonte Schwester Dagmar kurz vor Übernahme der neuen Aufgabe Weiterlesen www bistum wuerzburg de Die Neustädter Missionsdominikanerinnen trauern um Sr Bertha Müller Sie verstarb plötzlich am vergangenen Sonntag dem 12 Februar 2012 in Diessen am Ammersee Die gelernte Verwaltungsfachfrau wurde 1935 geboren legte 1959 Profess ab und arbeitete ca 50 Jahre in der Verwaltung des Marienkrankenhauses in Flörsheim sie war zuständig für die Patientenaufnahme Die letzten Jahre verbrachte Sr Bertha in unserer Gemeinschaft im Kloster St Josef in Diessen am Ammersee Sr Bertha der Herr schenke dir die ewige Ruhe und lasse dich ruhen in seinem Frieden Das Requiem ist am Mittwoch dem 15 Februar um 10 30 Uhr in der Kirche St Johann Diessen anschließend die Beisetzung auf dem Diessener Friedhof Sr Jacinta Grübel aus Erlach am Main nützt ihren derzeitigen Heimaturlaub um mit ihren Angehörigen Freunden und Mitschwestern die Vollendung ihres 80 Lebensjahres zu feiern Die ausgebildete Lehrerin lebt in Pietermaritzburg Südafrika in unserer Gemeinschaft von Villa Assumpta wo 28 Seniorinnen und Senioren von den Missiondominikanerinnen betreut werden Sr Jacinta ist u a für das Bewegungstraining zuständig Liebe Sr Jacinta Gottes Segen für dein neues Lebensjahr Kraft Gesundheit und viel Freude Unser Bild zeigt Sr Jacinta Grübel li mit Priorin Sr Ursula Bomholt am 3 Februar 2012 im Missionshaus St Josef Seit Sonntag dem 29 Januar 2012 gehört Sr Nicoletta Koser wieder der Kommunität im Missionshaus St Josef in Neustadt am Main an Nach dem Ende ihrer Amtszeit als Provinzoberin der Fränkischen Provinz der Missionsdominikanerinnen 1992 1996 war sie in die Gemeinschaft von Dießen umgezogen dort erteilte sie in der Liebfrauenschule Religionsunterricht und stand den Schülerinnen mit Rat und Tat zur Seite Nach ihrer Versetzung in den Ruhestand arbeitete sie in der Gemeinschaft mit wo sie konnte Auf eigenen Wunsch wurde sie nun wieder nach Neustadt versetzt Provinzoberin Sr Christiane Sartorius verlas im Rahmen der besonders gestalteten Vesper die Eingliederungsurkunde und hieß Sr Nicoletta herzlich willkommen Wir freuen uns dass du bei uns bist liebe Sr Nicoletta und wünschen dir Gottes Freude und Segen auf unserem gemeinsamen Weg Am 21 Januar 2012 wurde Sr Hilke Stenner vom Missionshaus St Josef Neustadt zusammen mit neun weiteren engagierten Christen als Gottesdienstbeauftragte ausgesandt Pfarrer Martin von Neuendorf bei Lohr hatte die Männer und Frauen in den letzten eineinhalb Jahren ausgebildet Dr Helmut Gabel Würzburg zelebrierte die Messe in Neuendorf und überreichte den neuen Gottesdienstbeauftragten ihre Urkunden In seiner Predigt wies er darauf hin dass die Gottesdienstbeauftragten einen wichtigen Dienst in der Kirche inne haben da es ihre Aufgabe sei das gottesdienstliche Leben in den Gemeinden mit Wort Gottesfeiern Andachten Prozessionen etc in seinem Reichtum zu bewahren Sie würden den Menschen helfen die Anwesenheit Gottes immer wieder in seinem Wort der Frohen Botschaft zu erfahren Gottes Segen und Freude für deinen neuen Dienst liebe Sr Hilke Nach einem Jahr Sabbatzeit kehrte Sr Dagmar Fasel Kongregationspriorin von 2004 2011 wieder in die Kommunität Neustadt zurück Die Gemeinschaft der Schwestern hieß sie in einer kleinen Feier herzlich willkommen Eine Sabbatzeit wird gewährt zur Erholung und Neuorientierung nach langjährigem Dienst in einer schwierigen und verantwortungsvollen Aufgabe zur spirituellen Weiterbildung oder auch zu Beginn eines neuen Lebensabschnittes Danke Sr Dagmar für die in den letzten sechs Jahren getragene Verantwortung und Gottes Segen für alles was die Zukunft bringen wird Am 13 November 2011 dem Kirchweih Sonntag feierten die Dominikanerinnen auf dem Volkersberg Jubiläum Sie können auf 90 Jahre Leben und segensreiches Wirken auf dem heiligen Berg zurückblicken Aus diesem Anlass hat der Volkerser Pfarrgemeinderat eine Ausstellung über die Anfänge der Kongregation in Südafrika den Beginn auf dem Volkersberg die dort stationierten Schwestern und ihr Wirken zusammengetragen sie wurde im Foyer des Hauses Volkersberg eröffnet Die Kommunität Neustadt folgte der Einladung zum Fest und erlebte einen grandiosen Tag Mit den Schwestern Melanie Lehn und Marie Christopher Wehner leben im Moment zwei Schwestern auf dem Volkersberg sie sind zwar hauptamtlich nicht mehr in den Betrieb des Hauses eingebunden helfen aber gern aus wenn noch fleißige Hände und aufmerksame Herzen für das Wohl der Gäste gebraucht werden Sr Melanie kümmert sich vor allem um die Sakristeien der Klosterkirche und der Kapelle der Landvolkshochschule und verwaltet das Pfarrbüro Sr Marie Christopher bietet Meditationen für Frauengruppen an Dieses Jubiläum fand im Rahmen des Dorfjubiläums von Volkers statt das eine stolze tausendjährige Geschichte feiern darf Und da gehören die Dominikanerinnen einfach dazu Während der Feier im Konferenzsaal der Jugendbildungsstätte wurde einigen Personen die Ehrenmitgliedschaft in der Pfarrgemeinde Volkers verliehen die sich für die Förderung der Pfarrei und ihrer Menschen eingesetzt haben posthum Pfarrer Ulrich Debler und Gudrun Schubert dann Diakon Wilfried Beck Anna Stegmann Edwin Erhard 3 Rektor am Volkersberg den Schwestern Angelica Kliem Magdalena Stauder Melanie Lehn Thelma Schwind Den Festgottesdienst zelebrierte Domkapitular Hans Herderich mit den Konzelebranten Karl Ebner Ewald Wallrab und Diakon Wilfried Beck Am 5 November 2011 feierte Sr Anna Lucia Wannemacher in Neustadt mit ihren Verwandten Freunden und Mitschwestern 25 Jahre Zugehörigkeit zu den Missionsdominikanerinnen der Hl Katharina von Siena Oakford Natal Die Feier ihres Silbernen Ordensjubiläums fällt zusammen mit dem Ende eines Experimentes in Russland der Simulation einer Marsexpedition einen Tag zuvor hatten sechs Astronauten einen 520 Tage dauernden Versuch beendet eingeschlossen in einem 120m2 großen Raum zu leben und arbeiten um zu erproben ob diese Bedingungen einer Reise zum Mars durchzuhalten sind Prof Dr Reimund Bieringer Priester Professor an der Universität Leuvwen für Neues Testament Schulkamerad und langjähriger Freund von Sr Anna Lucia wies in seiner Predigt darauf hin dass es bei der Feier der 25 Jahre Ordensleben nicht um die Auswertung eines Experimentes nicht um das erfolgreiche Ende einer Simulation sondern um den Dank für real gelebtes Leben gehe Ein Leben das sich an Jesus Christus ausrichte der uns deutlich gesagt hat Er ist es der uns Leben in Fülle geben will der uns so sehr liebt dass er bereit ist sein Leben für uns zu geben der ein Freund nicht nur für die guten Tage ist sondern auch und gerade dann durchhält wenn es schwierig wird Für Ordensleute ist es tägliche Wirklichkeit mit Christus zu leben für viele Menschen in der Welt müssen wir dieses Leben als Simulation leben die zeigt es geht sich von Christus die Fülle des Lebens schenken zu lassen und dieses Leben in Fülle auch zu verkünden Gottes Segen in Fülle liebe Sr Anna Lucia für die nächsten 25 Jahre Leben mit Christus in der dominikanischen Gemeinschaft 50 Jahre Treue zu Gott und ihrer Ordensgemeinschaft den Neustädter Missionsdominikanerinnen durfte Sr Dorothee Teich am 15 Oktober in Neustadt am Main feiern Ihr eigentlicher Professtag ist der 10 Oktober aber am Samstag konnte sie mit ihren Verwandten Freunden und Mitschwestern dieses Jubiläum richtig feiern Alle meine Quellen entspringen in dir fasste Pater Stanley CMF Hausgeistlicher im Marienkrankenhaus Flörsheim die Treue und gelebte Beziehung des Ordensmenschen zu Gott mit den Worten des Psalmisten zusammen Sr Dorothee habe ihre Quelle in Gott und ihr Herz brenne für ihn Sr Dorothee hatte lange Jahrzehnte im Flörsheimer Krankenhaus der Missionsdominikanerinnen nun Teil der Marienkrankenhaus GmbH im OP gearbeitet und lebt seit Juli 2009 in der Kommunität Neustadt Herzlichen Glückwunsch und Gottes Segen zu deinem goldenen Jubiläum liebe Sr Dorothee Hoher Besuch ist seit gut zwei Wochen in Neustadt Das Leitungsteam der Kongregation der Missionsdominikanerinnen die Schwestern Paula Mary van der Walt Sheila Flynn Celia Smit Anna Oven und Christiane Sartorius arbeiten miteinander unter der Leitung von Sr Bridget Ehlert Schwestern des hl Ludwig zum Thema Teamfähigkeit Nach Treffen mit den Schwestern der Gemeinschaften Neustadt und Diessen wo dieses Thema unter anderem auf spielerische Weise Raum fand widmen sich die Schwestern in der Leitungsverantwortung nun verstärkt den Fragen um Leitungskompetenz und Teamfähigkeit Schwester Gabriele Wolf darf auf 70 vollendete Lebensjahre zurückblicken Am 1 September 1941 in Sulzheim bei Mainz geboren feierte sie jetzt am 3 September 2011 in Neustadt zusammen mit ihren Angehörigen und Mitschwestern ihren runden Geburtstag Die Dankandacht gestalteten ihre Nichten und Neffen die aus den eigenen musikalischen Reihen eine Familienband aufstellten Nach dem Mittagessen spielte diese noch einen musikalischen Nachtisch aus klassischen volkstümlichen und Gospel Stücken Zum Kaffee gab es dichterische Einlagen Sprüchlein und Verse die aus Schwester Gabrieles Leben erzählten und ihre guten Eigenschaften zu Tage förderten Schwester Gabriele langjährige Rektorin der Liebfrauenschule unserer inzwischen ehemaligen Mädchenrealschule in Dießen am Ammersee steckt noch voller Energie sie unterrichtet noch mit 10 Wochenstunden Biologie und Chemie bei den Ursulinen in Würzburg dort hatte sie als junge Lehrerin schon einen Teil ihrer Referendarszeit verbracht Gottes Segen und Freude zum neuen Lebensjahrzehnt Die Missionsdominikanerinnen trauern um Schwester Ruth Niessen OP Sie verstarb am 23 August 2011 nach schwerer Krankheit 85jährig im Krankenhaus in München Pasing Schwester Ruth war Trägerin des Bundesverdienstkreuzes und des Bayrischen Verdienstordens ihr wurde die Bruno Medaille und das Silberne Caritas und Samariterbild verliehen Sie war lange Jahre in Südafrika tätig Herausragend sind ihre Verdienste um das Rehabilitationszentrum für psychisch Kranke Haus St Michael in Neustadt am Main das Vertreter der Caritas und die Missionsdominikanerinnen 1977 gegründet hatten Schwester Ruth hatte von 1977 1995 die Leitung inne baute das Haus St Michael auf und aus Seit 1999 lebte sie in unserer Gemeinschaft in Dießen am Ammersee R I P Das Requiem findet am Freitag dem 26 August um 10 30 Uhr in Dießen in der Kirche St Johann statt anschließend ist die Beisetzung auf dem Friedhof St Johann Wir freuen uns dass zur Zeit wieder einige unserer Missionarinnen aus Südafrika auf Heimaturlaub in Deutschland sind Sr Evangelist Balsfulland aus unserem Bildungshaus Koinonia in Johannesburg Sr Francesca Ledderboge vom Bluff in Durban Sr Clarina Markwart und Sr Hildegunde Runne aus unserer Kommunität in der Missionstation St Boniface in Kimberley Wir wünschen euch eine gesegnete Zeit mit euren Verwandten Freunden und Mitschwestern in Deutschland Sr Evangelist Balsfulland Sr Francesca Ledderboge Sr Hildegunde Runne Sr Clarina Markwart Am 18 und 19 Juni 2011 fand im Pfarrzentrum St Gallus im Rahmen des Stadtfestes ein Flohmarkt mit Cafeteria statt Gerda Kohl die Organisatorin des Flohmarktes und ihr Mann Engelbert haben mit einem eifrigen Helferteam wieder viele Kartons mit Dingen ausgepackt die ihnen im Lauf der letzten Monate gebracht wurden Geschirr Gläser Schmuck Küchengeräte Computer und Fernsehzubehör Bücher Schallplatten CD s Kassetten Tischdecken und viele andere schöne nützliche und interessante Dinge Mit viel Liebe sortiert und für die Besucher aufgebaut ein verlockendes Angebot Dazu wurde Kaffee und Kuchen angeboten die Frauen von Flörsheim hatten leckere Rezepte ausgesucht so dass man sich für den Gang durch den Flohmarkt richtig stärken konnte Zu verdanken ist die Initiative mit Flohmarkt und Weihnachtsbasar Lissy Ruppert der Vorsitzenden des Ausschusses Mission Entwicklung Frieden des Pfarrgemeinderates von St Gallus Der Erlös aus Flohmarkt und Cafeteria kommt dieses Mal den Missionsdominikanerinnen zu Gute Am 2 Juni 2011 übernahm Sr Ursula Bomholt im Rahmen einer feierlichen Vesper von Sr Theresita Wanitschek das Amt der Hauspriorin Wir wollen vollziehen wofür die Gemeinschaft am 9 April gestimmt hat erklärte die Provinzverantwortliche Sr Christiane Sartorius zu Beginn der Vesper Zum Zeichen dass der auferstandene Herr Jesus Christus uns auf unseren Wegen führt und dass die Schwestern der Gemeinschaft zusammen mit ihrer neuen Priorin unterwegs sind wurde Sr Ursula eingeladen vor dem Altar die brennende Osterkerze zu halten jede Schwester ging nach vorn entzündete eine Kerze am Osterlicht und steckte sie in eine Schale Im Gebet wurde Sr Theresita der ebenfalls aus dem Dienst scheidenden Stellvertreterin Sr Hilke Stenner und den Schwestern die bislang den Hausrat gebildet hatten für ihre Arbeit gedankt und Gottes Segen für die Zukunft gewünscht Am 14 Mai 1946 in Mainz Bretzenheim geboren darf Schwester Hilke Stenner auf 65 Lebensjahre zurückblicken Die ausgebildete Apothekenhelferin und Sozialarbeiterin ist seit vielen Jahren im Rehabilitationszentrum für psychisch Kranke in Neustadt angestellt und ist stets bemüht den Patienten mit ihrer frohen offenen und hoffnungsvollen Art entscheidende Perspektiven für ihr zukünftiges Leben mitzugeben Herzlichen Glückwunsch und Gottes Segen für das neue Lebensjahr Am 14 Mai feierte Schwester Martha Meinert aus Borghorst Steinfurt im Münsterland ihre Goldene Ordensprofess 50 Jahre Leben für Gott und die Menschen in der Gemeinschaft der Missionsdominikanerinnen von Neustadt Aufmerksam auf die Schwestern wurde sie durch einen Kaplan ihrer Heimatpfarrei der in Freckenhorst im Bildungshaus Exerzitien machte Hier traf sie schon die Schwestern Ehrengard Benken und Cordelia Siestrup letztere stammt wie sie aus Borghorst Profess legte Schwester Martha am 5 Mai 1961 in England ab dort lebte sie fünf Jahre bei unseren Schwestern um Englisch zu lernen gleichzeitig wurde sie dort zur Krankenschwester ausgebildet Von 1968 1995 war sie in Südafrika eingesetzt und erlernte zusätzlich den Beruf der Hebamme Seit nunmehr zehn Jahren lebt sie in der Schwesterngemeinschaft in Neustadt und kümmert sich besonders um die betagten Mitschwestern Zahlreiche Verwandte und Schwestern von Volkersberg und Flörsheim feierten mit Schwester Martha und der Neustädter Gemeinschaft diesen Festtag Schwester Ursula Bomholt OP ist die neu gewählte Priorin der Dominikanerinnen im Kloster Neustadt Sie tritt damit die Nachfolge von Schwester Theresita Wanitschek an die dieses Amt seit dem Jahr 2008 inne hatte Schwester Theresita wurde jetzt von den Schwestern zur Subpriorin Stellvertreterin der Priorin gewählt Schwester Ursula wurde 1939 geboren und stammt aus Nordrhein Westfalen Sie lebte 40 Jahre in den USA arbeitete dort als Lehrerin in der Studentenseelsorge und als geistliche Begleiterin Seit 2010 lebt sie auf dem Volkersberg arbeitet in der Pfarrei Bad Brückenau mit und ist schwerpunktmäßig in die Seelsorge in den Seniorenheimen eingebunden
