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Grave Matters - A Journey Through the Modern Funeral Industry to a Natural Way of Burial A companion to Mark Harris'' book Grave Matters, www.gravematters.us explores the green burial -- or natural burial -- movement in the U.S. and Canada, following natural cemeteries, memorial reefs, cremation, burial at sea, home funerals, casket making, and rural/backyard burial. The site also examines the environmental and human cost of embalming and of other features of the modern funeral.
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Pinterest Christmas got you feeling bloated? Me too. The holidays have completely ruined my wedding diet jumpstart. Luckily, that bright beacon of hope that is New Years is just around the corner, beckoning us to dust off those gym bags and drop off those few pounds that have been plaguing us since swimsuit season. Why not start with your New Year's Eve party? With all the boozin' and the shmoozin, you and your guests will appreciate some tasty finger food that they won't feel guilty about the next morning. Enter edamame - my personal favorite health food. Not only is it a healthy snack alternative, but incredibly versatile to work with. You can keep it simple with some sea salt or dress it up with a variety of dips and sauces. I personally love making dip with it, satisfying my desire for something with a creamy texture without feeling too guilty after I look down and realized I've taken the last scoop. With just a few ingredients, you can add a little kick to a snack that up to now you thought only made an appearance before a sushi dinner. I personally serve this dip with a side of cheesy wonton chips - another flavorful snack that uses 4 ingredients or fewer! Edamame Hummus with Cheesy Wonton Chips Wonton Chips50 wonton wrappers2 cups shredded parmesan cheesesaltpepperEdamame Hummus2 cups shelled edamame beans1 cup sesame oil2 tbsp red chili flakes1 tsp salt Wonton ChipsPreheat oven to 415 degrees. Slice wonton wrappers in half lengthwise.Place wonton wrappers on a baking sheet and top with shredded parmesan and salt and pepper to taste.Bake for 3-4 minutes until crispy.Edamame HummusIn a food processor or blender, mix together shelled edamame beans, sesame oil, chili flakes and salt. Serve with wonton chips.
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Puri, Jagannath Puri, Jagannath Dham, Puri Dham, Puri Odisha, Puri Tourism Jagannath Dham or Jagannath Puri is the abode of Lord Jagannath or Purushotham. It is one of the Char Dham of the Indian sub-continent including temples at Puri, Rameshwaram, Dwaraka, and Badrinath.
YouTube My Boo is a company specializing in making electric bikes with Bamboo frames. If that doesn't make them unusual and interesting enough they have partnered with Booomers - The Yonso Project who make the bamboo frames for their bikes in the Ashanti region of Ghana, Africa. They describe themselves as social and sustainable, for reasons we will explore in just a little while. Why Bamboo? My Boo, naturally enough, extol the virtues of bamboo as a frame material, saying it is as stable as steel, as light as aluminium and comfortable like carbon. Although niche, bamboo bikes and bamboo e-bikes are now established after pioneering work by Craig Calfee. The strength properties of bamboo are certainly well-known in Asia where it is in regular use as scaffolding on building projects and it has even been pressed into use as reinforcing for concrete. It's lightness and flex lends itself to bike frame production too; everyone wants a light bike and the flex adds comfort and a 'forgiving' feeling to your ride. The bamboo frame members are joined together using hemp and resin 'lugs' and other vital bits like rear dropouts are bonded into the bamboo frame. My Boo say the frames are made to the European safety standard for bikes EN14746. Here's a video from 2016 to give you a flavour of the bamboo frame production facilities in Ghana: The completed frames are shipped to an assembly plant in Kiel, Germany where assembly of the final bikes is completed. The frames carry a five year guarantee. There is a choice of two e-bikes, My Volta (€3699) and My Volta Gates (€4099). Options include Shimano and Rohloff hub gear configurations, rigid or suspension forks, 418 or 504Wh batteries, wooden pedals and cork or wooden grips. Weight is around 25kg and Busch and Muller lighting comes as standard. Both are powered by a Shimnao Steps E6000 mid-motor. There are also non-electric bamboo bikes to choose from including city, trekking, urban and road models and starting at £1,399. A Social Concern My Boo and Booomers have also joined forces to run The Yonso Project which is about much more than just making the bamboo bike frames. For example a school is under construction which the project says 'after its completion will provide high-level education for up to 1,000 children.' What is more, the 35 Ghanaians who are all employed in the frame production in Ghana receive 'fair payment, a social insurance and, most importantly, future prospects for themselves and their families.' Specific projects include funding of school uniforms for those who cannot afford them and a program to help children bike to school. This video gives a bit more detail on the project: Expansion After being founded five years ago My Boo now claim to be Europe's largest bamboo bike makers and further expansion seems to be on the cards. In 2019 they began distributing bamboo bikes in the UK. They are already distributed through 100 local bike shops in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and My Boo say they have the USA in their sights too (indeed they can fulfill individual orders further to specific enquiries). Stay tuned for more e-bike news and reviews and thanks for reading! -Richard P.S. Don't forget to join the Electric Bike Report community for updates from the electric bike world, plus ebike riding and maintenance tips!
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VisitCyprus - Deputy Ministry of Tourism Cyprus is a small island with a long history and a rich culture that spans 10,000 years, making it one of the oldest civilisations in the Mediterranean - as evidenced by the many fascinating cultural sights, museums, monuments and galleries. Situated at the crossroads of three continents – Europe, Asia and Africa - the island’s unique geographic position has played an important part in its turbulent past since antiquity.
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QuestMasters Online Museum Home Page Welcome to QuestMasters - The foundation for the recovery and preservation of World War Two memorabilia for posterity. History of our Quest: The idea behind QuestMasters started during a recovery trip in Europe. After a long truck ride we realized that we were not only recovering and restoring World War Two memorabilia, but also going to the ends of the earth to do it. Hence - this is our Quest. Why we Quest? The Second World War lasted for over 6 years. For the United States, we were completely unprepared. Civilian companies quickly transformed into the American war machine. Small companies like Maytag, the washing machine company, made gun turrets for heavy bombers; Rock-Ola, a pin ball machine company, made rifles; Goodyear, the tire company, made fighter aircraft; Cadillac, the automobile company, made tank destroyers...and on and on. Farmboys, teachers, business men, barbers - men and women alike gave up their everyday jobs to put on a uniform, to fight for their country. They went to far-off lands, some unmapped - to fight and die. There was rationing and recycling. All gave some, and some gave all. Valor was a common virtue. And that is where we find ourselves, the children of a culture, responsible for the history of the sacrifice they made for us. Our goal: Our goal is the preservation of World War Two history. In the not too distant future, the breaths of those who were there making the history will no longer be able to tell the story. History is normally written by the victor, but this was a World War. It affected every country and every person, Allied and Axis. So, our focus is just that, to preserve the story, from both sides. It is our responsibility to tell their story. Webpage Header: WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts German 1940 10,5cm LFH18 - Light Field Howitzer 18 Germany 10,5cm le FH 18 leichte Feldhaubitze 18 Fried Krupp Essen 1940 Light Field Howitzer 105mm Steven Spielberg HBO mini-series Band Of Brothers Easy Company E Company 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment 506 PIR 101st Airborne Division World War Two Lt Spears D Company 506th PIR Episode 2 Day of Days QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Ford GPW ¼ Ton Truck 52712 - Jeep 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model GPW Manufacturer Ford Motor Company Date of Delivery 12 August 1942 Serial Number 52712 Hood Number 20137713 QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Ford GPW ¼ Ton Truck 69289 - Jeep Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model GPW Manufacturer Ford Motor Company Date of Delivery 30 September 1942 Serial Number 69289 Hood Number 20154290 Daimler Benz Gaggenau 1945 QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Ford GPW ¼ Ton Truck 69289 - Jeep - Page 2 Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model GPW Manufacturer Ford Motor Company Date of Delivery 30 September 1942 Serial Number 69289 Hood Number 20154290 Daimler Benz Gaggenau 1945 QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Dodge ¾ Ton Truck WC-54 Ambulance 713293 Type 3/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G502 Model WC-54 Ambulance Dodge Model T-214 Manufacturer Dodge Motor Company Date of Delivery November 1942 Serial Number 81560003 Hood Number 713293 WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts United States Willys MB ¼ Ton Truck 241969 - Jeep Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model MB Manufacturer Willys Overland Date of Delivery 1943 Serial Number 241969 Hood Number 20342091 WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts United States Willys MB ¼ Ton Truck 277074 - Jeep Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model MB Manufacturer Willys Overland Date of Delivery 1943 Serial Number: 277074 Hood Number WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts United States Studebaker T-24 Weasel Serial Number 991 Cargo Carrier Light Government Number G179 Model T-24 Weasel Studebaker Motor Company Date of Delivery 1943 Serial Number 991Registration Number prototype M-29 1942 M-29C BARGE WITH A CHARGE command vehicle HQ27 146th Engineer Combat Battalion ECB 1st Army Special Engineer Task Force Omaha Beach 1st Infantry Division June 6th 1944 H+03 hour United States 1 Ton “Ben Hur” Trailer G-518 Type Trailer 2 Wheel 1 Ton Cargo Government Number G-518 Untied States Checker Cab CC-1B 1 Ton 250 Gallon Water Trailer G-527 Type Trailer 1 Ton 2 Wheel Tank Water 250 Gallon Government Number G-527 Model: CC-1B Manufacturer Checker Cab Company Date of Delivery March 8th 1943 Serial Number 2709 U.S.A. Number Registration Number 0294301 Parts Manual TM 10-1395 Maintenance Manual TM 10-1395 United States Army Infantry Rifleman 29th Infantry Division Omaha Beach Normandy France June 6th 1944 German 2cm FLAK 38 German Germany Type 2cm 20mm FLAK 38 Model Flug Abwehr Kanone 38 Manufacturer 1944 Sonderanhanger 51 German 2cm FLAK 38 German Germany Type 2cm 20mm FLAK 38 Model Flug Abwehr Kanone 38 Manufacturer 1944 Sonderanhanger 51 Ammunition Boxes Crates German 2cm FLAK Ammunition box (left photo). This box is the early war style with metal end handles and painted ordnance tan. The partially obscured marking are "2cm Patr (Tr.)" which is for "2cm Patronen Tropen" (2cm Ammunition Tropical). This ammunition box was specifically packed for use in tropical climates.The 2cm FLAK Ammunition box in the right photo is also packaged for tropical use. Ammunition box label for 2cm High Explosive (Sprenggranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Yellow (gelb) Tracer (L''spur), left photo.Ammunition box label for 2cm Armor Piercing (Panzergranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur) Tropical (Tp) in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe), right photo. Ammunition box label for 2cm Armor Piercing (Panzergranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Red (rot) self destroying (red Z) Tracer (L''spur), in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe) left photo.Ammunition box label for 2cm High Explosive (Sprenggranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur), in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe), right photo. Ammunition box label for 2cm Incendiary (Brand) High Explosive Ammunition (Sprenggranatpatronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur), left photo. Note very late 1945 production date.Ammunition box label for 2cm Incendiary (Br.) High Explosive Ammunition (Sprgr-Patronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur), in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe), right photo. External ammunition box stenciling: Luftwaffen-Munition (Air Force Ammunition), left photo. Heeres-Munition (Army Ammunition), right photo. Equipment and ammunition was procured independently via separate contracts within the German Wehrmacht or Armed Forces during World War Two. Equipment and ammunition was specifically marked for the branch of service that it was ordered. It was not uncommon though to find supplies re-routed due to wartime shortages, United States Army Infantry Officer 36th Infantry Italy December 1943 U.S. Army Infantry Officer 36th Infantry Division San Pietro - Liri Valley, Italy December 1943 United States Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 U.S. Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 United States Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 U.S. Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 QuestMasters Aircraft United States Country United States Type: B-24J Heavy Bomber Manufacturer Consolidated Factory San Diego, Ca.Year 1944 Serial Number:B-24J-155-C0 44-40332 Country United States Type SNJ Advanced Trainer (Navy) Manufacturer North American Factory: Unknown Year 1944 Serial Number SNJ-5B 84947 Country United States Type LNE-1 Glider Trainer (Navy) Manufacturer Pratt Read Factory Deep River, Connecticut Year 1943 Serial Number LNE-1 31556 Country: United States Type UC-45F Cargo Aircraft (AAF) Manufacturer Beechcraft Factory Not Available Year 1943 Serial Number UC-45F 43-35764 Country United States / Canada Type PT-26A Primary Trainer (AAF) Cornell II (RCAF) Manufacturer Fleet Factory Ontario, Canada Year 1943 Serial Number: PT-26A 42-71104 Country United States Type CG-15A Glider (AAF) Manufacturer Waco Factory Not Available Year 1944/1945 Serial Number Not Available Country United States Type CG-4A Glider (AAF) Manufacturer Not Available Factory Not Available Year Not Available Serial Number Not Available Country United States Type P-61 Night Fighter (AAF) Manufacturer Not Available Factory Not Available Year Not Available Serial Number Not Available QuestMasters Aircraft Archeology U.S. Army/USMC Curtis A25-A (SB2C-1A "Helldiver")This is quite an unusual find. This rare aircraft started its life as a United States Navy SB2C "Helldiver". During the Second World War the Army ordered 900 "Helldivers" and renamed them A25-A. The U.S. Army later transferred the aircraft to the USMC and renamed the SB2C-1A. The history of this aircraft is unknown. The aircraft is seen (recovered from Barbers Point Naval Air Station, Hawaii) in an overall olive green paint scheme with grey undersides. It is interesting to note that two U.S. insignia are painted on the sides of the aircraft (this is due to war time repainting at different periods - exposure to the elements have uncovered both insignia). U.S. Army B-17F "Flying Fortress" named "LOS LOBOS".This is the starboard side of the nose section. Under "LOS LOBOS" is also painted "ROVER BOY". The history of this aircraft is uknown. U.S. Army B24D-13-CO-41-23938This aircraft is believed to be a Consolidated B-24D Liberator due to the fact that it crashed near several other B-24D Liberators of the same or near serial number. This aircraft was found near Wheeler Army Air Force Base, January 1996, in Hawaii. The photo depicts the forward starboard section of a B-24 Liberator painted in olive drab with the number 938 stenciled in yellow below the navigators window. This section of the B-24 has been recovered for the QuestMasters Museum for preservation. Any further information on this aircraft would be greatly appreciated. U.S. Army B24J-155-CO-44-40332This Consolidated B-24J Liberator was found in February 1993 in Aiea, Hawaii. Built in March 1944, "44-40332" crashed on May 5th, 1944 due to an on-board fuel problem. "332" was on her maiden voyage from California for final assignment to the 5th A.A.F. in Australia. All ten crew members were killed on impact having never seen a day of combat. Upon impact, "332" burst into flames nearly destroying the entire aircraft. "332" did not carry any unit markings, or nose art. Today only "332''s" right and left wing with wheels, four engines, tail turret, and many small parts remain on the impact site. The Nose section, from the cockpit forward, and the Martin 250 upper turret have been recovered for restoration in the QuestMasters Museum. U.S. Army B24J-80-CO-42-10021XThis Consolidated B-24J Liberator was found near Wheeler Army Air Force Base, January 1996, in Hawaii. Very little is known of the history of this B-24. Only part of the tail was found, as seen in this photo. No fire damage was found on the remains at the crash site. This was an early B-24J as noted by the olive-green paint that remained on the vertical stabilizer. Later B-24 Liberators were unpainted to save both materials and total aircraft weight (approximately 1000 pounds). The serial number was found to be partly obscured, so the last digit is represented by an "X". The only unit markings found on the aircraft were four horizontal lines on the vertical stabilizer. Due to extensive corrosion only the serial number section was recovered for preservation at the QuestMasters Museum. U.S. Army B24D-10-CO-41-23901This Consolidated B-24D Liberator was found on the Wailua Sugar Cane Plantation near Waimea Falls, 1994, in Hawaii. This aircraft crashed March 1942 during a routine coastal patrol of the Hawaiian coast. Three of her eight man crew died in the crash. Official Army Air Force reports concluded that the aircraft was on final approach when fuel ran out and the pilot ditched the aircraft in a sugar cane field. The aircraft remains today in a very sorry state. The aircraft was stripped in the late 1980''s for aluminum scrap, but many pieces remain on the crash site. Due to the lack of fuel on-board the aircraft, very little fire damage to the aircraft is present. The aircraft was painted in an overall olive drab paint scheme with "early" wartime U.S. insignia. Several small pieces were recovered for the QuestMasters Museum including the port wing star (seen in photo), an E-6B flight computer, several gun chutes, a mess kit, a match container, multiple .50cal armor piercing rounds and a propeller hub from one of the engines. Curtis P-36A 38-16 and P-36A 38-70This P-36A crashed on the Wailua Sugar Cane plantation, Oahu Hawaii U.S.A., due to a mid-air collision between Lt Ulysses S. O''Hern (P-36A 38-16) and Lt Richard A. Toole (P-36A 38-70) on July 12, 1941 0915 AM. Both aircraft were from the 45th Pursuit Squadron, 15th Pursuit Group, 7th Air Force. U.S. Navy TBM-1C "Avenger"This Navy TBM-1C "Avenger" was also found on Barbers Point Naval Air Station, Hawaii. The aircraft was recovered by QuestMasters and is seen prior to disassembly for shipment. This aircraft served with a training squadron on Barbers Point Naval Air Station, Hawaii U.S.A., until a young U.S. Navy Ensign "ground-looped" the ill-fated plane (his third and yes final crash). The Ensign was unhurt but the aircraft was struck from inventory due to extreme damage. This TBM-1C sat for 50 years in the runway bushes of Barbers Point NAS until recovered in the mid-1990''s. QuestMasters Artillery Country Germany Type 10,5cm 105mm LFH 18 Manufacturer Krupp Year 1940 Serial Number 17 Country Germany Type 7,5cm 75mm PAK 40 Maker Not Available Year 1944 Serial Number Not Available Country Germany Type 2cm 20mm FLAK 38 Maker Not Available Year 1944 Serial Number Not Available United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy BomberB-24J-155-CO-44-40332 CREW LISTWayne R. Kimble, 2nd Lt., Pilot - K.I.A.William E. Somsel Jr., 2nd Lt., Co-Pilot - K.I.A.Charles E. Mueller, 2nd Lt., Navigator - K.I.A.Morris Righthand, 2nd Lt., Bombardier - K.I.A.Jack J. Dowd, Staff Sgt., Gunner - K.I.A.Marion F. Norman, Staff Sgt., Gunner - K.I.A.James H. Means, Sgt., Gunner - K.I.A.Manual F. Campos, Cpl., Gunner - K.I.A.Gerald L. Weiss, Cpl., Gunner - K.I.A.Joseph J. Carlucci, Cpl., Gunner - K.I.A. This is a Motor Products hydraulic nose turret that will be used in this restoration project. This specific turret was found in a scrap yard in Macon, GA. The original nose turret for this B-24J was recovered but was destroyed beyond repair. During 1943-1944 the Consolidated San Diego factory ran out of Emerson electric nose turrets for their B-24J’s. A quick modification found the remaining B-24J’s made in San Diego with tail turrets mounted on the front of the aircraft (with the replacement of the nose turret electric systems with hydraulic systems). This production modification was only conducted at the Consolidated San Diego factory. Many earlier B-24s with "Green House" noses were converted using a very similar principal. This is the center fuselage section (frames 5.1 to 7.1) of B-24L-20-FO-44-50022. This B-24, recovered from Canada, was originaly built by the Ford Motor Company in Willow Run, Dearborn Michigan. This aircraft was transferred to the Royal Canadian Air Force as Liberator Mk VIII and served briefly with the R.C.A.F. until the end of the war (note production A.A.F. markings over painted with R.C.A.F. markings). After the war this B-24 was scrapped in Canada. This section will be used in the restoration of B-24J-155-CO-44-40332. This is the Martin 250 upper turret. This turret was also recovered from a scrap yard in Macon, GA. for the restoration of this B-24J. The original M-250 upper turret from this aircraft was completely destroyed, but was recovered. The original turret was manufactured by "MAYTAG". After World War Two Maytag produced washing machines. This is the starboard nose section of this B-24J (frames 0.1 to 0.3). This is where 2nd Lt. Charles E. Mueller and 2nd Lt. Morris Righthand lost their lives. The severity of the crash can be clearly seen. The fragment to the extreme left is the front frame (0.1) for entry into the nose turret (missing door). The fragment in the extreme bottom of the photo is the armored plate with B-7 mount for the Norden Bombsight. The C-1 Bombsight Stabilizer was recovered from the crash site, but the Bombsight was missing. On the outside of the aircraft skin is the hand painted Consolidated build number 4268. This is the port nose section of this B-24J (frames 0.1 to 0.2). The extreme right fragment shows the entry frame to the nose turret with door attached. The extreme top fragment is the Astro-Dome for the Astro-Compass. The Astro-Compass was used for nighttime navigation. The following pictures are other B-24 parts that have been recovered for the restoration of this B-24 aircraft.In the center of the left photo is the Nose Landing Gear Wheel.This wheel utilized a 36 Inch S.C. 10 ply tire. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS Stations (Frames) 1.0 through 3.0 - Pilot and Co-Pilot Pilot control wheel assembly with control wheel attached, left photo.Co-Pilot control wheel assembly, missing wheel and internal parts, right photo. Pilot (left) and Co-Pilot (right) Auxiliary Instrument Panels, left photo. Pilots Instrument Panel: (3) Type E-4 Hydraulic Pressure Gages, (1) AN-G-24 Suction Gage and Pilot vent. Co-Pilot Instrument Panel: (2) AN-5795-6 Carburetor Gages and Co-Pilot Vent.Right photo, Top Row (L to R): Radio Compass Control Indicator with mount (used only on early B-24''s), Turbo Boost Selector, Radio Compass and Mount. Bottom Row (L to R) Engine Switch Panel - Starter and Primer Switches (Co-Pilot side of cockpit), BC-451 Command Radio Control Box (mounted on Pedestal Assembly), Fast Feathering Switch for No. 4 Engine, and switch from Pedestal Mount. Pilot Seat (left photo). Pilot Seat is missing head rest, head rest cushion, back cushion, seat cushion and complete knee pad and support.Co-Pilot Seat (right photo). Complete with floor track attached. Missing head rest cushion, back rest cushion, seat cushion, arm rest upholstery and knee pad upholstery. Pilot left and right Rudder Pedals with cockpit floor, left photo.Co-Pilot right Rudder Pedal with cockpit floor, right photo. Pilot cockpit enclosure vent window, missing plexiglass, left photo. Shown from inside of window.Co-Pilot cockpit enclosure vent window, right photo. Shown from outside of window. Co-Pilot fuse box, left photo. Missing fuses and cover. Mounted on Co-Pilot side of fuselage.BC- 434 Radio Control Box (top), BC-450 Radio Control Box (bottom), right photo. Mounted on the cockpit enclosure center frame. BC-765 Radio Switchbox, left photo. This box was used to destroy the "special radio" equipment on the B-24 so that it would not be captured by the enemy. Located above the instrument panel below the windscreen.Spare Pilot or Co-Pilot cockpit floor, right photo. Note markings for Rudder Pedal settings. Instrument panel support assembly, above photo. The support assembly, was the lower part of the instrument panel and allowed the attachment of the Auxiliary Instrument Panels and Control Wheel Assemblies. The above photo shows the pilot section of the support, with oxygen gages attached and the rear of the co-pilot support assembly. Four Oxygen Regulator Mounts (left photo). Each mount contained one Type A-12 or A-12A Oxygen Regulator,AN 6021-1 Oxygen Pressure Gage and AN 6029-1 Oxygen Flow Indicator. One mount was located on either side of the Pilot and Co-Pilot.Seven BC-366 Radio Jack Boxes (right photo). The BC-366 Jack Box was used to connect the microphone and headset to the radio system. Only two BC-366 Jack Boxes would have been used in the B-24 cockpit. The other five will be used in other areas of the B-24 during this restoration. Six Type Q-1B Heated Flight Suit Rheostat (left photo). Only two Q-1B''s would be used in the cockpit, the other four will be used in other areas of the B-24 during this restoration.Operating Instructions For AN/ARN-7 Radio Plate (right photo). This plate was located next to the BC-450 Radio Control Box mounted on the cockpit enclosure center frame. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS Stations (Frames) 3.0 through 4.1 - Radio Operator and Top Turret Radio Operator Table with BC-348 Liaison Radio Receiver, AN-3047 Work Table Light Assembly, J-37 Morse Code Key and Radio Operator''s Information File. J-37 Morse Code Key and Monitor Switch, left photo. Note original "RADIO CALL" number 449157 painted below switch. This Radio Table was removed from Ford B-24L-1-FO-44-49157.BC-348 Liaison Radio Receiver with FT-154 Receiver Mount, right photo. BC-306 Antenna Tuning Unit with FT-142 Antenna Tuning Unit Mount, left photo.PE-73 Dynamotor Unit with FT-107 Dynamotor Mount, right photo. Fuel Sight Gage, left photo.Main Fuel Tank Selectors Panel, right photo. Power Panel Switch Box Cover with (4) Type E-1 Amperage Gages, left photo. Missing Power Switch Box GK32E1043and Type B-1 Voltmeter.Trailing Antenna, right photo. FT-470 Mounting (Top), M235 Antenna Wire (Left), RL-42 Antenna Reel (Right) Radio Operator Seat Support Assembly (Above). Bombardier''s seat assembly (left photo). This style of seat was only used on early B-24''s with the "greenhouse" style nose. This seat is very similar to the Radio Operator''s seat assembly, and this seat will be used with the support pictured above. BC-221 Frequency Meter (left photo).TM 11-300AE BC-211 Manual datedAugust 7th 1943(right photo). United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS Stations (Frames) 4.4 through 6.0 - Command Deck BC-357 Radio Receiver with FT-161 Mount and CD-365 Cord, left photoBC-453, BC-454 and BC-455 Radio Receiver with FT-220 Radio Rack, right photo. FT-220 Rack is missing the FT-221 Mount. BC-457 Radio Transmitter with FT-226 Radio Rack. The FT-226 Radio Rack is missing the BC-459 Radio Transmitter andFT-227 Radio Rack Mount. BC-645 Radio Receiver and Transmitter, left photo. The BC-645 is missing the FT-255 Radio Mount.Tag attached to BC-645 states: "THIS EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN ALIGNED WITH DUMMY DESTROYERS INSTALLED IN THE BASE. FREQUENCY ADJUSTMENTS SHOULD ALWAYS BE MADE WITH REAL OR DUMMY DESTROYERS INSTALLED, bottom right photo. BK-22 Relay Station, left photo.PE-101 Dynamotor Unit, right photo. PE-101 Dynamotor is missing the FT-255 Mount. TU-5 Radio Transmitter Tuning Unit, left photo.TU-10 Radio Transmitter Tuning Unit, right photo. TU-26 Radio Transmitter Tuning Unit, left photo. Bomb Hoist with handle. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber NOSE PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber NOSE PARTS Stations (Frames) 0 through 1.1 - Bombardier and Navigator Station Type M-9 Norden Bomb Sight on original shipping mount, left photo. M-9 Bomb Sight nomenclature plate, right photo. This Bomb Sight was made by the Victor Adding Machine Company. Type A-1 Astrograph with storage case, left photo. The Astrograph used translucent maps of the constellations.These maps allowed the Navigator to plot a course at night. Also shown in the photo are spare bulbs and tools that were stored in the Astrograph case. The Type A-1 Astrograph was used with the MK II Astrocompass.Type B-5 Drift Meter, right photo. Type B-3A Bomb Release, left photo.Navigator''s Astrodome Window, right photo. MK II Astrocompass with storage box, left photo.Bombardiers heater assembly, right photo. This heater was made by The Stewart Warner Corporation. Nose Landing Gear Leg and Support Arms, left photo.Nose Landing Gear Doors, above photo.The B-24 Liberator was produced with two styles of Nose Landing Gear Doors, inward opening and outward opening.Port inward opening door, extreme left; and three starboard outward opening doors, right. Nose Landing Gear Hydraulic Leg Operating Assembly, above photo. The B-24 used only one hydraulic assembly per aircraft.