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Ann Gibbons--Author of The First Human Ann Gibbons is the author of The First Human: The Race to Discover Our Earliest Ancestors. She is a correspondent for Science magazine, where she has been the primary writer on human evolution for more than a decade. Here you can find excerpts and reviews of her book, an archive of her articles and information about her upcoming talks.
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Cleanse | If you desire to achieve an optimal state of health, I highly recommend completing a deep intestinal cleansing program. It is almost unbelievable how quickly some people overcome serious health issues by doing a simple but deep intestinal cleanse. Even those who appear to be in good health also benefit greatly from our Transformational Cleanse. Why is this? When done properly a deep cleanse helps the body to eliminate pounds of toxins, acids, mucus, unnatural growths and a huge amount of mucus and congestion. Too much mucus in our body interferes with circulation of blood, brain, and lymphatic system. Deep cleansing not only improves circulation, but also significantly improves the immune system as well, rather dramatically I might add. Observing the blood before and after the Cleanse reveals a significantly improved immune function and much cleaner blood. For an example: Measuring the movements of neutrophils before and after a Cleanse is utterly remarkable. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cells that seeks out unnatural debris and consumes them. Before a cleanse they move like a slug in the garden, so slow that they hardly seem like their even moving and after the cleanse they move approximately 6 to 10 times faster. Imagine what that might mean to you if your body was dealing with a pathogen. Our Cleanse is well known for improving the digestive system, and this of course, benefits the entire body and mind. It is obvious that the digestive system, which includes the entire gastrointestinal tract, sometimes referred to as the gut, is the hub or core of our entire body. It feeds all our organs, our glands, and every single cell. When the digestive system becomes sluggish, over-acid and toxic, as it does in over 80% of the US, it loses its integrity and the strength to function properly and to defend itself against parasites, pathogenic bacteria, yeast and fungus. Then we find digestive diseases and cellular mutations developing in the gut. Almost every disease in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with acids, toxins and stress. It has been estimated that 80% to 90% of the public have a weakened digestive system, an altered gut microbiome (bacteria). As acids and toxins accumulate in the gut, they can burn, damage or kill the cells along the intestinal wall, and the intestinal cells respond by secreting massive amounts of mucins. Mucins are glycoprotein solutions and very sticky and viscous mucus-like substance that are designed to adhere strongly to the intestinal wall. Each time the cells come in contact with more acids or toxins, another layer is formed along the intestinal wall. As long as acids and toxins continue to pass through the intestines and/or should they accumulate in the gut wall, the intestinal cells continue to create more layers of mucins. Doctor Bernard Jensen, my mentor, wrote about a man whose colon had stretched to being 14 inches in diameter with a hole about the size of a pencil running through the center. That of course was an extreme case, but provides an image of how important it is to learn how to eat according the our human design as opposed to eating like pigs. A pig will eat just about anything that is put in front of them. There are well over 100 clinical studies that describe mucin accumulations in the gut and how they are related to disease. The term mucoid plaque was created to define the unnatural accumulation of mucins caused by a highly toxic intestinal environment. Once the mucoid plaque accumulates to a certain degree, major problems begin to occur. For an example: Too many layers of mucins can interfere with the natural muscular actions of the intestines (peristalsis) that are essential for moving food through the intestines in a timely manner. Though there are several different mechanisms that can cause constipation, this is the number one cause. Most Naturopathic physicians define constipation as having less than 3 bowel movements daily, that is, if you eat 3 meals a day. Ideally, if we eat 3 meals daily we should have 4 BM's daily. When we first get up in the morning and about 30 minutes after each meal. When a person has less than one BM daily, they are definitely heading for serious chronic and degenerative disease. When layers of mucoid plaque in the stomach reach a certain degree of thickness, there will be an interference with hydrochloric acid production and this is one of the primary causes of digestive disturbances and the inability to digest proteins properly. We cannot digest protein without hydrochloric acid, and when we cannot digest protein fully, then many undigested proteins will enter the body and be deposited in weaker areas of the body. After they accumulate to a certain degree, the body will do all it can to remove them and when it cannot, they become precursors to many diseases. Autoimmune diseases are one example among many. Here are two examples of how important it is to have normal levels of hydrochloric acid. As early as 1975, 80% of people being treated in hospitals had no hydrochloric acid production. And in the 1918 pneumonia epidemic that killed an estimated 50 to 100 million people, most of the people who died were those who had no hydrochloric acid production. Hydrochloric acid in the stomach prevents pathogenic microbes and parasites from entering the inner sanctum of our gastrointestinal tract. Though pneumonia is usually associated with the lungs, the body with a normal constitution can usually handle pneumonia until the pathogens get past the stomach (from a lack of hydrochloric acid) and contaminate the gut. When the gut is infected, then the immune system can be completely overwhelmed and then during a major epidemic, death is almost certain, unless the bowels can be cleared of the infection, the normal microbial environment restored and the immune system strengthened. When layers of mucoid plaque reach a certain degree of thickness, the intestinal environment completely changes, and so do its inhabitants; the gut microbes. Everyone who has been breastfed established the natural-to-humans-microbes, which are absolutely essential for a strong immune system, a strong constitution and a long healthy life. The natural-to-humans-microbes are absolutely vital for the final stages of digestion, and vital for us to acquire certain health essential nutrients such as the B Vitamins, and vital to maintain proper weight, to be lean and strong as opposed to being over weight, which is a precursor to disease. Through the use of antibiotics or eating and drinking unnatural to human food, we lose the natural-to-humans-microbes. This is very serious and over 266 common diseases in our society have been directly linked with having lost the natural-to-humans-microbes given to us by our mother's milk. Recent studies have shown that all people who are obese or overweight have a predominate population of bacteria that are lactic-acid producing (lactobacillus), the primary bacteria in over 95% of probiotics on the market today. Studies now show that having a predominate gut population of lactobacillus eventually leads to obesity and all the diseases associated with obesity. Whereas, all lean and healthy people have a dominant population of natural-to-humans-microbes, which are the exact microbes that we receive from our mother's milk. Once again, Nature has proven Her wisdom to be vastly superior to so called human intelligence. Though there are numerous causes for being over weight, antibiotics have now been identified as the primary cause of the obesity epidemic. This has been confirmed by a major study at the New York University School of Medicine. The primary cause of obesity is the complete destruction of all the natural-to-humans-gut microbes and the introduction of unnatural to humans' bacteria. It may take 2 or more decades to destroy your gut microbiome by eating unnatural to human food, but it only takes a few days with antibiotics. Once your natural-to-humans-gut-microbes has been destroyed they will be replaced with species of microbes that are attracted to the intestinal environment you created. If your intestinal environment is full of toxins, bowel pockets, undigested substances, and diverticula, then you will attract certain types of reducer microbes that do not support your health, but join the process of decay. And once established it is no easy task to reestablish the natural-to-humans-microbes until after you have reestablished a natural clean gut environment that is free of toxic accumulations. Therefore: Cleanse & Purify Thyself. Environment determines the specie that lives there. Trying to change the specie without changing the environment is close to impossible, and should one succeed, it will be only a matter of time and the old specie will return. We must change the environment and then you can change the specie. This is why deep intestinal cleansing is so important! When layers of mucoid plaque reach a certain degree of thickness, the ability for digestive enzymes to mix with food is inhibited. Imagine the food you eat has moved into the upper small intestines where the pancreatic and bile duct secrete their juices needed for proper digestion. These juices and the 22 other digestive enzymes secreted throughout the small intestines must enter the gut lumen to mix with your food and help digest the meal. But if the juices are met with layers of mucoid plaque and cannot contact your food, then you will not be able to fully digest your meal and undigested foods become toxins to your body. One study involving infants that suffered from poor digestion. Biopsies revealed that the children had abnormal accumulations of mucin and the doctor was convinced that these children were unable to digest their food properly because mucin accumulations prevented the enzymes from contacting the food. Food cannot be digested without enzymes. When undigested food remains in the intestines some becomes trapped in pockets called bowel pockets and if one eats commercially grown food instead of organically grown food, highly toxic chemicals such as pesticides, fungicide, herbicides, lead, arsenic, cadmium, sulfates and other highly toxic chemicals, most of which are carcinogenic, combine with mucoid plaque and accumulate in the bowel pockets. Some of these poisonous particles seep through the plaque and stimulate the intestinal wall triggering more mucins to add additional layers of mucoid plaque. Some will be picked up by the blood and will weaken the liver and some may get past the liver and settle in the kidneys and other parts of the body causing weakness and dysfunction at that locality. In many cases the body will attempt to remove these undigested substances through fermentation, which creates additional acids, free radicals, and attract specialized reducer organisms (microbes) that help remove the toxic sludge, mucus and pus, but simultaneously harms our body. With all of the above going on it is no wonder that so many people have constipation. When we are constipated what moves the food? Pressure of course, from more food coming down the intestinal tube. When there is too much pressure in the intestines you can develop a major stretching of the intestinal wall, especially in the colon. This forces toxins and other materials never meant to enter the tissues to enter the blood and lymph and poison the entire body in abnormal ways. The first sign of systemic toxicity is chronic fatigue. This pressure can also cause bowel pockets, which weaken tissues, to stretch and expand exterior to the gut wall. This is diverticulum, which is described as an abnormal sac or pouch formed at a weak point in the wall of the alimentary canal. The Merck Manual (medical doctors bible) states that diverticula are present in 30 to 40% of persons over age 50, and their incidence increases with each subsequent decade of life, and that those who live long enough, diverticula will be present in close to 100% of the American people. Of course this does not include people who cleanse themselves, nor those who eat naturally. You should now be able to imagine how horribly filthy most people's guts have become and why is so many people attract worms and parasites, and why unnatural growths such as polyps are created and how extreme toxic matter and acids are the forerunner of diverticulitis, liver diseases, cancer and heart disease and why some of the greatest doctors in the world have said that 90% of all the diseases in our world can be traced to the intestines. My friend and mentor, Dr. Bernard Jensen, one of the physicians to Mahatma Gandhi, the King of Hunza and many Hollywood stars, was the only doctor in the world that was awarded the greatest doctor in the world award, stated: "The name of a disease depends upon where the poisons settle. Thus, from the same source, the same cause, various names of disease are given." Our "Transformational Cleanse" became world famous, not just because of the benefits that people have by doing the Cleanse, but because of the amounts of mucoid plaque that are removed from people's intestines during the cleanse. As I said, mucoid plaque is a substance that is formed by the goblet cells secreting mucin in the stomach and intestinal tract, when the epithelium wall of these organs are under attack from toxins and acids and parasites. This is an automatic defense system. We have millions of these glands throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract that, when under attack, secrete mucins. These conditions cause a rapid cascading or plummeting of health. An example is when we cannot digest food efficiently, there