- Nose Landing Gear Parts -Left photo, top to bottom, left to right:Support Arm Pivot, Door Bearing (for outward opening door), Port Door Opening Housing (for inward opening doors), Door Opening Arms (for left and right outward opening doors) and two Leg Scissors (only one would be used per aircraft). United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS Stations (Frames) 6.1 through 10Ball Turret, Waist Guns and Tail Turret Type E-13 Gun Mount Adapter for left and right waist guns. The Type E-13 Adapter held the M-2 .50 caliber Machine Gun in the Type K-7 Side Gun Mount with C-19A Mount Adapter. The E-13 Adapter utilized the Type K-13 Compensating Gun Sight. This configuration was used in late B-24 Liberators that were produced with enclosed waist gun positions. Waist or Side Gun Ammunition Box, left and right photo. One ammunition box was provided per gun and contained 600 rounds of .50 caliber ammunition. The white label states: EMERGENCY, TO REMOVE AMMUNITION BOX, PULL HINGE PIN AFT, LIFT EDGE OF BOX AND REMOVE. The ammunition box in the left photo is show with a portion of the feed chute attached. Tail Turret Ammunition Boxes, left and right photo.These boxes were stacked just aft of the waist gun position and fed the tail turret via a long rigid feed chute. Tail Turret Hydraulic System, left photo. Missing from the system is the Hydraulic Turret Pump Motor.Main Entrance Door Installation, right photo. Mounted in Station 7.4 - 7.6. Hanger and Retraction Cylinder Assembly for the Type A-13 Ball Turret, left photo. Spare Parts Box for A-13 Ball Turret, above center photo.Spare Parts Box, inside view, above right photo. The spare parts box held extra fuses and brushes that may be needed for replacement during flight. Type LP-21 ADF "Football" Radio Antenna (left photo).This antenna was originally black, with stenciling "Do Not Paint". Contrary to instruction, this antenna has been painted silver with unit markings applied. It will be restored, when mated to the fuselage, in it''s original war-time flat-black finish.LP-21 Dehydrator, Loop Antenna (right photo). The LP-21 Dehydrator was used to draw moisture away from the LP-21 Antenna. The attachment brackets are also shown. Left photo: Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box, Tail Turret Power Switch Box and Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box.The Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box is located under the Radio Operator''s floor near Station (Frame) 3.1. Only one Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box was used per aircraft.Right photo: Unknown electrical box cover and unknown fuselage access panel, top row.Fuze Box Cover (Station 4.0), Bomb Release Signal Tail Light Shield and Wing Access Plate, center row.Wing Landing Light Relay Box Assembly Cover, bottom row. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber WING PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber WING PARTS B-24 Main Landing Gear Tire with Hub Cap, left photo.The B-24 Liberator used a 56 Inch S.C. 16 ply tire with tube for the Main Landing Gear. This example was made by theRoyal Aircraft Tire Company. B-24 Main Landing Gear Tire with Hub , left photo.This example was made by the BF Goodrich Tire Company. B-24 Main Landing Gear Tire with Hub , left photo.This example was made by the Good Year Tire Company. Fairing Assembly - Wing Streamlined Wheel (left photo). This was mounted on the bottom of the wing, behind the landing gear wheel.Starboard Main Landing Gear Door (right photo). Port side Main Landing Gear Leg (left photo).Starboard side Main Landing Gear Leg(right photo). Main Landing Gear wing attachment parts (left photo). Other wing parts (right photo). Main Landing Gear Wheel Brake Assembly.(left photo).Two brake assemblies were used on each wheel. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber BOMB BAY PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber BOMB BAY PARTS Stations (Frames) 4.0 through 6.0 - Bomb Bay Bomb racks (left and right photo). Two racks were located on each side of the bomb bay. Bomb Bay Doors, inside view (upper left and right photo, and above lower left and right photo). Bomb Bay Door damage, possibly from wartime anti-aircraft United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber ENGINE PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber ENGINE PARTS Cowl Flap (left photo). Cowl Panel (right photo). Engine parts (left photo). Oil tanks (right photo). One oil tank was mounted behind each engine on the B-24. United States Heavy Bomber Carry-On Equipment HEAVY BOMBER CARRY- ON EQUIPMENT Type A-4 Walk Around Oxygen Bottle with AN 6022-1 Regulator (left photo). Close-up of decal on Type A-4 bottle (right photo). This bottle was specifically made for the B-24 Liberator and has a part number of 32F24125. Type E-1 Bombardier''s Case (left photo). Type E-2 Bombardier''s Case (right photo). Type A-4 Navigator''s Dead Reckoning Case (left photo). Type A-6 Celestial Navigation Case (right photo). Type A-10A Sextant (left photo). Type AN 5854-1 Sextant (right photo). Pilot''s Navigation Kit (left photo). B-24 Flight Check List and B-24 Load Adjuster with case (right photo). Type A-1 Aircraft Food Container (left photo). Type FTG-3-1 Food Tray Galley (right photo). Type E-5 Emergency Sustenance Kit (left photo). Oil tanks (right photo). AN-R-2A One-Man Life Raft Parachute Kit (right photo). Type K-20 Aircraft Camera (left photo). Type A-14 Oxygen Mask with Storage Box and Stowage/Carry Bag (right photo). AN 6511-1 Seat Type Parachute Pack (left photo). Shipping boxes for .50 caliber ammunition (right photo). Ammunition for aircraft machine-guns was usually pre-linked when shipped. Ammunition would be removed from the shipping crate, carried onto the aircraft and stowed in the onboard ammunition boxes. AN-CRN-1 Navigation Buoy. The AN-CRN-1 was a low frequency buoy used for homing purposes on pre-set frequencies between 1400-1750KC by aircraft equipped with any production model of Radio Compass SCR-269. This system keyed at a rate of 180 times a minute and interrupted every thirty seconds by a signal code letter which may be either K, M, O, Q, X or Y. The SCR-578-B Gibson Girl radio set was the primary aircraft survival radio set used during World War Two. This system was used for survival communications when an aircrew was forced out of their aircraft. It had a reported range of 50 to 300 miles, dependent upon conditions affecting radio transmission. The nick-name Gibson Girl was given to this radio set due to its'' feminine curvy shape. The BC-778-D, or AN-CRT-3, radio set shown in the left photo is a crystal controlled radio that operates in the 500KC, Kilo Cycle range (known as Kilo Hertz/KHz today) and 8280KC International Maritime Frequency range. The 8280KC range was determined by the Joint Chiefs of Staff as the world-wide Air Sea Rescue Frequency. Oxygen bottle for oxy-acetylene welding set (left photo). This bottle was used by ground personnel for repairing aircraft. The center photo shows property markings: U.S. ARMY and AIR FORCES. The right photo shows bottle type: ICC-3A2260 H170928, W D (War Department) and dated 2 43 (February 1943). United States Heavy Bomber Carry-On Equipment United States Heavy Bomber Carry-On Equipment Type H-1 Emergency Bail Out Oxygen Bottle (left photo). This is one of the few examples of wartime aircraft equipment being marked U.S. AIRFORCE vice U.S. Army Air Force. Aircraft Instrument and Machine Gun Lubricating Oil can (right photo). Type B-2 Jungle Emergency Parachute Back Pad (left photo).This kit contained a Type E-3A Emergency Sustenance Kit, 2 Carlisle First Aid Kits, Folding Machete, Pocket Compass, Waterproof Match Container, Mosquito Lotion, 1 Box of 20 rounds of .45 caliber ammunition plus other items. Survival Food items (right photo).Type C; Ration Biscuits, Type C Ration Can, Wrigley''s Juicy Fruit Gum, Wrigley''s Doublemint Gum, Beech-Nut Gum, Malted Milk Tablets 1oz., Hershey''s Tropical Chocolate 2oz., Hershey''s Tropical Chocolate 1oz.,Nestle''s All-Weather Chocolate 2oz., Type D Ration 2oz., Type D Ration 4oz., Life Raft Ration Container, Cryst-O-Mint Lifesavers and Beech-Nut Rummies Survival Items (left photo).Emergency Fishing Kit container, Emergency Fishing Kit, Type JJ-1 Sea Water Desalting Kit, Type & A Life Boat Ration, Air Crew Lunch box and Emergency Ration. Tobacco Items (right photo).Chesterfield Cigarette Carton (10 packs of cigarettes), Camel Cigarette Carton (10 packs of cigarettes),4 packages of pre-1942 Lucky Strike Cigarettes, & Phillip Morris Cigarette Package and Chelsea Cigarette Page from a Type K Ration. The Lucky Strike Cigarette Package was changed from green to white between 1942 and 1943 to save green dye for other war production items. Signal Drift, Day, AN-MK-1 (top, left photo).Signal Drift AN-MK-IV (bottom left photo).These devices were used as a navigational aid over water for determining drift. These devices could also be used for marking a life raft position temporarily, when a longer burning smoke was not available. Type F-2 Utility Heater (left photo). This heater was used for heating aircraft components during cold weather operations. Type K-2 and Type K-3 (C-3A) Inter-Aircraft Control Lamp Assemblies (right photo).These lamps were used to signal from one aircraft to another. Type A-3 Headlight Flashlight Assembly (left photo). Type 42D4499 Ultra-Violet Headlight Flashlight Assembly (right photo).The Type 42D4499 Assembly was used to illuminate switches and gages during low light or night time flying operations. Type A-5 Inspection Flashlight Lamp Assembly (left photo). Army Air Force 5 gallon gasoline cans (left photo). Two variations of gasoline cans are shown marked: PROPERTY AIR FORCE U.S.A. (United States Army), above top and bottom right photo. Container, Liquid, Heat Insulated, 1 Gallon (left photo).Container, Liquid, Heat Insulated, 2 Gallon (right photo). Kit, First Aid, Jungle (left photo). This first aid kit was used for aircraft flying over jungle areas. United States Army Air Force Cargo Pilot AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND This Type A-2 Flight Jacket belonged to Captain August J. Kieser, USAAF. "Gus", as his friends call him, was born on February 11th, 1921. He entered the service in 1942 from New York. He received his training and went on to fly C-87 "Liberator Express" Cargo Aircraft with theA.T.C. in Tezpur, India from December 1944 to May 1945. During this time frame "Gus" logged over 750 Hours and 75 “Hump” Missions to China. The blue paint on the sleeves of the jacket are from when Gus painted his house after World War Two while wearing this jacket. On the left sleeve of the A-2 Jacket is the C.B.I. patch. This multi-piece patch was hand made in Tezpur, India in 1944. On the right sleeve of the A-2 Jacket is the A.A.F. patch. This multi-piece patch was hand made in Tezpur, India in 1944. On the left chest of the A-2 Jacket is a hand made name tape. The name tape was written in three different languages. This patch was hand made in Tezpur, India in 1944. This Type A-2 Flight Jacket was made by the MONARCH MFG CO. under contract W535A.C-23378. This is a photo of Captain Kieser wearing the A-2 Jacket in India, 1944-1945. Note the unofficial A.T.C. patch on the jacket and the privately purchased, non-regulation boots. "Gus" had these made in Brazil when he was passing through to Africa/Asia. Also note the other A-2 with "Blood Chit" on the chair next to "Gus". This jacket belonged to the gentleman taking the photo. This is the un-official A.T.C. patch. "Gus" removed this patch from his A-2 after the war, so that it could be displayed in his office. This patch was also made in Tezpur, India in 1944. This is the exact patch seen in the photo above. This patch will be re-applied to the A-2. This is one of the other patches that "Gus" had. It is a multi-piece squadron patch made for the India China Wing Air Transport Command. This patch was also made in Tezpur, India in 1944. This is the inside view of the hat that is on display with Captain Kieser''s A-2 Jacket. This hat was made by the "Streamline Company" of Los Angeles California. It is marked "FLIGHT CAP" for specific sale to Army Air Force Officers. This hat was specifically made with the "crushed" look, preferred by Army Air Force pilots. This is not an issue hat, but rather one privately purchased by service members. United States Army Air Force Cargo Pilot AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND August J. Kieser U.S. Army Air Force Cargo PilotAIR TRANSPORT COMMAND - A.T.C. China-Burma-India Theater 1944-1945 The is one of the pictures from Gus'' photo album. The original hand written caption read "50 CHINKS CHENGTU". These are Chinese soldiers that were being transported via C-87. Note the C-87 in the background with tail number 228. Also noteworthy are the civilian trucks unloading cargo from the front and side of the C-87. This photo is a C-47 in Chinese markings. U.S. and Chinese soldiers are in the foreground. Gus could not remember why he circled the man in the door. Here is a photo of Gus sitting on a surf board in Accra, British West Africa. Gus flew C-47s and C-46s for the A.T.C. in Accra from July 3 - Dec 26 1944. The non-regulation flight boots were made in Brazil. Note the issue summer pith helmet with Officers'' insignia. This is one of the pages from Gus'' pilot logbook. Note the various aircraft and tail numbers. In the A.T.C., C.B.I. cargo pilots were not assigned to specific aircraft. On this page Gus flew both C-87s and C-109s. This is another page for Gus'' pilot log. Note the entry on March 30th 1945 "HIT CHINK". During the take-off taxi, a local Chinese civilian ran in front of Gus'' C-87. The propeller blade killed the civilian. Gus recalled that some of the Chinese civilians that worked on the runway believed that running in front of the aircraft would pull the evil spirits away into the propellers. Many Chinese civilians were killed during this practice. United States Cargo GMC Truck 2 1/2 Ton G-508 Type: Truck, Cargo, LWB, 2 1/2 Ton, 6x6Government Number: G-508Model: CCKW 353Manufacturer: Yellow Truck & Coach Mfg Co. (Division of the General Motors Company, Pontiac Michigan) Date of Delivery: September 1942Serial Number: 189590Maintenance Manual: TM 9-801 Truck Details: Weight: Net 11,250 lbs., Payload 5,000 lbs., Gross 15,050 lbs. Ground Clearance: 10 inches Tires: 7.50 x 20 Split ring rim United States Waco CG-15A Glider United States Waco CG-15A Glider A.A.F. Serial Number: Unknown The Waco CG-15A Glider was the late war improvement of the earlier Waco CG-4A Glider. Three of the improvements made in the CG-15A was the use of stronger and thicker tubing for crew protection during landing, the addition of pilot/co-pilot doors in the cockpit for disembarkation after landing and the increased windscreen area which afforded the crew a better field of vision during flight and landing. CG-15A Glider in Europe (note the German aircraft in the background), left photo.CG-15A Glider being loaded/unloaded with a 1/4 Ton Truck, right photo. CG-15A Glider tow and radio connection, left photo. CG-15A Glider data plates, left top and bottom photos. Both plates are mounted above the center inside cockpit window frame. Waco CG-15 Specifications and Production Info: Type: Troop/Cargo Glider Payload: Ferrying/Troop Condition: 16 (Pilot/Co-Pilot plus 14 Troops) Jeep Condition: Pilot/Co-Pilot, 4 Troops plus Jeep Howitzer Condition: Pilot/Co-Pilot, 3 Gun Crew plus 75mm Gun Litter Condition: Pilot/Co-Pilot plus 6 Patients Specifications: Length: 48'' 10"Wingspan: 62'' 2.25"Empty Weight: 4000 lbs. Max Weight: 8035 lbs. Maximum At Takeoff Max Towing Speed: 180 mph Production: 1944/1945Total Aircraft Produced: XCG-15 (1), XCG-15A (2), CG-15A (875)Known Serial Numbers:45-5276 through 45-5660 CG-15A (385)45-12743 through 45-12784 CG-15A (42)45-12785 through 45-13232 CG-15A (448) United States Waco CG-4A Glider United States Waco CG-4A Hadrian Glider A.A.F. Serial Number: Unknown CG-4A Glider Cockpit, above photo. This cockpit has been used as a source of spare tubing for some time. The bottom section of the cockpit has been removed as well as the rear seat area and top tubing. CG-4A Glider Cockpit, above photo. Rear view of the glider cockpit. The Pilot and Co-Pilot seat support area remains intact with the seat belt D Rings still attached. The instrument panel support tubing also remains intact. This cockpit section does not appear to have had a Griswold Nose Crash Protection System United States Clark Airborne Bulldozer CA-1 Type: Airborne Bulldozer (Tractor Crawler) Government Number: G-XXX Model: CA-1Manufacturer: Clark Equipment Company Buchanan, Michigan Date of Delivery: March 25th 1944 Serial Number: 441475Registration Number: 9113429Maintenance Manual: TM 5-3020. Left side of the CA-1. The original side mounted stowage boxes are missing, as well as many small parts. The front blade is held in place with a section of chain due to loss of hydraulic pressure. Rear view of the CA-1, left picture. The original rear mounted winch is missing. Clark Equipment Company nomenclature plate, left picture. This plate is located on the right side of the engine compartment, just behind the blade. The original color of the plate was silver on green. Waukesha Motor Company nomenclature plate, right photo. This plate is located on the left side of the engine, just below the head. Auxiliary Shipping Name Plate, left picture. This plate is mounted under the Clark nomenclature plate. This style of plate was added to vehicles for overseas shipment. Corps of Engineers nomenclature plate. This plate is mounted on the rear of the front blade. The original Army registration number is visible on the right side of the hood. The only numbers still visible are "11342".The registration number "9113429" would have been painted on both sides of the hood. The Clark CA-1 Bulldozer was designed to be delivered by air. The left picture shows a CA-1 loaded for delivery by Glider Borne troops. The right picture shows a CA-1loaded for delivery by a C-47.This specific C-47 is painted in Normandy; air recognition markings for the invasion of France, June 1944.The CA-1 was used in the European and Pacific Theaters. Clark CA-1 Production Info: The following is a partial list of the Contract Numbers, Clark Serial Numbers and Army Registration Numbers for the Clark CA-1. The Clark Serial Number can be broken down to the following: Example: CA-1(Vehicle Type)43(Year of Production)162(Vehicle Number) Contract No. W-145-A eng.-511Tractor Serial No. CA-1431 to No. CA-143162 (162 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 953463 to 953624Contract No. W-1088 eng. (MSP)-2460Tractor Serial No. CA-143193 to No. CA-143228 (135 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 977511 to 977546Contract No. W-1088 eng. 2155Tractor Serial No. CA-143229 to No. CA-1431015 (716 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 963300 to 964086Contract No. W-1088 eng. 2165Tractor Serial No. CA-1431016 to No. CA-1431121 (205 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 963144 to 963249 German Afrika Korps Pioneer (Engineer) North Africa 1941 U.S. Army Engineer Special Brigade - Omaha Beach Normandy France June 6th 1944 U.S. Army Engineer Special Brigade - ESB Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 The Engineer Special Brigade or ESB was organized in England from existing Engineer Combat Groups to support the landings and subsequent supply operations over Omaha Beach during the Normandy landings. The ESB Engineers found themselves helping out the assault troops in the early fighting for Omaha Beach. The uniform set shown to the left is from the 5th or 6th ESB unit that fought in the DOG and CHARLIE sector of Omaha Beach Normandy. The M-1 flex bail helmet has the 5th/6th ESB white arc painted over the ESB insignia. A black rubber M-5 Assault gas mask is suspended from the soldiers neck. This soldier wears a Flannel OD issue shirt under his M-1941 Field Jacket. His M-1928 khaki haversack supports a M-1923 M-1 Garand Cartridge Belt, M-1916 Pistol Holster with M-1911 .45 cal. Pistol, three Mk II Fragmentation Hand Grenades and One CN-DM Gas Hand Grenade. Around the waist of this soldier is the USN made Duel Type Invasion Life Belt. Additionally this soldier carries two spare bandoleers for 8 clips of .30-06 M-1 Rifle ammunition. Reverse view of the ESB uniform showing a white horizontal band on the rear of the M-1 Helmet for NCO’s (Non Commissioned Officers). The reverse of the M-1923 Haversack shows the M-1 Bayonet with M-7 Scabbard on the left side, M-1910 Entrenching Tool with carrier and stowed M-1942 Mess Kit. Suspended from this soldiers M-1923 Cartridge Belt is a M-1910 Canteen and a M-1942 First Aid Kit. On the left side of the ESB uniform is a bag that contains Demolition Chain Blocks of M-1 High Explosive. This is a close-up view of the ESB uniform with the Demolition Bag being show. This bag was made of olive cotton material. Espria, Italy 1943/1944Espria, Italy lies on the western flank of Monte Cassino, between Naples and Rome. This area was the focal point of the French Expeditionary Corps during the Allied drive toward Monte Cassino during late 1943 through early 1944. The F.E.C. was primarily comprised of Moroccan soldiers. These Moroccan soldiers were specifically chosen for operations in Espria for their mountain fighting ability. The Moroccan soldiers fought swiftly and surgically in this campaign. The summit above Espria is home to a Middle-Age Monastery, which is now in ruins. This area was occupied by the German Army and was used as an observation point for the western control of the Winter Line. QuestMaster Jonny Reb& Ray is pointing eastward toward Monte Cassino. This photo illustrates how well this mountain top controlled much of the movement in the Lire Valley. This photo shows QuestMasters conducting archeology work within