will be deposits of undigested proteins and carbohydrates that will settle in weaken areas of the body. As these deposits accumulate we become susceptible to inflammation, yeast, fungus and mold infections, Leaky Bowel Syndrome, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), invasion of pathogenic microorganism, parasites, and ever increasing accumulations of toxicity in the intestines, liver, kidneys, brain, and practically any organ is directly linked to toxicity in the bowels. This means a weakening of every part of the body. In America, many people have become addicted to eating an unnatural-to-human diet of over-processed, devitalized unnatural food, which is high in fats, way too high in protein, deficient in minerals and vitamins and other nutrients. Most of this food is commercially grown and has been grown unnaturally and contains pesticides, herbicides and fungicides, which are all highly toxic poisons designed to kill something. As if that were not enough, they are grown on soil that contains high amounts of lead, arsenic and other highly toxic heavy metals, which had been used in pesticides and fungicides as the chief killing agent, and which contaminated the soil and which gets absorbed into the food. Commercially grown produce is generally grown on damaged and depleted soil that's even deficient in the natural microbes needed to help plants absorb vital nutrients. As though commercially grown food wasn't damaging people fast enough, most of the commercially grown food is now grown from GMO seeds, which is the worst of the worst, the most diabolical offense against mankind, God and Nature that has ever occurred in the history of the world. GMO plants are forcing nature to mutate and no one can predict the damage this will cause in the future. GMO foods, along with all the unnatural poisonous chemicals in the air, water and soil, and pharmaceutical drugs, have put the human race and all living things at risk. This is all in the name of greed, money and power. Some of the GMO food contains the most cancer-causing substance ever found in food. Eating commercially grown food, which is deficient in critical nutrients and contains toxic chemicals along with other unnatural food choices, such as processed foods, commonly causes the bowels and the whole body to become unnaturally acidic and toxic. These are the primary causes behind the accumulations of mucoid plaque and the advancement of diseases. As the bowels become toxic, the body's blood supply also becomes toxic. It is impossible to have clean blood and a clean liver when the bowels are toxic. Dirty intestinal tract is a major contributing factor in liver problems. This is because when blood travels from the intestines, carrying the necessary nutrients to feed all the body's cells, tissues and organs, it must pass through the liver, before it reaches anywhere else. Thus the liver becomes increasingly sluggish as it attempts to process relentless toxicity, day after day, year after year. A well-functioning digestive system and liver is the key to a long and vibrant life. There are more than 500 known functions of the liver, many of which are essential for life, and all of which are essential for good health and vitality. Long before the liver begins to weaken, the bowels are already excessively toxic and sluggish. Cleansing the bowel allows the liver to release built-up toxins. Until toxins are gone, no organ can cleanse and strengthen itself. Cleansing the intestines is the first and most important action to cleansing the liver and every other organ and all the way to the cells. Intestinal cleansing is the most important thing we can do for the liver. Trying to cleanse the liver with herbs or anything else without cleansing the intestines, is like trying to clean your clothes in the washing machine while using the same water you have been using for the last year. You just move the filth to another locality. The number one report we hear from people who used our Transformational Cleanse is that they have significantly more energy. It is also common to feel a profound increased sense of well-being, improved skin appearance and greater mental clarity, release from pains and other discomforts, are common testimonies. Constipation is greatly reduced or completely gone. Those who meditate tell us their meditation deepens. Many people feel a much deeper and closer feeling with the Divine. The testimonies reflect a broad spectrum of benefits and experiences, ranging from mild to profound. Over the last 29 years I have always been truly amazed at how many people find that during the deepest part of the cleanse, especially the Master Phase, many people recall past unresolved traumatic memories. Upon their next release of mucoid plaque, the trauma is completely released forever. What follows is usually the elimination of some form of a long-standing health issue. We theorize that unresolved memories become stuck in the proteins in our body, such as mucoid plaque, and when a piece of mucoid plaque releases from the intestinal wall, the unresolved emotions emerges. Once it leaves the body, the emotion vanishes and along with it a significant health issues also vanishes. This lead me study how emotions influence our health. What I found was very profound. Fortunately, cleansing is relatively easy. It's a perfect, health-enhancing solution for those who want to experience greater energy and better health. Thus, I recommend The Arise & Shine cleanse, the time proven deep cleansing program. Please stop supporting this horrifying pollution of our planet, our children and ourselves. Eat only Organically Grown or Biodynamic grown food. Join us at Arise & Shine and Toni Toney's Ecotarian Revolution and together we can help change our world and ourselves. Together, lets help create Heaven on Earth. For more information I recommend that you read my book Cleanse & Purify Thyself. Richard Anderson One estimate claim that 500 million people died during that pneumonia epidemic which was also called the Influenza epidemic. Natural-to-humans-microbes are the friendly bacteria given to us by drinking fresh, raw human mother's milk. There is no substitute for mother's milk. Pharmaceutical formulas, soy formulas and pasteurized cow milk are the worst of the worst baby milk substitute. Next to fresh mother's milk would be fresh raw goat milk an/or carrot juice. Lactobacillus bacteria have their place in helping people over come serious pathogenic infections, but they should not be allowed to become the dominant gut bacteria in humans. Lactobacillus bacteria are designed for animals, not humans. To my knowledge my self and one other doctor in Japan are the only two people who have created a probiotic formula that helps establish a predominance of natural-to-humans-microbes in our guts. To me, this is almost unbelievable because it is so obvious what we really need in our guts. Microbiome and Obesity - Martin Blaser, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine Department of Biology, NYU, New York Harbor VA Medical Center Poley, J. Rainier. "The Scanning Electron Microscope: How Valuable In The Evaluation of Small Bowel Mucosal Pathology In Chronic Childhood Diarrhea?" Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 1991; May-June; 7(3), pg. 386-394. How many times have you seen the belly of men, women too, look like they are ready to give birth to a horse? The protrusion of people's guts is a definite sign that their health has greatly deteriorated and is going down hill very quickly. These are the kind of guys who get colon cancer. Remember John Wayne's belly; remember how many tumors were found in his colon? He killed himself with his fork. GMO - generically modified organism In the last 10 years over 200 species of animals, birds, fish, and insects have become extinct, per day! A word about "Natural." Beware of all labels that state that the product is "natural." Consider the word Natural on food labels as a warning telling us that it is not organically grown. A product label might state, "made with 100% natural ingredients," or "made with 100% organic ingredients." The "100%" claim often refers to one or two ingredients, which are "100% natural," or "100% organic," even if other ingredients are synthetic! This is deceptive and dishonest advertising. Technically the product is "made with" some small amount of all natural or organic ingredients so the claim is true, even though misleading and may even contain highly toxic elements such as MSG and other unnatural ingredients. "Natural" food labels can mean just about anything; they have no nutritional meaning whatsoever and are ignored by the FDA.
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Hospital | Martin County Hospital District | United States The mission of Martin County Hospital District is to set a new standatd of excellence for medical care in our service area. By combining expert knowledge of our staff in their respective fields with compassionate care, we will strive to be the number one provider of primary care.
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Selezione enorme di parti e accessori ATV e quad! - accessoriquad.it! accessoriquad.it Selezione enorme di parti e accessori ATV e quad! - accessoriquad.it! Selezione enorme di parti e accessori ATV e quad! - accessoriquad.it! RUOTE Pneumatici Riparazione pneumatici Cerchioni RICAMBI Motore e tubo di scarico Parte del motore Marmitte Kit per cilindri Albero a camme Kit guarnizioni Pistoni Silenziatore marmitta Albero a gomito Kit biella Sterzo Ammortizzatore di sterzo Assi dello sterzo Stabilizzatori di sterzo Manubri Assali e distanziali Corpo assale Cinghie a V Bracci ad A Kit di Abbassamento Leve Leve Oscillanti Ammortizzatori Barra stabilizzatrice Radiatori Albero motore Frizioni Scatole frizioni Mozzo interno Piastre a pressione Copertura frizione Frizione antisaltellamento Catena Serbatoio carburante Mozzi ruote Pezzi di ricambio Cavi Parti elettroniche Statore Motorino avviamento CARGO Borse Borse dure Borse morbide Montaggio gomma di riserva Rastrelliere Contenitore combustibile Ricevitori ganci trainanti PROTEZIONE Paraurti Maniglie Nerf bar Corazza Proteggi braccia ad a Piastre paramotore Piastre sottomotore Proteggi radiatore Proteggi mano Poggiapiede Parabrezza Copri mozzo carrello Copriparafanghi Para sassi ATV Teloni Proteggi Parafango Pedane Parti del corpo in plastica Proteggi pignone AGRICOLTURA Trivella Retroescavatore Rimorchi forestali Spaccalegna Falciatrici Tosaerba Trinciatrice a motore Proteggi Motosega Spruzzatori Concimatrice angolo di scopa Zappatrice leggera a motore Rimorchio Carrelli da rimorchio Cippatrice  Aspirapolvere INVERNO Spazzaneve Caloriferi sistema di pista Catene da neve Macchina turboneve Veste Riscaldata Contenitore trivella da neve PEZZI UTV Paraurti Cinture di sicurezza Borse & Portapacchi Porte Tetto Sedili Tubo di scarico Parabrezza Corazza Piastre scivolanti Proteggi braccia ad a Kit per parafanghi Proteggi Luci anteriori Braccia ad A Specchio Montaggio Targa Nerf bar Chiusura per cabina Kit compressore Kit grafici Messa a punto motore ALTRO Camme Argani Kit montaggio argano Luci GPS e contachilometri Caccia Custodia Porta Fucile Abbigliamento protettivo Sistema bluetooth Sistema audio Batterie Rampa Alimentatori Cambio Pilota Kit grafici
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The Fifth Point Of The Compass | Die fünfte Himmelsrichtung | Martin Prinoth The Fifth Point Of The Compass | Die fünfte Himmelsrichtung | Martin Prinoth | Dokumentarfilm | Against Reality Pictures | Miramonte Film | Arne Körner | Akin Sipal | Frank Scheuffele | Max Andrzejewski | Marco Mlynek | Jan Eichberg | Nela Märki | Jytte Hill | Martina Mahlknecht | Andreas Pichler | Filmförderung Hamburg Schleswig Holstein | idm Südtirol Alto Adige | RAI Südtirol | Autonome Provinz Südtirol | German Films | Filmemacher | HfbK Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg | Filmfestival Visioni Italiane Bologna | D.E-R. DAMS Award | Visioni DOC Award | 42. Mostra Sao Paolo | new directors competition | Doc Leipzig International Programme | Goethe Institut | nomination documentary award | euganea filmfestival | documentary award | migranti film festival documentary award | euregio student award Filmfestival Bolzano Bozen | 9th irep Lagos | Rhaeto-Romanic, German, Portuguese | The drama is reflected in geological dimensions, in primeval depths. Where does mankind’s desire to learn how the world was created come from? Where do we come from? There is stardust, the primary matter, the answer to the question, in the rocks at the bottom of the ocean. The origin of all life can be studied, but not necessarily the origin of an individual life. Martin Prinoth took his film to the bottom of the sea – where the primary stone is found. And where his cousin Georg’s body sank when he was killed in a plane crash over the Atlantic in 2009. Georg was adopted, like his brother Markus. They were born in Brazil and moved into a village in the Dolomites when they were small children, with no knowledge of their origin and who were or are their biological mothers. “The Fifth Point of the Compass” goes on an exceptionally sensitive and attentive quest for the roots and identities of its protagonists – from South Tyrol to Brazil and finally to the bottom of the ocean. Lukas Stern | catalogue text DOK Leipzig
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Lewis & Jurnovoy | Bankruptcy Attorneys Pensacola, FL Lewis & Jurnovoy are Bankruptcy lawyers serving Pensacola, Fort Walton, Panama City, and Crestview FL. The primary emphasis of our law firm is in the representation of individuals in Chapter 13 bankruptcy, Chapter 7 bankruptcy, & protecting against abusive debt collectors. Call for a free consultation.
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Rowlands Gill Primary School Rowlands Gill is a happy and caring school very much involved with the local community. We offer a safe, stimulating and structured environment in which your child can develop. A wide range of extra curricular activities and opportunities are also available to ensure a rich and stimulating learning experience for pupils.
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Veterinarians in San Martin, CA | VCA San Martin Animal Hospital VCA San Martin Animal Hospital provides primary veterinary care for your pets. VCA is where your pet''s health is our top priority and excellent service is our goal.