the ruins. Several U.S. .30-06 caliber fired projectiles were found in the soft-face of the Monastery slopes, as well as a vintage Coca-Cola bottle and one German 5 liter gas can. Additionally, on the road leading to the summit, a German gas mask carrier, a German 5cm 3 round mortar carrier and a World War One German 8cm Trench Art shell casing was found. Untied States SCR-578-B Gibson Girl Radio Set Untied States SCR-578-B Gibson Girl Radio Set BG-155-A Bag and M-390-A Parachute (left photo). The BG-155-A Bag held the entire SCR-578-BRadio Set.BC-778-D, or AN-CRT-3 Radio Set (right photo). T-69F/AMT-2 Radiosonde Transmitter, M-278-A Hydrogen Balloons (2 balloons were used in this set to fly the kite mast), M-308-B Signal Lamp (head mounted) and Flashlight (left photo).M-357-A Kite Assembly (used to fly the antenna), M-315 Hydrogen Generator Inflation Tubes and the Kite and Tube Storage Bag (right photo). M-315 Hydrogen Generator Containers (left photo).The M-315 Hydrogen Generator was used to inflate the M-278 Balloons. Pill Box Glyfada, Greece Herculanium Italy Herculanium Italy Herculanium, Italy lies to the southwest of the Italian volcano, Mount Vesuvius. During the year 79 A.D. Mount Vesuvius erupted, showering the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculanium with molten rock and ash burying the two cities for almost 2000 years. Archeology work is still being conducted to reveal covered portions of the two cities. QuestMasters visited this famous city in 1998. QuestMasters has added this section to the Quest page for this specific photo. The emblem most frequently associated with Nazi Germany is the Swastika. This symbol was actually used several thousand years prior to the reign of the Third Reich. The left photo, taken in Herculanium, is a Greek cross with the ends of arms bent at counterclockwise right angles. This symbol was used as a sign of good luck, and was usually placed in the main doorway of a home or building as done in the left photo. The symbol of Nazi Germany was very similar, but was the exact mirror image with the arms bending clockwise. QuestMasters Home Page Welcome to QuestMasters - The foundation for the recovery and preservation of World War Two memorabilia for posterity. History of our Quest: The idea behind QuestMasters started during a recovery trip in Europe. After a long truck ride we realized that we were not only recovering and restoring World War Two memorabilia, but also going to the ends of the earth to do it. Hence - this is our Quest. Why we Quest? The Second World War lasted for over 6 years. For the United States, we were completely unprepared. Civilian companies quickly transformed into the American war machine. Small companies like Maytag, the washing machine company, made gun turrets for heavy bombers; Rock-Ola, a pin ball machine company, made rifles; Goodyear, the tire company, made fighter aircraft; Cadillac, the automobile company, made tank destroyers...and on and on. Farmboys, teachers, business men, barbers - men and women alike gave up their everyday jobs to put on a uniform, to fight for their country. They went to far-off lands, some unmapped - to fight and die. There was rationing and recycling. All gave some, and some gave all. Valor was a common virtue. And that is where we find ourselves, the children of a culture, responsible for the history of the sacrifice they made for us. Our goal: Our goal is the preservation of World War Two history. In the not too distant future, the breaths of those who were there making the history will no longer be able to tell the story. History is normally written by the victor, but this was a World War. It affected every country and every person, Allied and Axis. So, our focus is just that, to preserve the story, from both sides. It is our responsibility to tell their story. German Infantry Cart 18 German Type: Trailer 2 Wheel, Infantry, Hand Model: Unknown Manufacturer: Unknown Serial Number: Unknown This German trailer was recovered from Germany. The model or type is currently unknown. It is slightly larger than the Infantry Field Kart 8 (IF8 or JF8). The restoration of this cart (kart) was done in Germany. The original tires are present on the cart. The size of the tires is 3.50-19. Both tires are made by the Continental Tire Company. United States Navy Pratt Read LNE-1 Glider Trainer United States Navy Pratt Read LNE-1 Glider Trainer Aircraft LNE-1 Glider Mfg: Pratt Read & Co. Inc., Gould Aero. Div., Deep River ConnecticutMfg’s Model No.: PR-G1 Serial Number: 52U.S. Navy Serial Number: LNE-1 BuNo 31556U.S. Army Serial Number: TG-32-PR-43-39557Date Produced: 23 March 1943Maximum Glide or Dive Speed: 86 Knots; Wingspan: 54’ 6”; Length: 26’ 3”History:In 1943, a contract was ordered for 100 Type LNE-1 Gliders for the U.S. Navy from the Gould Aero Division of the Pratt Read Company. The LNE-1 was a two seat glider trainer. The proposed design was made for the training of Navy/Marine Corps glider pilots to land Marines in the Pacific during World War Two. The Navy glider program was quickly disbanded, as glider landings in the Pacific during WWII was not practical and 73 LNE-1’s were transferred to the United States Army Air Force. These LNE-1''s were re-designated TG-32''s. All 73 TG-32’s were put into storage at Souther Field, Americus Georgia through the end of WWII and sold through the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. By 1944, the LNE-1''s (now turned into U.S.A.A.F. TG-32''s) were selling for $500 (FOB Americus GA). The price could be reduced if the buyer went to Americus, assembled the glider at Souther Field, and flew it away as a complete aircraft. The only thing left behind was the shipping crate. These crates were then sold to local African-American share croppers who would use them for components of their houses. Markings/Paint: The LNE-1 had a fabric covered forward metal frame with wooden wings and tail. The vertical stabilizer. LNE-1 was painted in black on both sides of the rudder. No national insignia has been noted to have been painted on either side of the wings. When the LNE-1 Gliders were transferred to the U.S.A.A.F. the aircraft remained painted in Navy yellow with the addition of A.A.F. serial number painted on the shipping crate. The LNE-1/TG-32''s were not uncrated by the U.S.A.A.F. The instrument panel was painted black. Interior cockpit was painted “interior green” to include the plywood seats. Release knob was painted red. Several LNE-1’s have been noted with black group markings painted forward of “U.S.NAVY” on the tail boom.LNE-1 BuNo 31556 still retains the original nose tire, release knob, control sticks and rudder pedals. The fabric covering, windows and plywood seats have long since rotted away. Known serial number range:XLNE-1 BuNo 31505 - 31506LNE-1 BuNo 31507 - 31585 (Contract cancelled at Serial Number 31580)andBuNo 34115 - 34134 (Not Delivered) Army Air Force Serial Numbers: TG-32-PR 43-39509 - 43-39578 and 43-43329 - 43-43331Known surviving examples:#31506 Factory prototype: Wings of Eagles Discovery Center, Elmira Corning Regional Airport, NY.#31508 (The first TG-32): Under restoration for flight-status at Tehachapi, CA.#31509 Cockpit Only: In private storage in California.#31518: Under restoration: Seattle Museum of Flight in Renton, WA.#31521: THE ONLY AIRWORTHY LNE-1: Scott Airpark in Lovettsville VA.#31523: In storage: National Museum of the United States Air Force Dayton, OH.#31525 Cockpit Only: In private storage in California.#31527: Under restoration for flight status: Sandhill Crane Soaring, Richmond Field Gregory, MI.#31537: On public display: Hoosier Warbird Museum, DeKalb Regional Airport Auburn, IN#31540: In storage: Southern Museum of Flight in Birmingham, AL.#31542 In storage: Silent Wings Museum in Lubbock, TX.#31543: In storage: Tehachapi, CA#31556 Cockpit Only: QuestMasters Collection.#31558 In storage: Silent Wings Museum in Lubbock, TX.#31561: On public display: New England Air Museum Bradley International Airport in CT.#31569: In storage: Sandhill Crane Soaring: Richmond Field near Gregory, MI.#31570 Fuselage Only: In private storage in Tennessee.#31572: On display: Bonanzaville Aviation Museum in Fargo ND.#31577 Cockpit Only: In private storage in MI.#31578: On display: Aviation Museum of Kentucky; Bluegrass Airport in Lexington, KY. United States Airborne 75mm Howitzer M18 Paracaisson Cart United States Airborne 75mm Howitzer M18 Paracaisson Cart The M18 was used by Airborne Artillery units to air drop 75mm ammunition for the M8 Airborne Pack Howitzer. The M18 was air dropped via parachute as a cylindrical container. The container separated into two parts: the cart bottom and the top cover. The top cover was a simplified version of the cart bottom. The top cover was discarded after assembly. When the M18 was deployed, the wheels, tow handle and cables were stored inside of the container. The M18 could carry 18 rounds of ammunition in cardboard storage containers. The ammunition/storage dividers are missing on the inside of this cart. Additionally, the tire shown on this cart is not original. The original 4.00-8 tires were made by Goodyear. The above two pictures are from an original wartime manual. The picture to the left shows six M9A2 paracaissons mounted under a C-47 Cargo Aircraft. The photo to the right is a deployed empty and then fully loaded M9A2 ready for towing. This tire was made by the GOOD YEAR Tire Company. Two of these tires were found on a Cub Cadet 102 tractor. The tread style is exactly the same as the original M9A2 tire, but the size is slightly larger. The size on this tire is 4.80/4.00-8. These tires will be used on the restoration of this M18. This tire, left and above, is mounted on a museum M9A2 Paracaission. The tire is made by BF GOODRICH - SILVERTOWN, size 4.00-8.To view this M9A2 click here: HANDCARTZ M9A2 This tire (above four photos) is made by GOOD YEAR, size 4.00-8.This is one of two tires that will be used to restore the M9A2 owned by Handcartz To view this M9A2 click here: HANDCARTZ M9A2 The original rims have been disassembled for restoration, left photo. The inside of the rim reveals the original color of the M18 as well as the original primer. The M18 was primed in Yellow Zinc Chromate due to being made of aluminum. This M18 will be restored using Olive Drab 33070. Restored rim with Yellow Zinc Chromate Primer, left photo. The outer rim half is stamped with the part number 7131535 The inner rim half is stamped with the part number 7131536 The center hub is stamped with the part number B7119364 History