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Martin'Ecole Primary | Bilingual Primary School in Grand Baie, Mauritius The best Bilingual primary school for children living in the north of Mauritius. Martin'Ecole Primary is the sister school of the Martin'Ecol'ette nursery.
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St Martin''s Pre-Primary School St Martin''s Pre-Primary School
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Treasure Coast Primary Care | Trusted Health Care Providers Primary Health Care Services on the Treasure Coast of Florida since 2006 serving Stuart, Jensen Beach, Hobe Sound, Port St. Lucie and Tradition.
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Aggregates, Ready Mixed Concrete, Asphalt | CO, WY, UT, and NV | Martin Marietta A leading supplier of aggregates, crushed rock, ready mix, and asphalt to the Rocky Mountain region.
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Martin J. Neilan, MD - Internal Medicine in Wayne NJ - MDVIP Learn more about Martin J. Neilan, MD, Internal Medicine doctor in Wayne NJ and how their MDVIP practice can provide you fully personalized primary care.
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Home | St Martin''s Church of England Primary School St Martin''s Church of England Primary School
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Facebook The John A Martin Primary Health Care Center opened it's doors in 1992 with the goal of bring high quality health care to Fairfield County. Since that time, we have strived to fulfill that goal not only by providing superior medical care, but by employing a philosophy that emphasizes educating our patients on their unique health issues. We hope that you will come into the office soon to see what this approach to healthcare is all about.
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jimdenneyart Jim Denney was born and resides in Alexander City, Alabama. Jim attended Central Alabama Community College and the University of Montevallo. From a young age Jim showed an interest in drawing and painting with wildlife being the primary focus. Jim was hired as a graphic artist for a fortune five hundred company in 1992 using his talent and creativity to develop graphics for sportswear and apparel. Following that he started his own freelance business consisting of fine art, graphic art, and photography. Jim has won numerous awards for his art over the years. He won the Alabama duck stamp competition in 2007 and 2011. Other top awards include Best of Show in the Alabama Wildlife Federation Art Competition in 2009 and 2010, and Best of Wildlife division in the Energen Corporation "Wonders of Alabama Art" show in 2011 and 2013. Jim is very diverse in his artistic mediums using acrylic, watercolor, pastel, oils and is an avid photographer. He has also won awards for his wildlife and landscape photography. His clients have included Ducks Unlimited, National Wild Turkey Federation, Bass ProShops, Cabela's and Mack's Prairie Wings. Jim is married and lives with his wife Barbara on beautiful Lake Martin.
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E. Martin Maida, MD - Internal Medicine in Livingston NJ - MDVIP Learn more about E. Martin Maida, MD, Internal Medicine doctor in Livingston NJ and how their MDVIP practice can provide you fully personalized primary care.
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Affordable Concierge Medicine Internal & Primary Care Port St Lucie Stuart Affordable Concierge Medicine Internal & Primary Care Port St Lucie Stuart. St. Lucie and Martin county's source for Adult & Pediatric medicine, through an affordable Concierge Practice Model.
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International Nursery and Primary Bilingual School, Paris, France | Une école internationale primaire (maternelle et élémentaire) bilingue / 50% du temps scolaire en anglais / 16 élèves par classe / dans le 10ème arrondissement de Paris, entre le Jardin Villemin et le Canal Saint Martin.
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Fire Investigation Failure Analysis Consulting Martin Thermal Engineering provides broad-based consultation on thermal systems, fire/explosion investigation, and process failure analysis.
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Martin Walkow's Homepage My primary interests are in syntax and its relationship to morphology, with a secondary interest in pragmatics and semantics. In my PhD thesis, Im exploring the relation between syntax and morphology in various agreement processes. In particular, I'm developing a syntax driven approach to morphologically opaque clitics in Catalan and other Romance languages, and I'm working…
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Psychiatry San Antonio, Texas- Texas Family Psychiatry - Dr. Andrew Martin- Home Dr. Andrew Martin practices adolescent psychiatry & pediatric psychiatry and adult psychiatry in San Antonio, Texas. Dr. Martin graduated with an MD.
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"BRAIN-DEATH" IS KIDNAP...MEDICAL TERRORISM/MURDER BEGINS WITH YOUR OWN PERSONAL CARE PHYSICIAN (PCP)...ARREST TRUMP FOR FEMICIDE...TRUMP HEADS UP FEMICIDE RING OF 93 "FEDERAL" PROSECUTORS...RITA REVOLUTION...93 "FEDERAL" PROSECUTORS ARE THE ROOT OF ALL TERROR...CNN FUCKS UP...MEDICAL KIDNAP/GENOCIDE (REAL TERROR) IN THE U.S. SINCE 1963...THE BRADY BUNCH...ARREST SCOTT W BRADY FOR HARBORING MEDICAL TERRORISTS OF WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA...HIDDEN HOSPITAL HOLOCAUST OF AMERICA...ARREST AHN DOCTOR DEBORRA KIM ZAISER (PER THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE DEATH PENALTY)...IRS KIDNAP BY "BRAIN-DEATH"...TYRANNY IS DEADLY IN THE USA...END THE REAL TERROR, SCOTT W BRADY ("FEDERAL" PROSECUTOR)...PITTSBURGH''S ED JITNEY SAYS "DON''T BE BRAIN-DEAD"...EMILY MARBURGER (MAYOR OF BELLEVUE 15202), ARREST DR KIM ZAISER...911 IN A NUTSHELL...93 U.S. FEDERAL PROSECUTORS PROVIDE US WITH HARVARD''S HIDDEN HOLOCAUST OF AMERICA... The Magic of Hyperventilation G.M. Woerlee, 20052018 An incident occurring during the first few weeks I started my career in anesthesia made a deep impression upon me. It was the beginning of 1977, and I had just started an anesthesiology residency in the Fremantle Hospital in Western Australia. Everything was new and unfamiliar. I asked the anesthesiologist standing next to me, why the patient who was undergoing an operation under general anesthesia was sweating so profusely. His reaction surprised me, and was one I never forgot. He grabbed the anesthetic chart, began fanning the patient and himself, and remarked: Warm isnt it? It was not warm in the operating theater. The patient was simply inadequately anesthetized using the then popular Liverpool technique of anesthesia. The Liverpool technique of anesthesia was first described by Thomas Cecil Gray during 1952. It consists of the now standard method of using separate drugs to provide analgesia, muscle relaxation, and unconsciousness, while mechanically ventilating the patients with a respirator to prevent hypoxia (Gray 1952). Subsequent studies revealed that anesthetic drug dosages could be further reduced by mechanically hyperventilating patients under general anesthesia (Dundee 1952, McAleavy 1961). This latter effect is but one of the several fascinating effects of hyperventilation on the human body. In fact, hyperventilation exerts so many effects upon the body relevant to anesthesia and the functioning of the brain, that it deserves a separate discussion. So what is hyperventilation? But first, what is the role of carbon dioxide in the body? Role of carbon dioxide in the body Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of the energy-generating chemical reactions occurring within the cells of the body. Carbon dioxide produced by these chemical reactions within the cells of the body diffuses into blood which transports it into the lungs where it is eliminated from the body in exhaled air. But carbon dioxide is not just an inert waste product. It is also a vital component in the maintenance of the chemical environment of the body, because it also regulates the acidity of blood, as well as other fluids outside and inside each cell of the body. Regulation of acidity and alkalinity within the tissues of the body is extremely important. The machinery of the body is driven by myriad complex chemical reactions, and the sum total of these chemical reactions result in optimally healthy body function at a certain levels of acidity and alkalinity inside and outside the cells of the body. Acidity and alkalinity of fluids is expressed in terms of the pH, a scale varying from 0 to 14. A pH = 0 is maximally acid, a pH = 7 designates neutrality, being neither acid nor alkaline, while a pH =14 is maximally alkaline. A fluid is acid if the pH is less than 7, and is alkaline if the pH is greater than 7. Blood is slightly alkaline with a pH = 7.4, while the insides of cells are slightly acid with a pH = 6.9. Carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts reversibly with water (H2O) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). But carbonic acid is unstable at body temperature and is usually in the ionized state, forming hydrogen ion (H+), and bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) as in the chemical equation below. CO2 + H2CO3 ⇔ H+ + HCO3- At any given partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the tissues of the body, a balance exists between carbon dioxide and the bicarbonate concentration. This balance between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate ion determines the pH in blood and other tissues of the body. The Henderson-Hasselbach equation used to calculate the pH in blood shows this relationship in mathematical form. pH = 6.1 + log[HCO3-] (0.03 PCO2) The normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood is about 40 mmHg, and the normal bicarbonate concentration is about 24 millimoles per liter. Put these figures into the Henderson-Hasselbach equation above, and you get the pH of arterial blood which is 7.4. One more fact is needed to fully understand the effects of hyperventilation. This is the amount of bicarbonate in the body. As mentioned above, the concentration of bicarbonate in blood is 24 millimoles per liter. This is also true for all the fluids in between the cells of the body. Inside the cells of most tissues, the bicarbonate concentration is about 8 millimoles per liter. This means there is a lot of bicarbonate in the body. It takes time before such a large mass of bicarbonate ion decreases, or increases in size as a result of changes in blood carbon dioxide concentration. And it is this large mass of bicarbonate that lies at the origin of the effects of hyperventilation. So what is hyperventilation? What is hyperventilation? In practical terms, all carbon dioxide is eliminated from the body as a gas in exhaled air. When the volumes of air breathed into and out of the lungs increases above what is normal, more carbon dioxide than normal is eliminated from the body. This lowers the pressure of carbon dioxide within the body, whereby carbonic acid changes back to into water and carbon dioxide, eventually resulting in a new equilibrium between bicarbonate ion and carbon dioxide. CO2 + H2O ← H2CO3 ← H+ + HCO3- But this spontaneous chemical reaction whereby carbonic acid returns to water and carbon dioxide, is not as rapid as the speed with which carbon dioxide is removed from the body by hyperventilation. So when body carbon dioxide pressure is suddenly lowered relative to the bicarbonate concentration, the pH increases above normal because the bicarbonate concentration does not decrease as rapidly. The condition where pH of the body is increased above normal is called alkalosis, and all the body fluids and cells become more alkaline than normal. This effect lies at the basis of the mental effects of hyperventilation. So what are the mental effects of hyperventilation? Thresholds and mental effects of hyperventilation During the last two years of World War 2 (1939-1945), Seymour Kety and Carl Schmidt performed hyperventilation experiments upon conscientious objectors (Kety 1946). Military applications were part of the reason for these experiments. Their reasoning was that sometimes airplane crew flying at great height above Germany, might sometimes depend upon hyperventilation to prolong the period of useful consciousness, such as when oxygen delivery systems failed at high altitude, or when forced to abandon high flying aircraft after being hit by enemy fire. Regardless of these considerations, these experiments provided invaluable information regarding the manifestations of sudden onset of hyperventilation in normal young people, as well as the levels of carbon dioxide at which these manifestations occur. Kety and Schmidt found that clouding of consciousness and unconsciousness became increasingly likely when the carbon dioxide pressure fell below 30 mmHg (Kety 1946). This threshold was subsequently confirmed by Rafferty in 1992, who also found that all people developed neurological symptoms due to hyperventilation at a carbon dioxide pressure of 20 mmHg (Rafferty 1992). Mental effects of hyperventilation are very mixed. People with hyperventilation commonly describe symptoms such as disturbed mentation, impaired concentration, poor memory, and hallucinations. Feelings of depersonalization are also common, where hyperventilating persons describe sensations of unreality, or feeling everything is confused and dream-like. Visual experiences such as blurred vision, tunnel vision, flashing lights, and seeing double also occur (Evans 2005, Lum 1987, Perkin 1986). Extreme hyperventilation causes loss of consciousness in 31% of people with hyperventilation disorder (Perkin 1986), is occasionally observed during experimental hyperventilation (Kety 1946), and in some pregnant women hyperventilating due to labor pains (Burden 1994). But this is not all. Hyperventilation can sometimes even cause brain death. Death due to hyperventilation in the intensive care Even though hyperventilation is usually regarded as a mild problem, it can also cause brain death. But how? Some people with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), develop respiratory failure as a result of lung infections. Respiratory failure means their lungs malfunction so severely that insufficient oxygen is absorbed into their blood to sustain life, and their diseased lungs are unable to eliminate all the carbon dioxide produced by their bodies. These people usually die if this situation is not corrected. So they are often admitted into an intensive care unit where they undergo mechanical ventilation of their lungs. Mechanical ventilation is more efficient than normal respiration in these circumstances. It rapidly removes excess carbon dioxide from their bodies, ensures that sufficient oxygen enters their bodies, enabling these people to survive a period of temporarily worsened lung malfunction. This type of therapy has been available in many Western countries since the early 1960''s. And it was during the 1960''s that several reports were published of patients with severe COPD, who were admitted to an intensive care, underwent mechanical ventilation, and shortly afterwards developed unmanageable epileptic convulsions, severe brain damage, and even brain death (Kilburn 1966, Rotheram 1964). Relative hyperventilation was the cause of this dramatically tragic result of what is normally a life-saving therapy (Kilburn 1966, Rotheram 1964). Fortunately this occurs very rarely. Nonetheless, it does occur. So how can such tragedies occur? Hyperventilation-induced cerebral hypoxia Changes in body function caused by hyperventilation explain these deaths, as well as explaining the mental and visual manifestations of hyperventilation. As I explained earlier in this chapter, the acidity and alkalinity of bodily fluids is determined by the relative difference between the concentration of bicarbonate and the pressure of carbon dioxide as expressed by the Henderson-Hasselbach equation earlier this chapter. For the situation in arterial blood, the normal PCO2 = 40 mmHg, and the [HCO3-] = 24 millimoles, this means that the bicarbonate / carbon dioxide ratio is about 0.6. If the ratio is larger than 0.6, a fluid or tissue will be alkaline because this means there is less carbon dioxide due to hyperventilation. And when the ratio is less than 0.6, this means the fluid or tissue is acid. Chronic obstructive airways disease and hyperventilation Now people with severe chronic obstructive airways disease often have a higher than normal carbon dioxide concentration in their blood, simply because they cannot breathe deeply and rapidly enough to remove all the waste carbon dioxide from their bodies. And because the carbon dioxide concentration is higher than normal, this drives the chemical equilibrium to the right such that more carbonic acid is made. CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3- The carbonic acid dissociates into hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion. Eventually the relative concentrations of bicarbonate ion and the pressure of carbon dioxide are such that the ratio of 0.6 is achieved, and the pH once again equals 7.4. This is not something theoretical, but is a standard clinical truth seen in such persons and taught to medical students throughout the world. Here is an example. Consider the values for pH, carbon dioxide pressure, and bicarbonate concentration reported by Walmsley during 1985 in a man with severe chronic obstructive airways disease: pH = 7.42, PCO2 = 87 mmHg, [HCO3-] = 55 millimoles (Walmsley 1985). The bicarbonate / carbon dioxide ratio here = 55 / 87 = 0.63 = approximately normal. This is a classic example of how right-shifting of the chemical equilibrium increases the bicarbonate concentration, so normalizing the pH of this man''s blood and body. Now just imagine this man was admitted to the intensive care with respiratory failure, where he was treated with mechanical ventilation of his lungs. Imagine that overenthusiastic physicians adjusted the mechanical ventilator such that his arterial carbon dioxide pressure was rapidly lowered to the normal level of 40 mmHg. Because carbon dioxide is more rapidly eliminated from the body than the bicarbonate concentration changes, the resulting bicarbonate / carbon dioxide ratio would be = 55 / 40 = 1.38, which indicates his blood would suddenly become very alkaline. If we calculate the exact pH, the resulting pH in his arterial blood would = 7.76. This means his blood would very rapidly become very alkaline indeed. This effect is true hyperventilation, because the change of carbon dioxide pressure is relative to the original carbon dioxide pressure in an abnormal equilibrium state. Such changes can profoundly affect the functioning of the body. But are these changes in body function important? And do these changes induce significant changes in body function? Cerebral blood flow and hyperventilation The flow of blood through the brain is called the cerebral blood flow. The normal flow of blood through the adult human brain is about 50 milliliters blood per 100 gm brain tissue per minute (50 ml/100 gm/min). During 1954, a medical scientist called Frank Finnerty determined the levels of cerebral blood flow at which cerebral hypoxia occurs in conscious people (Finnerty 1954). This experiment was performed according to the ethical standards of the day, using measurement techniques that are still the golden standards for the measurements he performed. Nowadays, most medical ethical committees would refuse permission to perform this experiment, so this was one of those enormously valuable, but unrepeatable experiments providing invaluable information about a fundamental property of the functioning of the human brain. The experiment was basically simple. He used a drug to lower the blood pressure of the experimental persons until symptoms of cerebral hypoxia occurred. Manifestations of cerebral hypoxia were defined as sighing, yawning, staring, and confusion. He found that the average level of cerebral blood flow at which cerebral hypoxia began to manifest was 31.5 ml/100 gm/min (Finnerty 1954). But this figure is an average, which means one half of all people developed manifestations of cerebral hypoxia at higher levels of cerebral blood flow, the other half at lower levels. So when you look at a graph of the distribution of levels of cerebral blood flow at which cerebral hypoxia occurred in this experiment, you see that significant numbers of people developed manifestations of cerebral hypoxia at cerebral blood flow at levels of even 40 ml/100 gm/min. The reverse is also true. About 10% of people are still conscious without any cerebral hypoxic symptoms at blood flow levels of 20-25 ml/100 gm/min, and about 5% are still conscious without any cerebral hypoxic symptoms at blood flow levels as low as 15-20 ml/100 gm/min (see Figure 5). Figure 5: Percentage distribution of cerebral blood flows at which symptoms of cerebral hypoxia without loss of consciousness occur in people of all age groups. Symptoms of cerebral hypoxia occur at an average cerebral blood flow of 31.5 ml/100 gm/min. The distribution of measurements around this average reveals that somewhat more than 10% of people are still conscious without any cerebral hypoxic symptoms at blood flow levels of 20-25 ml/100 gm/min, and about 5% are still conscious without any cerebral hypoxic symptoms at blood flow levels as low as 15-20 ml/100 gm/min (Finnerty 1954) (Figure � Woerlee). Human studies performed since the 1940''s reveal that hyperventilation reduces the cerebral blood flow by causing constriction [narrowing] of the arteries supplying the brain with blood (Pierce 1962, Raichle 1972, Wollman 1965, Wollman 1968a). Seymour Kety devised the first accurate system for measuring the cerebral blood flow which is still the golden standard against which other techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow are compared. His articles are still as current and valuable as when they were published during the 1940''s. He found that cerebral blood flow is directly related to the carbon dioxide pressure in the blood, and inversely related to the pH of the blood flowing through the arteries going to the brain (Kety 1946, Kety 1948). In other words, the lower the carbon dioxide pressure in the blood, the lower the cerebral blood flow. The studies of Kety clearly demonstrated that when hyperventilation caused the arterial carbon dioxide to drop below 30 mmHg, that the cerebral blood flow dropped below 40 ml/100 gm/min (Kety 1946), a cerebral blood flow threshold below which increasing numbers of people develop manifestations of cerebral hypoxia (Figure 6). And as mentioned earlier, all people develop neurological manifestations due to hyperventilation below an arterial carbon dioxide pressure of 20 mmHg (Rafferty 1992, and Figure 6). Figure 6: The effect of hyperventilation on the cerebral blood flow. The relationship between the carbon dioxide pressure in arterial blood and the cerebral blood flow in humans is as shown in this graph (Kety 1946, Kety 1948, Wollman 1965, Wollman 1968a). Extreme levels of hyperventilation, where the carbon dioxide pressure drops below 25-30 mmHg cause the cerebral blood flow to drop below 40 ml/100 gm/min, a level below which increasingly more people develop manifestations of cerebral hypoxia (Finnerty 1954) (Figure � Woerlee). Such low levels of arterial carbon dioxide pressure also cause cerebral blood flow to drop to levels at which cerebral hypoxia occurs (Figure 5). But are the cerebral manifestations of hyperventilation due to cerebral hypoxia? Binding of oxygen with hemoglobin provides further evidence that hyperventilation may well cause brain tissue hypoxia. Binding of oxygen to hemoglobin Blood is not a wondrous fluid with magical properties. Instead blood is a transport fluid. It transports oxygen, electrolytes, proteins, hormones, fats and sugars to tissues, and removes waste products of metabolism, hormones, products of metabolisms, etc away from tissues. Oxygen is transported by blood from the lungs where it enters the body. However oxygen is very poorly soluble in blood, and blood contains negligible amounts of dissolved oxygen. Practically all oxygen in blood is chemically bound to hemoglobin inside red blood cells. But the chemical binding of oxygen with hemoglobin is directly affected by the acidity and alkalinity of blood (i.e. the pH of blood). Hyperventilation causes loss of carbon dioxide from the body, causing the pH of blood to increase and become more alkaline. When blood is more alkaline, hemoglobin binds more tightly with oxygen. Oxygen bound to hemoglobin within red blood cells does nothing, because binding of oxygen to hemoglobin within red blood cells is no more than the body''s method of transporting oxygen to the capillaries within the tissues of the body. Within the capillaries of the tissues of the body, the chemical bond between oxygen and hemoglobin is weak enough to allow oxygen to leave the blood and diffuse into the cells surrounding the capillaries, so providing oxygen for the vital, energy-generating chemical processes within the cells forming the tissues of the body. But when hyperventilation causes oxygen to bind more tightly to hemoglobin, less oxygen is released to diffuse into the tissues surrounding the capillaries. The oxyhemoglobin saturation curve demonstrates this effect, showing that hemoglobin binds oxygen more tightly during hyperventilation (Figure 7). This is why hyperventilation can cause less oxygen to enter the tissues of the body from the capillaries, so resulting in hypoxia of the cells outside the blood vessels, even though the blood contains more than sufficient oxygen. Figure 7: Oxyhemoglobin saturation curve showing how the binding of hemoglobin with oxygen changes during hyperventilation. For example, if the oxygen pressure is 40 mmHg, the pH and everything else is normal, then hemoglobin is about 75% saturated. But during extreme hyperventilation when the PCO2 = 20 mmHg, the chemical binding of hemoglobin with oxygen is much stronger, and hemoglobin is almost 90% saturated at an oxygen pressure of 40 mmHg. (Figure � Woerlee). Hyperventilation causes cerebral hypoxia But does hyperventilation cause cerebral hypoxia? Hyperventilation has profound effects on the transport and delivery of oxygen to the tissues of the body. Hyperventilation reduces the cerebral blood flow, and to make matters worse, hyperventilation also causes oxygen to bind more tightly with hemoglobin. Both factors combine to reduce the availability of oxygen to the tissues of the brain, and can even cause cerebral hypoxia. Animal studies reveal that extreme hyperventilation does indeed cause cerebral hypoxia (Clausen 2004, Sugioka 1960). The tragic fatal effects of relative hyperventilation in humans with severe chronic obstructive airway disease, also reveals that hyperventilation in humans can result in cerebral hypoxia severe enough to cause actual brain damage and brain death (Kilburn 1966, Rotheram 1964). Furthermore, hyperventilation has also been implicated as one of the potential causes of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Hyperventilation-induced frontal lobe failure This last remark brings us to the effects of hyperventilation on conscious mental function. These were discussed earlier in this chapter and consist of manifestations such as: disturbed mentation, impaired concentration, poor memory, and hallucinations. Feelings of depersonalization are also common, as hyperventilating persons often describe sensations of unreality, or feeling everything is confused and dream-like. Many of these conscious mental experiences and manifestations are similar to those of cerebral hypoxia (see Chapter 4). And during extreme degrees of hyperventilation, the degree of cerebral hypoxia may be sufficient to cause loss of consciousness. But is this true for lesser degrees of hyperventilation? Figure 8: The basic regions / lobes of the surface, (or cortex) of the brain. (Figure � Woerlee). The effects of hyperventilation upon the human brain have been studied intensively for many years. As long ago as the 1940''s, hyperventilation was known to cause high amplitude, low frequency delta waves [waves with a frequency of 1-4 Hertz] to manifest in the electroencephalograph of the frontal lobes of the brains of conscious persons (Davis 1942, Meyer 1960, Stoddart 1967, Worp 1991). However, the appearance of delta waves is unrelated to the degree of lowering of arterial carbon dioxide pressure, or the pH increase due to hyperventilation, but is directly related to the occurrence of cerebral hypoxia induced by hyperventilation (Gotoh 1965). Hyperventilation does not only reduce the total cerebral blood flow, but also changes the distribution of blood flow within the brain. Modern studies reveal that blood flow to the frontal, occipital, and parieto-occipital cortex (see Figure 8), as well as the hippocampus is reduced relative to other areas of the brain within seconds to minutes of commencing hyperventilation (Naganawa 2002, Posse 1997). These relative changes in blood flow and electroencephalogram reflect reduced activity in these regions of the brain. The frontal lobes of the brain are required for cognitive functions such as memory, experience of time, directed attention, reflective consciousness, and the idea of self (Dietrich 2003). So hyperventilation induced cognitive changes such as disturbed mentation, impaired concentration, and poor memory, are readily explained by reduced frontal cortical function - nicely termed transient hypofrontality (Dietrich 2003). The occipital cortex performs primary and secondary visual processing, while the parieto-occipital cortex integrates body sensory information into the body image (Blanke 2005, Maravita 2003). Reduced function in these regions of the brain certainly explains other experiences occurring during hyperventilation, such as visual hallucinations, feelings of depersonalization, or feeling that everything is confused and dream-like. All these things mean hyperventilation can temporarily induce profound changes in brain function and the resulting conscious mental function. These effects even form the basis for a particular form of psychotherapy during which patients perform prolonged hyperventilation - a therapy called Holotropic Breathwork (Rhinwine 2007). As a simple and blunt anesthesiologist, I am unable to make any serious assessment of this form of psychotherapy, but this use of the conscious mental effects of hyperventilation is certainly interesting. Drowning and hyperventilation Most swimmers know that a short period of hyperventilation prior to diving allows them to extend the period they can spend underwater. But this not a safe technique, because sometimes people who hyperventilate prior to diving lose consciousness and drown while underwater (Craig 1976). Part of the reason why this technique works is the fact that breathing is mainly regulated by the pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood. Increased carbon dioxide pressures in arterial blood stimulates breathing, and generates a desire to breathe. Decreased carbon dioxide pressure in blood causes breathing to slow, reducing the urge to breathe, sometimes entirely removing the urge to breathe (Meah 1994). Arterial blood oxygen pressures measured in divers forced to surface due to the necessity to take a breath after prolonged dives preceded by hyperventilation, are sometimes low enough to cause loss of motor control (Lindholm 2006), and sometimes even low enough to cause loss of consciousness in some people (Craig 1961, Lindholm 2006). Loss of consciousness due to hypoxia is insidious, and is preceded by changes in mental state whereby affected people experience loss of insight, together with feelings of wellbeing (page 300 in Liere 1963). This explains why many people do not even realize they are about to lose consciousness due to hypoxia. This is the reason why some people who hyperventilate prior to an underwater dive, sometimes lose consciousness due to cerebral hypoxia before feeling the necessity to surface and breathe. And once they lose consciousness while underwater, they subsequently drown if not rescued (Craig 1976). However, anesthesiologists regard hyperventilation as a useful technique. Hyperventilation during general anesthesia Anesthesiologists often exploit the various properties of hyperventilation during general anesthesia. For example: During neurosurgical operations on the brain, anesthesiologists often apply hyperventilation to cause constriction of the blood vessels of the brain. This reduces the volume of blood inside blood vessels within the substance of the brain, so reducing the volume of the brain. Constriction of blood vessels also reduces bleeding. The combination of both effects results in better operating conditions for the neurosurgeon. Hyperventilation below an arterial carbon dioxide pressure of 30 mmHg reduces the level of consciousness, and sometimes even induces loss of consciousness. One consequence of this is a reduction of drug dosages required for general anesthesia. Hyperventilation is sometimes used at the end of operations to reduce the level of consciousness, as well as to prolong and intensify the actions of residual concentrations of anesthetic drugs. This last point is fascinating. How can hyperventilation intensify and prolong the actions of anesthetic drugs? The answer lies in the chemical nature of anesthetic drugs. Most drugs and most organic compounds are either weak acids or weak bases. Anesthetic drugs are no different. In fact, except for thiopental, all anesthetic drugs are bases. Now a base interacts with water molecules to form an equilibrium between an ionized form and a non-ionized form. Just look at this chemical equilibrium where H2O is water, and B is the base molecule or drug. When such a weak base dissolves in water, it interacts with water to acquire a hydrogen ion (H+), resulting in a free negatively charged hydroxyl ion (OH) in the following manner. B + H2O ⇔ BH+ + OH- For example, morphine is just such a weak base, so the interaction with water is just the same, and forms an equilibrium as below where the proportions ionized and unionized morphine are constant at each pH level. Morphine + H2O ⇔ MorphineH+ + OH- Morphine is a weak base. So when blood becomes more acid, (i.e. the pH decreases), a greater proportion of morphine exists in the ionized form. On the other hand, when blood becomes more alkaline and the pH increases, a smaller proportion of morphine exists in the ionized form. The same is true for all other anesthetic drugs except for thiopental. This may sound like a chemical subtlety of little practical consequence, but the concept of ionization of drugs used in anesthesia has important practical consequences. Anesthetic drugs do not cause sleep by acting upon blood cells or blood vessels: anesthetic drugs do not cause muscle paralysis by acting on blood cells or blood vessels: and anesthetic drugs do not relieve pain by acting upon blood cells or blood vessels. Instead, anesthetic drugs cause all these effects by acting upon nerve cells which are located outside and around blood vessels. And anesthetic drugs must somehow diffuse out of the blood vessels transporting them to get to the nerve cells outside. Brain capillaries only permit the passage of non-ionized drug molecules into the substance of the brain, and many anesthesiologists exploit this latter fact to prolong the effects of general anesthesia under some circumstances. One of these circumstances is the period near the end of an operation. At the end of an operation, a patient must be quickly aroused and transported out of the operating theater to the recovery room, so that the next patient can be brought into the operating theater to undergo an operation. So towards the end of an operation, anesthesiologists always try to lower the concentrations of drugs used for general anesthesia so that the patients will awaken more rapidly. They use measurements as well as clinical experience to estimate whether their patients will remain under general anesthesia sufficiently long for the surgeon to finish before they awaken. This is where anesthesia becomes an art form akin to cooking or music. Unfortunately some patients begin to react to the pain of surgery at this time. This leaves the anesthesiologist with three choices of action: Deepen the general anesthetic to the same level as during the middle of the operation. But this means that the time to awakening at the end of the operation will be longer than normal, resulting in a very slow operating program, from which one or more patients may have to be cancelled due to lack of time. Administration of repeated small doses of an anesthetic drug such as thiopental or propofol, sometimes together with an opiate. This is often a good choice, because patients usually awaken quickly after this technique, provided the surgeon does not take his time closing the wounds. Regrettably, some surgeons do take their time, ignoring anesthesiologists telling them to hurry. Hyperventilate the patient until the surgeon is finished. This is a practical and commonly used technique when combined with small doses of thiopental or propofol. Hyperventilation, not only reduces the level of consciousness, but also increases the proportion of non-ionized opiates already present in blood. This means more of these opiates can enter the brain, resulting in higher brain concentrations of opiates such as morphine (Nishitateno 1979), sufentanil (Matteo 1992), and fentanyl (Ainslie 1979). The same effect is also true for all other anesthetic drugs, except for thiopental. This relative increase in non-ionized concentrations of weakly basic drugs is one of the reasons why hyperventilation potentiates the effects of most anesthetic drugs. Final remarks on hyperventilation This brief discussion of the properties and consequences of hyperventilation reveal it to be almost magical in the extent of the extensive changes it induces in body and mental function. And the most magical aspect of hyperventilation, is how something as simple as breathing deeply and quickly, can induce such profound effects upon the functioning of the body, as well as the functioning of the conscious mind. Hyperventilation is still applied during some types of surgery performed under general anesthesia, but when injudiciously applied is detrimental, yet when applied appropiately is a useful addition to the anesthesiological amamentarium. EMILY MARBURGER (MAYOR OF BELLEVUE 15202) NEEDS TO END THE MEDICAL HOLOCAUST IN "OUR TOWN"... ORGAN PRINTING: THE STEM CELL CONUNDRUM INTRODUCTION: ORGAN PRINTING: METHODS AND PRESENTATION Advances in bioprinting, have brought along with them many great aspects that can improve the quality of life of many people, including the ability to create new tissues and even new organs for people who have been injured or sick. Bioprinting is an innovation in biomedical and tissue engineering in which biological tissues such as skin and organs are printed from a three-dimensional bioprinter. Using live cells as the material to be printed with [1]. However, at this point in time, the development has reached an ethical crossroad in the process of creating fully formed three-dimensional working organs. While working in the organ printing department of a research facility for tissue engineering, the suggestion of the incorporation of human embryonic stem cells into the process of growing cells and printing organs. The integration of human embryonic stem cells into the cultures dramatically increases the yield of cells, which can be used to print organs; however, there is no dependent source of human embryonic stem cells that would not cause for an ethical dilemma within both the company and the public. One of the main sources of embryonic stem cells that are used in research nowadays is the collection of cells from abortion [2]. An agreement is made with clinics throughout the US to hand over excess stem cells and artificially inseminated eggs to our company to be cultured and grown, in order to create an abundance of human embryonic stem cells that could be used for printing organs. With the introduction of stems cells, the research rates would increase exponentially and, after the initial testing period, in which fully printed organs were tested in animals, the finished products would be put on the market. When asked about the source of the cells used, I have been instructed to let it be known that human embryonic stem cells are used, however it is not allowed to let it known that these stem cells are coming from the abortions being performed throughout the United States, because of the amount of controversy that it would cause would most likely shut down the entire operation. Looking at this situation from the perspective of a biomedical engineer, who is bound by the code of ethics for both the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) and the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES), it would be a difficult decision to make because of the conflicting aspects of the situation. Having the ability to print organs from scratch is an invaluable technique to have, and it could help endless amounts of people; however, each person who is receiving one of the organs deserves to know the true origin of the cells that are being put into their body. I, personally, would agree with the use of human embryonic stem cells in the printing of organs, but I would not agree to this situation because it contains far too many violations of the both codes of ethics and overall is a dishonest situation. USE OF HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS Printing an organ is an extremely complex process that requires much more than just living cells and a 3-D bio printer [3]. Three-dimensional printing is the process in which a 3-D printer lays a type of material in multiple layers of a two dimensional cross section to form a three dimensional object [4]. When an organ is printed, the cells must be positioned on top of each other in a certain way to allow them to fuse together into a working organ [5]. With the introduction of human embryonic stem cells into the process, not only would the cells be better suited for the task at hand, more cells would also be able to be cultured from the stem cells at a faster rate [6]. Many controversial theories have arisen in the general public about the origin of the cells to be used for organ printing. The most prevalent of the theories is the use of the human embryonic stem cells, which come from abortions, in order to grow the cells used to print organs [2]. Though this may not seem immoral, considering these cells are not being put to use in any other way, one of the main concerns was the idea of this being incentive for institutes to increase the number of abortions they perform; however, in this situation, that is not an issue because of the wide range of locations across the United States from which these cells can be gained. According to Dr. Courtney Farrell, author of the article Stem Cell Research, the use of human embryonic stem cells is widely disapproved of in the general public of because of the theory that life begins at the moment of conception [6]. This creates a dynamic between the fetus and the person getting the organ because that would be valuing one life over another, which is the root of the problem for many of the people who are currently opposed to the situation in this instance. The situation is then exacerbated by the fact that there is the possibility that abortions are beginning to take place for the sole purpose of gaining human embryonic stem cells, which would not be a step in the positive direction. Looking at the situation from an engineering point of view, according to one of the fundamental canons of the code of ethics for engineers from the National Society of Professional Engineers, an engineer must always view a situation in which the safety, health and welfare of the public is held above all other aspects [7]. The introduction of human embryonic stem cells greatly increases the chance that an organ would be successfully printed, which would be considerate of the health and welfare of the general public; however, if the cells are being cultured in a suspicious manner, that could possibly be dangerous to the health and safety of the public, then as an engineer, I cannot support this process because it is a direct violation of the code of ethics. Nonetheless, if the use of embryonic stem cells were to increase the chance that organs would be able to be printed, then from an engineers point of view, those cells should be used. Each day, 115,000 people are in need of a lifesaving organ transplant, in the United States, but are unable to get them because of lack of access [8]. On average, 18 people die, each day, due to lack of available organs for transplant, and the need for organs is rising each day. According to the statistics at DonateLife.net, in 2012 there were 14,013 organ donors resulting in 28,052 organ transplants [9]. The need for organs is vastly outracing the amount of organs and organ donors; therefore, organ printing would be a good investment of the time and resources, at least to close the gap between the amount of people who need organs and the amount of organs that are available. Withholding the ability to print organs because of the religious beliefs of the few who are opposed to the use of stem cells would not be abiding by the code of ethics for engineers. It would be in the interest of the health and welfare of the public to incorporate human embryonic stem cells into the process of organ printing because of the potential amount of lives it would be able to save through the three-dimensional printing of organs. ANIMAL TESTING Once organ printing is fully developed, and some of the prototypes are put into practice, many fear that the use of animals for testing will become a problem. Animal testing has become a normal process in the research process of todays society, yet it is still heavily debated and protested by many people around the world [2]. Again, looking at it from an engineering perspective, in terms of the code of ethics from the National Society of Professional Engineers, the health and welfare of the public must be held paramount over other aspects; however, as stated in the code of ethics for biomedical engineers, as put forth by the Biomedical Engineering Society, a biomedical engineer must Comply fully with legal, ethical, institutional, governmental, and other applicable research guidelines, respecting the rights of and exercising the responsibilities to colleagues, human and animal subjects and the scientific and general public [10]. Animals have rights also, and they deserve to be treated a certain way, even if they are being used for scientific research. There is a certain standard of living that is would be considered as respecting the rights of an animal. Therefore, if the conditions and the treatment of the animals were unacceptable during the time of the testing, I would not be able to support that process because it would be against the Biomedical engineering research obligations. But in this situation, it is easy enough to ensure the correct treatment of the animals in which the organs are being tested so that would not be a valid reason for the initial testing of the organs to be halted. Organ printing is a technology that has the potential to change the world by saving many innocent lives. I am not advocating for animal testing when it comes to testing the organs produced by organ printing, but if this technology truly has the potential to make such a big difference, then it is plausible to use a certain amount of animal testing in a controlled environment and manner if it is necessary. PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION The methods of the research facility to obtain their findings and discoveries are sound; however the way in which they chose to present it is somewhat questionable. They want to present their discoveries to the market as three-dimensional printed organs containing human embryonic stem cells, but they are tentative to reveal the origins of those cells as being the results of abortions, out of fear that it would not go over well with the public. Selectively withholding information about their product would create a very bad situation for many people, especially those who were extremely opposed to the idea of using human embryonic stem cells. Not only is that dishonest and dangerous for the people who are getting the printed organs made from stem cells, but it is also a violation of the code of ethics for both the Biomedical Engineering Society and the National Society of Professional Engineers. The code of ethics for the Biomedical engineering society clearly states that all biomedical engineers involved in health care activities shall regard responsibility toward and rights of patients, including those of confidentiality and privacy, as their primary concern meaning, in this situation, that the confidentiality between patient and the person giving them the organ, that could potentially save their life, should extend to telling them the full truth about the origins of the cells that will soon be in their body in the form of a three-dimensionally printed organ [10]. Such dishonesty between the company and the patient is unacceptable. Also, according canons of the code of ethics put forth by the National Society of Professional Engineers, engineers are to avoid deceptive acts [7]. Omitting such a large part of the information on something that is going to become an integral part of another person is definitely a deceptive act, because it doesnt allow the consumer to make an informed decision on whether or not they want it. An engineer is commissioned to create the technologies that are in the best interest of the health and welfare of the public. If the people choose not to use the technologies for personal reasons then that is not the jurisdiction of the engineer. If a technology is chosen based on a false or not completely true pretense, then that is not in the best interest of the public in any way. The code of ethics then goes on to say, Engineers shall avoid the use of statements containing a material misrepresentation of fact or omitting a material fact, which reiterates the aforementioned point [7]. It is an utter violation of the engineering code of ethics to omit such an important fact, especially when lives could be at stake because of it. CONCLUSION Organ printing shows promise as a new innovative technology, that has the potential to help countless numbers of people; however, there are some who are opposed to the idea of organ printing, and rally for the stopping of research into the topic. However, in this scenario, in which a certain type of human embryonic stem cells are being added to the organs without the knowledge of the people who are accepting these organs, organ printing has shown itself to be a very ethically charged scenario. It is very important to consider the ethical side of any situation, especially in situations concerning the innocent lives of patients, because codes of ethics for engineers were made to protect the general public from the dangers of the field. It is completely unethical according to both codes of ethics for all engineers and more specifically biomedical engineers. The logical solution to this scenario would be to discontinue research and progress until the research facility found a better way to present their methods to the public. Even though the technology for printing organs has the potential to help many people, it would be counteractive to deceive the public into using something they may not want to use. Susan Lindauer (born July 17, 1963) is an American antiwar activist and former U.S. Congressional staffer who was charged with "acting as an unregistered agent of a foreign government" and violating U.S. financial sanctions during the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. She was incarcerated in 2005 and released the next year after two judges ruled her mentally unfit to stand trial. The government dropped the prosecution in 2009. In 2010, Lindauer published a book about her experiences. Since 2011 Lindauer has appeared frequently on television and in print as a U.S. government critic. Contents [hide] 1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Interest in the Middle East 4 Arrest, incarceration and release 5 Book and subsequent claims 6 Television Personality and U.S. government critic 7 References 8 External links Early life and education[edit] Lindauer is the daughter of John Howard Lindauer II, a newspaper publisher and former Republican nominee for Governor of Alaska. Her mother, Jackie Lindauer, died of cancer in 1992. In 1995, her father married Dorothy Oremus, a Chicago attorney.[1] Lindauer attended East Anchorage High School in Anchorage, Alaska, where she was an honor student and was in school plays.[2] She graduated from Smith College in 1985 and then earned a master''s degree in public policy from the London School of Economics.[3] Career[edit] Lindauer began in journalism working as a temporary reporter at the Seattle Post-Intelligencer in 1987, and as an editorial writer at The Everett Herald in Everett, Washington until 1989. She later worked as a reporter and researcher at U.S. News & World Report in 1990 and 1991.[1][2][4][5] Lindauer worked as a Congressional staffer for Representative Peter DeFazio (D-OR, 1993) and then Representative Ron Wyden (D-OR, 1994) before joining the office of Senator Carol Moseley Braun (D-IL), where she worked as a press secretary and speech writer.[1][4] She served as Press Secretary for Representative Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) from March 11, 2002 to May 14, 2002.[6][7] Interest in the Middle East[edit] In November 1993, a friend of Lindauer''s father introduced her to former Vietnam combat pilot Paul Hoven, at a restaurant next to the Heritage Foundation in Virginia. She began socialising in an informal circle of conservatives interested in counterterrorism, including Capitol Hill staff and intelligence community members. These included Dr. Richard Fuisz[3] and senior Congressional staffer Kelly O''Meara.[8] At the time of Lindauer''s first meeting with Fuisz, theories of the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988 were divided between blaming the Libyan government under Moammar Gaddafi and the Syrian Ahmed Jabril. Lindauer said that Fuisz had shared with her a theory that did not hold Libya to blame. Lindauer and Fuisz said they met an average of once per week from 1994 to 2001, and Lindauer has described Fuisz as "my contact with the CIA." In 2000, the Sunday Herald in Scotland reported that Fuisz had been an operative for the CIA in Damascus during the 1980s. Fuisz did not confirm or deny this, saying he was not permitted to speak about it.[3][9] Lindauer said she began making visits to the Libyan mission at the United Nations (UN) in 1995[4] and with Iraqis at the UN in 1996.[3] In 2000, she told Middle East Intelligence Bulletin that she had been subject to surveillance, threats, and was attacked after meeting Libyan officials in 1995 to discuss what she had learned about the Flight 103 bombing.[4][10] On November 26, 2000, then President-elect George W. Bush appointed Lindauer''s second cousin,[11][12] Andrew Card, as White House Chief of Staff upon his inauguration. Card had previously served as Deputy Chief of Staff and Secretary of Transportation for George H. W. Bush, and had been selected by George W. Bush to run the 2000 Republican National Convention.[13] Starting in 2000, Lindauer delivered multiple letters to Card, leaving them on the doorstep of his home in Northern Virginia. In her letters, she urged Card to intercede with President George W. Bush not to invade Iraq, and offered to act as a back channel in negotiations.[3] Over approximately two years, Lindauer wrote Card a total of eleven letters, the last on January 6, 2003, two months before the invasion of Iraq.[14] Card later told the FBI that Lindauer had tried to contact him several times, but according to a statement by White House spokesman Scott McClellan, Card did not recall seeing or talking to Lindauer after the January 2001 inauguration.[11] In a 2008 hearing, one of Lindauer''s associates testified that she had mentioned an imminent attack on Manhattan with airplanes in 2001.[8] Lindauer, in her book, claims that she was asked by Fuisz to ask the Iraqi diplomats if they knew about an imminent attack. According to Lindauer, pre-9/11 information was part of her work with Fuisz. Fuisz''s interactions with Lindauer ended in 2001, i.e. he had a falling out with Lindauer after the September 11th attacks in 2001, no longer welcoming her to his office. He said that before the attacks she was "Arabist, but Arabist from the standpoint of trying to lift sanctions, so that children would do better, and trying to get medicines into countries -- principally I''m talking about Iraq and Libya." Lindauer described her falling out with Fuisz in a 2009 interview, saying that it had been in regard to the approach taken in reacting to the possibility of an imminent attack.[15] He said that after September 11, "Susan, in her discussions, went from benign, in my opinion, to malignant... These discussions changed and now involved a very strong seditious bent."[3] Arrest, incarceration and release[edit] On March 11, 2004, Lindauer was arrested in Takoma Park, Maryland by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).[3][16][17] She was taken to the FBI office in Baltimore. Outside of this office, she told WBAL-TV: "I''m an antiwar activist and I''m innocent. I did more to stop terrorism in this country than anybody else. I have done good things for this country. I worked to get weapons inspectors back to Iraq when everybody else said it was impossible."[18][19] Lindauer was indicted by a grand jury for "acting as an unregistered agent of a foreign government",[20] an accusation usually made against foreign spies.[21][22] For this reason, the media wrote much about her being accused of spying.[23] Lindauer stated she was charged (and held in detention) under the USA PATRIOT Act.[24] The indictment against Lindauer alleged that she accepted US$10,000 from the Iraqi Intelligence Service in 2002.[3][20] Lindauer denied receiving the money, but confirmed taking a trip to Baghdad.[3] Lindauer was also accused of meeting with an FBI agent posing as a Libyan, with whom she spoke about the "need for plans and foreign resources to support resistance groups operating in Iraq."[6] Lindauer said she went to the meeting because of her interest in filing a war crimes suit against the U.S. and U.K. governments.[3] Pursuant to Lindauer''s arrest, Congresswoman Lofgren released a statement saying she was "shocked" by the arrest, that she had no evidence of illicit activities by Lindauer, and that she would cooperate with the investigation.[6][7] Robert Precht, an Assistant Dean of the University of Michigan Law School, said the charges were "weak" and that Lindauer was more likely a "misguided peacenik".[25] Lindauer was released on bond on March 13, 2004 to attend an arraignment the following week.[26] Sanford Talkin of New York was appointed by the court as her lawyer.[27] Lindauer claimed she was conducting peace negotiations with representatives of several Muslim countries (including Iraq, Libya, Malaysia, and Yemen) in New York. According to transcripts Lindauer presented to the New York Times in 2004, these included meetings with Iraqi Muthanna al-Hanooti, a peace activist later accused of spying. Lindauer also said that the U.S. intelligence community was aware of these meetings and was monitoring her.[3][27] President George W. Bush listens to remarks by Mukasey after announcing his nomination to be Attorney General. In 2005, Lindauer was incarcerated at Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth, Texas, for psychological evaluation. She was then moved to the Metropolitan Correctional Center in Manhattan.[28] In 2006, she was released after judge Michael B. Mukasey ruled that Lindauer was unfit to stand trial.[29][28] He noted that the severity of Lindauer''s mental illness, which he described as a "lengthy delusional history", weakened the prosecution''s case. In his decision he wrote, "Lindauer ... could not act successfully as an agent of the Iraqi government without in some way influencing normal people .... There is no indication that Lindauer ever came close to influencing anyone, or could have. The indictment charges only what it describes as an unsuccessful attempt to influence an unnamed government official, and the record shows that even lay people recognize that she is seriously disturbed."[28] During Lindauer''s incarceration she refused antipsychotic medication which the United States Department of Justice claimed would render her competent to stand trial. Judge Mukasey would not allow her to be forcibly medicated, as requested by the prosecution.[30][31][32][33] At a hearing in June 2008, Lindauer told reporters that she had been a CIA asset[34] and said she had "been hung out to dry and scapegoated".[34] In 2008, Justice Loretta A. Preska of the Federal District Court in New York City reaffirmed that Lindauer was mentally unfit to stand trial, despite Lindauer''s insistence to the contrary.[1][35] Preska ruled that Lindauer''s belief in her connection to the intelligence community was evidence of her insanity.[36] Testifying before Loretta Preska, the New York Times reported that Lindauer, "... angrily contested an accusation in her indictment that she had illegally lunched with Iraqi intelligence operatives."[37] On January 16, 2009, the government decided to not continue with the prosecution saying, "prosecuting Lindauer would no longer be in the interests of justice."[29][38] Book and subsequent claims[edit] In 2010, Lindauer self-published a book about her experience titled Extreme Prejudice: The Terrifying Story of the Patriot Act and the Cover-Ups of 9/11 and Iraq.[39] Lindauer wrote that for a number of years she had worked for the CIA and DIA undertaking communications with the Iraqi government and serving as a back-channel in U.S. government negotiations. In October 2012 she denied in an e-mail being the author of the Markovian Parallax Denigrate Usenet postings of August 5, 1996. The meaning of the cryptic posts, if any, remains a mystery.[40] Television Personality and U.S. government critic[edit] Since 2011, Lindauer has repeatedly appeared on Russia Today news, in television and in print where she is presented as an expert on Libya,[41][42] Iraq and Yemen[43] also as a commentator on U.S. government operations.[44] Lindauer''s story was profiled on the English-language Iranian television show The Autograph[45][46] on Press TV-Iran in 2011 premed.cash organscam.com 911kite 911kites 911kite.com 911kites.com ... PITTBIRD 911 KITES GO 2001 FEET ALTITUDE...JOIN THE RITA REVOLUTION (RITAREVOLUTION)... Teen accuses Mayo Clinic of medical kidnapping POSTED 11:35 AM, AUGUST 13, 2018, BY CNN WIRE FACEBOOK952 TWITTER GOOGLE LINKEDIN PINTEREST EMAIL In a jaw-dropping moment caught on video, an 18-year-old high school senior rushes to escape from the hospital that saved her life and then, she says, held her captive. At the entrance to the world-renowned Mayo Clinic, the young womans stepfather helps her out of a wheelchair and into the family car. Staff members come running toward him, yelling No! No! One of them grabs the young womans arm. Get your hands off my daughter! her stepfather yells. The car speeds away, the stepfather and the patient inside, her mother at the wheel. Mayo security calls 911. We have had a patient abduction, the security officer tells police, according to a transcript of the call. A cautionary tale The patients name is Alyssa Gilderhus. She and her family say she wasnt abducted from the Mayo Clinic in February 2017; rather, she escaped. They say the hospital was keeping her there against her will that Mayo medically kidnapped her. Unhappy with the care she was receiving at Mayo, they say, they repeatedly asked for her to be transferred to another hospital. They say Mayo refused. According to police, Mayo officials had a different plan for Alyssa: They had asked the county for assistance in gaining guardianship of Alyssa, who was an adult. A spokeswoman for the Mayo Clinic said hospital officials would be willing to answer CNNs questions if Alyssa signed a privacy release form giving them permission to discuss her case publicly with CNN. The spokeswoman, Ginger Plumbo, supplied that form to CNN. Alyssa signed the form, but Plumbo declined to answer CNNs questions on the record. Instead, she provided a statement, which said in part, We will not address these questionable allegations or publicly share the facts of this complex situation, because we do not believe its in the best interest of the patient and the family. Our internal review determined that the care teams actions were true to Mayo Clinics primary value that the patients needs come first. We acted in a manner that honored that value for this patient and that also took into account the safety and well-being of the team caring for the patient. Read the Mayo Clinics entire statement to CNN. This story is based on interviews with Alyssa and members of her family, a family friend, law enforcement officials and a former member of a Mayo Clinic board, as well as documents including law enforcement records and Alyssas medical records. By everyones account, this is an unfortunate and devastating story about a bitter clash that went out of control a clash between a Minnesota farm family and one of the worlds most revered hospitals. Its confusing to me why this went off the rails so horribly, said Richard Saver, a professor at the University of North Carolina School of Law, who at CNNs request reviewed medical and legal documents that the family and law enforcement officials provided to CNN. Art Caplan, head of the Division of Medical Ethics at the New York University School of Medicine, also reviewed the documents, and he agrees. This should never have happened, he said. This is a cautionary tale. A Christmas Day aneurysm The relationship between Alyssas family and the Mayo Clinic started off well. On Christmas morning 2016, Alyssa settled in with a mug of hot chocolate to open her gifts. She was surrounded by her large family: her mother, Amber Engebretson, a stay-at-home mom; Duane Engebretson, her stepfather since she was 4 years old, who manages a construction company and the familys farms; and her five younger siblings, then 18 months to 11 years old. They live in Sherburn, Minnesota, population just over 1,000 people, about 150 miles southwest of Minneapolis, on a farm with sheep, cows, horses and pigs. Alyssa was thrilled with her first Christmas present: a pair of cowboy boots emblazoned with the emblem of the Future Farmers of America, her favorite club. Then she went to the bathroom. Her parents heard screaming. Mom, I need you! Alyssa yelled as she lay curled up on the floor, vomiting. It was immediately obvious this was much more than just a stomach bug. Her left side was very weak, and she couldnt hear out of her left ear. You could see looking at her that she was petrified, her stepfather said. He called an ambulance. A local hospital determined that Alyssa, whod always been healthy, had a ruptured brain aneurysm: A blood vessel inside her brain had suddenly and unexpectedly burst. Surgeons explained that her life was on the line. They drilled a hole in her skull to relieve the pressure on her brain. A nurse gave her parents a bag of Alyssas hair, which had been shaved off for the operation. Some people liked to have it, she said. Amber and Duane cried as they considered that this bag of hair their daughters long, beautiful hair might be all they had left if she died. They begged to have her sent to the Mayo Clinic. The main campus for the world-renowned medical center was 85 miles away in Rochester, Minnesota. Theyre the best. People come from all over the world to go to Mayo, said Alyssas mother, Amber Engebretson, who worked as a vehicle inspector for the Minnesota State Patrol before staying home to care for her family. But Alyssa couldnt get to Mayo immediately. There was an ice storm. Ambulances couldnt drive, and helicopters couldnt fly. The weather eventually broke, and about 7 p.m. about nine hours after the aneurysm Alyssa finally arrived by ambulance at Mayo headquarters in Rochester. On Christmas night, surgeons gave her a 2% chance of living, her parents said. Doctors wrote in her medical record that her prognosis was grim. Her parents reached out on Facebook for prayers. They called their daughter the #Christmasmiraclegirl. Alyssa lived up to that name. She survived, thanks to four brain surgeries over the next month. Her doctors were ecstatic. They were like, shes not supposed to be here. She beat the odds, her stepfather said. Mayo neurosurgeons saved her life, added her mother. Well be grateful to them forever. On January 30, Alyssa was transferred from the neurology unit to the rehabilitation unit. It should have been a happy turning point. But thats when the troubles began. Tensions flare Although all had gone smoothly on the neurology floor, the family got into conflicts with the rehab staff almost immediately. First, doctors there wanted to take Alyssa off oxycodone, a powerful opioid painkiller that the neurology doctors had prescribed for pain after surgery. Her most recent surgery the fourth in one month had been just a few days before. Shed lay in bed with tears coming out of her eyes because she was in so much pain, her stepfather said. Many medical authorities, including the Mayo Clinics website, say opioids are critical for post-surgical pain management. A week after Alyssa arrived on the rehabilitation floor, her mother shared her feelings on Facebook. [Alyssas] and my frustration level was high and it seems that they just dont listen sometimes, Amber wrote on February 7. More disputes arose. Her parents say their daughters breathing tube was the wrong size, and they had to pester doctors to get it corrected. They also say the family not doctors discovered that she had a bladder infection. They say a social worker discussed private financial information within earshot of visiting friends and relatives. Her parents asked for the social worker and a doctor to be replaced. We just need someone who will at least listen to us and hear us, Amber wrote on her Facebook page on February 20. Alyssas parents say that at their request, they had a meeting with her care team on February 21. I had two whiteboards filled up with questions left unanswered, tests left undone, and every other question we could think of, Amber wrote on her Facebook page that day. Amber says that at one point during that meeting, she told the staff she felt like they dont give a f***, later apologizing for her language. She also asked for a second doctor to stop taking care of their daughter. We took no crap and laid it all on the line. Because seriously what do we have to lose at this point, Amber wrote on Facebook that night. Mayo kicks Mom out On February 22, the day after that meeting, Amber got into a disagreement with a nursing aide and asked to have her removed from her daughters care team. She was the fourth staffer the family had asked to be replaced in just three weeks. That afternoon, Amber says, she was scheduled to have a meeting with the social worker the same one shed asked to leave her daughters care. Amber had requested the meeting, and she says that as she approached the office at the appointed time, a man shed never seen was standing in the office doorway. She said he saw her coming and went into the office and shut the door. Amber listened through the door. She says that as she suspected, the man and the social worker were talking about her family. I proceeded to open the door and say, Since youre talking about my family, I think its only appropriate that I would be here also, to be included in the conversation, she remembers. She says the man puffed out his chest and stepped toward her, and she took a backward step into the hall. The man, who Amber later learned was a physician, demanded that she leave. She says the man told her, I run this whole rehab unit. Do you understand me? Amber describes the doctor as intensely aggressive. She replied to him, she says, with similar aggression and frustration: I need to talk to you. Do you understand me? The doctor walked away. CNN reached out to this doctor and other staff members involved in Alyssas care but did not receive responses. About an hour later, Alyssas parents say, the same doctor, the social worker and a nurse approached the family. They were accompanied by three security guards. [The doctor] said to me, You are not allowed to participate in Alyssas care. You are not allowed on Mayo property. You will be escorted off the premises right now, Amber remembers. Amber and Duane say they asked why Amber was being kicked out but did not receive an answer. Later, a social worker would tell police that Amber interrupted a meeting because Amber was upset over the care Alyssa was receiving. Due to that incident, Amber was escorted off of [Mayo] property. According to Alyssas parents, the doctor told Duane that he could stay but that he would not be allowed to have any involvement in his stepdaughters care. The couple say they asked the doctor whether they could speak with a patient advocate. He said, There is no patient advocate, and walked away, Amber said. When asked about Ambers dismissal from the hospital, Mayo spokeswoman Plumbo sent CNN a statement. Our care teams act in the best interests of our patients. As a general practice, this includes sharing information with family members and facilitating family visits and interactions with patients and their care providers when the patient is in our care. However, in situations where care may be compromised or the safety and security of our staff are potentially at risk, the family members ability to be present in the hospital may be restricted. Plumbo did not elaborate on whether or how Amber compromised her daughters care or placed staff at risk. We would never compromise her care, Amber said. Shes our daughter. We love her. She also says she never put staff members at risk. We would never do that ever, she said. On February 23, the day after Amber was kicked out, she went on Facebook. PRAYER WARRIORS UNITE!!!! We need your help. Please READ THIS AND SHARE THIS POST in hopes it reaches the people or person who can help us, she wrote. I HAVE BEEN TOLD I AM NOT ALLOWED IN ALYSSAS ROOM AND NO ONE IS ALLOWED TO HAVE ANY SAY OR PARTICIPATE IN HER [CARE]. I AM NOT ALLOWED TO SEE HER!! We have been given no reason why, no paperwork, and no explanations, she continued. I never imagined something like this could happen in our world and a very hard situation already has been made even harder!! The response from one Facebook user led the family to conclude that they needed to get Alyssa out of Mayo, and fast. Basically a prisoner at Mayo Alyssa, who was legally an adult during her entire hospitalization, says that around this time, she started asking doctors and nurses to transfer her to another facility. She says she never received a response. They were cruel to me, Alyssa said, adding that she wanted to get out of Mayo as bad as possible. On February 23, three weeks into her daughters stay in rehab, Amber complained on Facebook, tagging Mayo. They refuse to let her go. We cannot transfer [Alyssa] out or get her discharged, she wrote. No one has any say in [Alyssas care] and she is basically a prisoner of Mayo. Alyssas stepfather and grandmother say they also asked to have her transferred out of Mayo. I asked two to three times a day, and it would go nowhere, Duane said. Duane said, This is ridiculous. We dont want her here; Alyssa doesnt want to be here; she doesnt feel safe here, her grandmother Aimee Olson remembers. But there was no response. Duane says he tried to talk to a senior doctor on the rehab staff about a transfer. It was the same doctor who had asked his wife to leave the hospital. He said I have nothing to say to you. This is a legal problem, Duane remembers. I even asked him, can I speak to your supervisor, your boss, and his exact words were I run this whole floor, and [he] turned around and walked out of the room, and that was it. Duane says he called the Mayo Patient Experience office and in a 45-minute phone call described the familys grievances. He said the patient experience specialist told him he would be back in touch after getting Mayos side of the story. Olson, Alyssas grandmother and Ambers mother, said she also tried to speak with the senior doctor but was told he wasnt available. She was truly being held captive, Olson said. I would never believe a hospital could do that never in my wildest dreams. The family and a friend say they were instructed by Mayo staff not to talk to Alyssa about her mother. Two nurses were assigned to be with Alyssa, and they kept careful watch, according to visitors. It was like they were watching every move you made, said Joy Schmitt, Alyssas boyfriends mother, who visited frequently after Amber was asked to leave the hospital. They were taking over our daughter On February 21, the day before her mother was kicked out of the hospital, a Mayo psychiatrist examined Alyssa and found that she lacked the capacity to make her own medical decisions, according to a summary of her care that her doctors wrote after she left Mayo. Around this time, a hospital social worker went to adult protection services in two counties to try to get those authorities to get guardianship over Alyssa, according to the police. If they had succeeded, she would have become a ward of the state. Alyssa and her family say that they werent told any of this as it was happening but that around this time, they started to feel that Mayo was isolating Alyssa. On February 26, staffers confiscated Alyssas cell phone, laptop and tablet after finding that shed made a video for her mother, according to Alyssa and her family. They say Alyssas visitors were also banned from bringing their devices into the hospital. The same day, Mayo staffers said no one would be allowed to stay overnight with Alyssa, according to Duane and Ambers sister, April Chance, who attended a meeting with Alyssas care team. Duane says he asked the staff to reconsider. He said his stepdaughter had never spent the night alone in the hospital. But he says they refused. The doctors said they were doing this for Alyssas own benefit, Duane said. The family says the doctors also told them that visitors would no longer be allowed to attend Alyssas treatment sessions, such as physical and occupational therapy. I said, Were her cheerleaders. We cheer her on, her aunt remembers. And they said No, youre impeding her care. She said the staff didnt elaborate on how they were impeding her care. They were restricting us little by little from even being with Alyssa. They were taking over our daughter, Duane said. Mayo also pushed back Alyssas discharge date, which was supposed to be February 27. Meanwhile, her mothers following was growing on Facebook, with many users posting angry messages that tagged Mayo. One woman sent Amber links to stories about a teenager named Justina Pelletier. Articles in The Boston Globe and elsewhere described how in 2013, Pelletier, then 14 years old, was placed in state custody for nearly 16 months after Boston Childrens Hospital accused her parents of interfering in her care. She spent much of that time in a psychiatric ward. Amber says she spoke on the phone with Justinas parents, Linda and Lou Pelletier. She says they warned her there would be signs that the hospital was seeking guardianship for their daughter. They would keep a tight watch over her and limit her communications with her family. Through their lawyer, John T. Martin, the Pelletiers confirmed that they had conversations with Amber. A spokeswoman for Boston Childrens Hospital told CNN that the hospital is committed to the best interest of our patients health and well-being and declined to discuss the specifics of the case. Amber sent a text to the woman whod sent her the news articles. OMG I am SICK. This is what is happening, Amber wrote. It rings lots and lots of bells. Omg I am so scared. A Mayo board member steps in Alyssas parents reached out to a friend of a friend for help: Mark Gaalswyk, who at the time was a member of the board of directors for the Mayo Clinic Health System in Fairmont, Minnesota. Gaalswyk emailed a Mayo Clinic vice president. He informed her of the situation and explained that CNN had contacted the family. Could you please please do what you can to get your arms around the [situation] immediately?! he wrote. Please get to the bottom of this quickly before it blows up even more. But Gaalswyks pull wasnt enough. He says Mayo treated Alyssa terribly. Im probably the most pro-Mayo person who has walked the face of this earth, said Gaalswyk, who left the board January 1. But this was a mess. He said he thinks Amber probably used words she shouldnt have with hospital staff. Im not saying that Amber is 100 percent in the right, he added, but I know what Mayo did is not OK at all. In its statement to CNN, the Mayo spokeswoman said that Mayo Clinic is committed to the safety and wellbeing of all the patients we treat. Feeling like they were running out of options, Alyssas parents then enlisted the help of Karie Rego, an attorney and patient advocate theyd met on Facebook. On February 27, Rego spoke on the phone with Joshua Murphy, Mayos chief legal officer, and faxed him a letter urging Mayo to transfer Alyssa to another facility. Given what has happened here, an expedited transfer this coming week would be best for everyone, she wrote. Rego says an attorney in Murphys office called her later. She says that he told her he couldnt speak with her and that she never heard anything more from Mayos legal department. That night, Alyssas parents thought about Justina Pelletier and the 16 months she spent in state custody. They went online and printed a form for Alyssa to sign, saying she was leaving the hospital against medical advice. But her parents didnt know how they would get her out. Two nurses were assigned to keep watch over her at all times. They started to hatch a plan to get her out of Mayo the very next day... RITAREVOLUTION.com IS THE RITA REVOLUTION!
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Martin Marietta | Aggregates & Heavy Building Materials A leading supplier of construction aggregates and heavy building materials, with more than 400 locations spanning 32 states, Canada and the Caribbean.
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Martin Marietta | Aggregates & Heavy Building Materials A leading supplier of construction aggregates and heavy building materials, with more than 400 locations spanning 32 states, Canada and the Caribbean.