Three types of Airborne Paracaissons were used during World War Two: M9 (Wood),M9A2 (Steel) and the M18 (Aluminum Alloy).The Aluminum Alloy Paracrate Load for the M8 Howitzer was deployed in 9 loads: Paracrate Load M1:Howitzer Trail Assembly, Paracrate M1, Drawbar, Lifting Bar. Paracrate Load M2:Howitzer Rear Trail, Howitzer Axle and Traversing Mechanism, Howitzer Trail Handspike, Bore Brush Staff, Spare Parts and Tool Box, Caster Wheel and Paracrate M2.Paracrate Load M13:Howitzer Bottom Sleigh, Aiming Circle with Case, Lifting Bar and Paracrate M13.Paracrate Load M14:Howitzer Cradle, Howitzer Top Sleigh, Lifting Bar and Paracrate M14.Paracrate Load M15:Howitzer Tube, Lifting bar and Paracrate M15.Paracrate Load M16:Howitzer Breech Assy., Telescope and Mount, Paracrate M16.Paracrate Load M7A1:Howitzer Wheels (2) and Paracrate M7A1.Parachest Load M17:Ammunition (10 rounds in fiber containers) and Parachest M17.Paracaisson Load M18:Ammunition (8 rounds in fiber containers) and Paracaisson M18. Untied States Martin M-250 Top Turret Untied States Martin M-250 CE B-24 Top Turret Untied States Willys Trailer 1/4 Ton MB-T Type: Trailer 2 Wheel 1/4 Ton Government Number: G-605Model: MB-T Manufacturer: Willys Overland Date of Delivery: November 1942Serial Number: 12494Parts Manual: TM 10-1230Maintenance Manual TM 10-1230 This is the original data plate that was found on this MB-T. The two holes in the center of the plate are from a bracket that was added after the war. It should be noted that the two "4''s" in the serial number "12494" are different fonts from different stamping sets. The first "4" has an open top, the second "4" has a closed top. This is a replica plate from Dataplates4u in Holland: http://www.dataplates4u.com New Old Stock Inter-Vehicle cable, left photo. The bakelite connector is made by the Warner Electric Brake MFG Co. Left and Right Tail Light Assy, above photo. The Willys MB-T used Corcoran-Brown tail light assy''s. The face of the light is marked C-B and the housing is marked Corcoran-Brown on the top. Trailer Details: Weight: Net 550 lbs., Payload 500 lbs., Gross 1050 lbs. Loading Height: 22 inches Ground Clearance: 12 1/2 inches Tires: 6.00x16 with two piece combat rims Tail Lights and Reflectors made by: Corcoran-Brown United States Navy Sailor NCDU Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 U.S. Navy Sailor NCDU - Navy Combat Demolition Unit 7 Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 QuestMasters Ordnance QuestMasters Ordnance Back row: Schrapnellmine 35 (S.Mi.35) storage box for three mines, Fuze crimping tool,1 Kilogram Demolition Charge with Z.Z.42 Fuze and 3 Kilogram Demolition Charge.Center row: S-Mine 35 (S.Mi.35) with S.Mi.Z.35 Fuze, Stock-Mine 43 (STo.Mi.43) with Z.Z.35 Fuze, Glasmine 43 (Gl.Mi.43) with Hebelzunder Fuze and Kraftstoff Granate (Gasoline Grenade).Front row: Zeit Zunder 37 (Zt.Z.f. SpBu 37) time fuze, two Z.Z.35 Fuzes, Z.Z.42 Fuze, D.Z.35 Fuze, S.Mi.Z.35 Fuze, Sprengkorper 28 Mine Charge with Z.Z.42 Fuze, Teller Mine Zunder 35 (T.Mi.Z.35)Trip Wire Mine Fuze and Blendkorper 2 H (M2H) Glass Smoke Grenade. 8,8cm Raketenpanzerbuchse (Rocket Launcher)Ordnance tan painted carrying box (top of photo) and natural wood carrying box (bottom of photo).Raketen Munition 4322 (Rocket) in center of photo.The 4322 Rocket could be used with the Raketenpanzerbuchse 43 or 54. The RPzB 43 and 54 were nicknamed Ofenrohr (Stovepipe) and Panzerschrek (Tank Terror) by the Germans. It had an effective range of 150 meters and could penetrate all Allied Armor during World War Two. United States Army Air Force Northrop P-61 Black Widow U.S. Army Air Force Northrop P-61A Black Widow Night Fighter P-61A Black Widow nose section, left photo. The nose section of the P-61 is made of fiberglass for the SCR-720A Radar set. This Radome was found in Hawaii in the mid 1990''s. Some of original black paint and red stenciling remain on the outside of the Radome. Unfortunately the radome is slightly cracked due to 50+ years of unloving exposure. P-61A Black Widow gunners canopy, left photo. The P-61 had two canopies: one for the pilot and one for the gunner (as seen in the above black and white photo). This canopy was recovered from a scrap yard in Ewa, Hawaii U.S.A. Many P-61''s and B-24''s were scrapped at Ewa after the war. This canopy was traded to the Mid-Atlantic Air Museum for the restoration of their P-61 in 1996. P-61A Black Widow engine propeller assembly for the R-2800 engine, left photo. This assembly retains almost all of its original paint and stenciling. This propeller assembly was not recovered by QuestMasters. German 7,5cm PAK 40 Anti-Tank Cannon Country: Germany Type: 7,5cm PAK 40Model: Panzer Abwehr Kanonen 40 Manufacturer: Not Available Date: 1944Serial Number: Not Available Right side of the PAK 40. The wheels on this cannon are the late-war style with holes. The holes were added to save rubber. Two 7,5cm (75mm) Shell Casings. The PAK 40 used the model 6340 shell casing with C/12nA percussion fired primer. The suffix St was applied to the shell casing or primer type if it was made of Stahl or Steel, i.e. 6340 St or C/12nASt. PAK 40 Cleaning Rod, top of photo. PAK 40 Bore Brush, bottom of photo QuestMasters is currently looking for additional shell casings, projectiles, ammunition cans, and a gun sight for the restoration of this PAK 40. German Panther V Road Wheel German Panzerkampfwagen V Panther; Ausf. G tank outer road wheel. The German Panther tank utilized 8 outer road wheels (four on each side). This road wheel was recovered from Bastogne Belgium in 1998. This history of this specific vehicle is unknown. The large shell hole is approximately 75mm''s. This Panther was moving when it was hit, which is clearly indicated by the track teeth indentations on the rubber wheel. Manufacturer markings on the rubber portion of wheel: No 935 jnk, left photo; 860/100-D, right photo. B-24 Nose Turret The Emerson A-15 Electric Nose Turret was used on all late war B-24 Liberators, except those produced at the Consolidated San Diego plant.B-24 Liberators produced at the Consolidated San Diego plant used modified A-6B Hydraulic Tail Turrets mounted in the front of the aircraft (as seen on the B-24 in the black and white picture above).Early B-24 Liberators that were produced with " Green House " noses were also depot modified with A-6 or A-6B Hydraulic Tail Turrets mounted in the nose. A-15 Gunner Seat area, above left and right photo. The control column grip assembly is missing from this turret. AN-M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun left mount, above left photo. Turret Control box, above right photo. Oxygen System Assembly, above left photo. The A-15 Nose Turret used an A-12A Diluter Demand Oxygen Regulator with Oxygen Blinker and Pressure Gauge to regulate the oxygen to the turret gunner during high altitude flight.K-11 Gun Sight Mount and Drive Box, above right photo. K-11 Compensating Gun Sight, left photo.K-11 Compensating Gun Sight Nomenclature Plate, above photo. The K-11 Compensating Gun Sight was a late war innovation that used the aircraft altitude and speed with the direct correlation of where the weapon was pointed to calculate the reticle. The aircraft altitude and speed was programmed on the rear of the sight. The correlation was determined by drive lines that connected the K-11 Sight to the turret. E-3 Generator Type: Generator, 3.0 KW, 1 Phase Government Number: None Model: E-3Manufacturer: O''Keefe & Merritt Co. Date of Delivery: 1944Serial Number: 2188 Model E-3 Generator Set nomenclature plate, left photo. This plate is mounted on the outside of the control panel door. Control panel with door open, right photo. The control panel is located on the end of the generator set. Note that this generator has several different styles of 120 volt receptacles. Engine compartment with doors open, left photo. O''Keefe & Merritt Model E-3 Synchronous 1 Phase Generator nomenclature plate, above photo. Right side of E-3 Generator Set, left photo. Rear of the E-3 Generator Set, right photo. The rear of the E-3 Generator houses the fire extinguisher. The door for the fire extinguisher is marked in raised letters " FIRE EXTINGUISHER INSIDE HERE ". The bracket is the standard style used on most U.S. WWII military vehicles. B-24 Waist Guns Left Waist Gun Assembly, above photo. The late B-24 waist gun comprised of an AN-M2 .50 caliber machine gun attached to a Type E-13 Gun Mount Adapter, Type K-7 Mount with Type C-19A Mount Adapter and a Type K-13 Compensating Gun Sight. On the top cover of theAN-M2 is a Type J-4 Gun Heater. This configuration was only used in late B-24 Liberators that were produced with enclosed waist gun positions. E-13 Gun Mount Adapter, above left photo. This is what the E-13 Adapters looked like when they were originally obtained. The E-13 in the rear of the photo was missing the "duck bill" sight mount, and grips when this photo was taken. This has been corrected.E-13 Gun Mount Adapter Nomenclature Plate, above right photo. AN-M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun, above photo. The AN-M2 was used in all positions on the B-24 Liberator - the Ball Turret, Nose Turret, Top Turret, Tail Turret and both Waist Gun Positions. The two AN-M2s pictured above are compliant with BATFE standards by having a replica 1/2" thick right side plate, prohibiting the fitting of any internal machine gun parts. The AN-M2 pictured above is shown prior to restoration. One of the details that differentiates the AN-M2 .50 Caliber Aircraft Machine Gun from the M-2 Ground Machine Gun is the top cover. The top cover has the added provisions to aid opening while wearing heavy gloves, as seen on the rear side and top of the cover. This photo also shows the thick cuts made during the demilitarization process. This AN-M2 has not been fully restored. K-7 Mount, rear and front, above two photos. The K-7 Mount supported the entire AN-M2 .50 caliber machine gun to the side of the aircraft. Note the large springs housed on the inside of the mount. These springs were added to compensate for the weight of the gun assembly. This afforded the gunner a better ability to handle the weapon and not fight the weight of the weapon when engaged. J-4 Gun Heater, left photo. The Gun Heater was electrically powered and kept the guns warm at high altitudes to avoid freezing when not firing.C-19A Gun Mount Adapter, right photo. This connected the E-13 Gun Mount Adapter to the K-7 Mount. K-13 Compensating Gun Sight, left photo.K-13 Nomenclature Plate, above photo. The K-13 Compensating Gun Sight was a late war innovation that used the aircraft altitude and speed with the direct correlation of where the weapon was pointed to calculate the reticle. The aircraft altitude and speed was programmed on the rear of the sight. The correlation was determined by drive lines that connected the K-13 Sight to the K-7 Mount. U.S. Army 1st Lieutenant 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This officer illustrates the equipment that was worn by an officer assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944. The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view, left photo. Close-up view of Rangers patch, above photo. This patch was specifically designed for the Invasion of Normandy to replace the earlier Ranger Battalion Scroll patch. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, left photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond painted over a white vertical stripe, which was the designation for officers. Inside view of M-1 Helmet Liner, right photo. This liner was made by Westinghouse. The suspension is made from Triple Herringbone Twill (THBT) and is held to the liner with green A washers. Service Boots with M-1938 Leggings, left photo. The M-1938 Leggings shown here were made by Meyers & Son MFG. Co. 2-25-42.Service Boots, right photo. The Service Boots were all leather with ten eyelets and featured a full capped toe. The rubber soles were made by BF Goodrich. These boots are a size 8EE. BC-611-F Handie-Talkie Radio, left photo. M-1 Thompson Submachine-gun, above photo. This M-1 Thompson Submachine-gun has a replica all aluminum BATFE approved dummy receiver from IMA-USA. M-1 Helmet and Camouflage Net with Officer markings on front and rearM-1 Helmet Liner, made by WestinghouseM-1941 Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on right sleeveM-1936 Pistol Belt, made by A.M.Co.1943M-1936 SuspendersM-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by J.A. Shoe 1943M-1910 Canteen, made by S.M.CO 1944M-1910 Canteen Cup, made by FOLEY MFG. CO. 1944M-1910 First Aid Pouch, made by J.Q.M.D. 1942 and owner marked S1216M-1916 Pistol Holster, made by MILWAUKE SADDLERY CO. 1943M-1923 Pistol Magazine Pouch, made by B.B. INC. 1942Submachine-gun Magazine Pouch, five pocket M-1936 Field Mussett Bag, made by HAMLIN CANVAS GOODS CO. 1942 and owner marked G-8490M-1938 Dispatch Case, made by HOFF -42-M-7 Assault Gas Mask CarrierM-17 Binocular CaseBC-611-F Radio, made by ELECTRICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES INC.USN Life Preserver, made by EAGLE RUBBER CO. INC. ASHLAND OHIO Service Boots, soles made by BF GoodrichM-1938 Leggings, made by MEYERS & SON MFG CO. 2-25-42M-1 Thompson Submachine-gun, made by - UNKNOWN - original receiver replaced U.S. Army Sergeant 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) Sergeant illustrates the equipment that was worn by a NCO assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944.The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view, left photo. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, above photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond painted above a white horizontal stripe, which was the designation for Non-Commissioned Officers. Inside view of M-1 Helmet Liner, left photo. This liner was made by Mine Safety Apparatus (MSA). The suspension is made from Single Herringbone Twill (SHBT) and is held to the liner with early zinc plated A washers. M-1 Helmet and Camouflage Net with NCO markings on rear M-1 Helmet Liner, made by Mine Safety Apparatus (MSA) Winter Combat Tanker Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on left sleeve M-1923 Dismounted Cartridge Belt, made by M.E.CO. 1943 (BRITISH MADE) M-1928 Haversack with M-1928 Pack Carrier, made by M.W.&S. CO. LTD 1944 (BRITISH MADE) M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by BAKER-ATWOOD LTD. CO. 1941 M-1910 Canteen, made by A.G.M.CO. 1918 M-1910 Canteen Cup, made by T.A.U.CO. 1941 M-1923 First Aid Pouch, made by M.W.&S. CO. LTD 1944 (BRITISH MADE) M-1916 Pistol Holster, made by SEARS 1942 M-1910 Entrenching Tool Cover, made by W.L. DUMAS MFG. CO. 1943 M-1910 Entrenching Tool M-7 Assault Gas Mask Carrier USN Life Preserver, made by EAGLE RUBBER CO. INC. ASHLAND OHIO M-1 Bayonet, made by United Cutlery (U.C.) M-1 Fragmentation Grenade M-1 Garand Cloth Bandoleer U.S. Army Medic 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This Soldier illustrates the equipment that was worn by a Medic assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944.The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, left photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond with Medic red crosses painted on the sides and front. Helmet Liner, right photo. This liner was made by FIRESTONE. The suspension is made from Triple Herringbone Twill (THBT) and is held to the liner with green A washers. Service Boots with M-1938 Leggings, left photo. The M-1938 Leggings shown here were made by Meyers & Son MFG. Co. 2-25-42.Service Boots, right photo. The Service Boots were all leather with ten eyelets and featured a full capped toe. The rubber soles were made by EJ HTS. These boots are a size 7 1/2 E. Medic''s bags with contents, left photo. Four types of Carlisle bandages, right photo. Early copper can with orange paint (made by BAUER & BLACK) top, early copper can with olive paint (made by BAUER & BLACK) left center, early steel can with olive paint (made by BAUER & BLACK) right center and late steel can with olive drab paint (made by HANDY PAD SUPPLY CO) bottom. Reverse of Medic''s Arm Band (left photo).The arm band is marked: PROPERTY OFMEDICAL DEPARTMENT, U.S. ARMYIN CONFORMITY WITHARTICLE 21 INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS CONVENTIONGENEVA 1929IDENTITY CARD NO. _________This arm band has the Medic''s Geneva Convention Number V 37489. M-1 Helmet and Camouflage Net with Medic''s markings M-1 Helmet Liner, made by FIRESTONE M-1941 Field Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on left sleeve M-1923 Dismounted Cartridge Belt, made by NERIS 1943 M-1936 Field Musette Bag, made by AIRTRESS MIDLAND 1943 M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by FOLEY MFG CO. 1942 M-1910 Canteen, made by S.M.CO. 1943 M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by H.S.CO. 1942 M-1910 Canteen, made by VOLLRATH 1943 M-1942 First Aid Pouch, made by JQMD 1944 Medical Bag, pair M-7 Assault Gas Mask Carrier USN Life Preserver, made by THE FIRESTONE TIRE & RUBBER CO. AKRON OHIO U.S. Army Private First Class 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This Soldier illustrates the equipment that was worn by a rifleman assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944.The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, left photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond. Inside view of M-1 Helmet Liner, right photo. This liner was made by Westinghouse. The suspension is made from Single Herringbone Twill (SHBT) and is held to the liner with black brass A washers. M-1 Helmet M-1 Helmet Liner, made by Westinghouse M-1941 Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on left sleeve M-1936 Pistol Belt M-1910 Haversack, made by L-D INC. 7-18 M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, owner marked M. KRPAN K-7540 M-1910 Canteen, made by S.M.CO. 1943 M-1942 First Aid Pouch, made by B.B.S.CO. 1943 M-1 Carbine Magazine Pocket, made by AVERY 1943 M-1 Carbine Magazine Pocket, made by KADY 1943 M-1942 18” Machete, dated 1944 M-7 Assault Gas Mask Carrier USN Life Preserver, made by DURKEE-ATWOOD CO. MPLS. M-1 Carbine Ammunition Bandoleer 1944 B-29 "Super Fortress" 42-24791 "The Big Time Operator"
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Old Orchard Beach Motel | Plan Your Maine Vacation | Sea View Getaway Sea View Getaway is located in Old Orchard Beach, Maine. Our motel is a short walk from beachfront entertainment, shops, dining, and more. We are minutes away from the OOB Pier and amusement park.
Setness Tours - Stockton, California Setness Tours provides a wide variety of trips, from San Francisco theater daytrips to international travel. Our travelers are active adults, generally age fifty and over, or intergenerational travelers, such as mothers and daughters, making memories together. We build flexibility into our travel packages, allowing choice with the convenience of having the travel details left to our experienced escorts. We respect each client’s individual needs which recognizing the social enjoyment of traveling with like-minded companions.
Travel Australia | All about travelling around Australia Have you ever been in a ride so extreme that you felt your blood actually rushing to your head? If your answer is yes and that you liked it very much, then you might be addicted to the adrenaline rush. Hey, we can't blame you - bungy jumping and skydiving sounds really fun. If you've been to Australia before, then you might be aware that it is home to a number of huge amusement parks and extreme rides/activities. Some of these experiences are located in Brisbane, Adelaide, Sydney, and Gold Coast, and the best way to get to these locations is by getting a car hire in Gold Coast or other metros - especially if convenience is number one in your list. Here's a list of some of the best extreme parks, rides, and activities in Australia: 1. Cairns Bungy Jump and Minjin Swing Up for a high jump and soaring in the air? Then try the the Bungy Jump and Minjin Swing in Cairns! With Bungy Jumping, you can expect to be thrown 164 feet in the air, with the help of a harness and a professional's assistance. You can also opt to do the Minjin Swing, where you can enjoy a zipline-like ride with friends. It literally is a huge swing, and riding it with friends make it much more exciting. 2. Sydney Shark Diving Xtreme Get the chance to experience swimming with the most misunderstood creature in the sea: sharks! Go scuba diving with an experienced and professional diver, and see the magic under the sea. Swim with large grey nurse sharks, colourful fish, sea turtles, and even stingrays for over 30 minutes! 3. Tasmania Half Day Cradle Mountain Canyoning: Lost World Canyon Enjoy half of your day by canyoning through the Dove River in Lost World Canyon. You and your friends can inhale the fresh air and see Tasmania's breathtaking views while making your way down the river, all the way through to the Lost World Canyon. The tour will last for about four hours, with a professional guide providing interesting information while you go on. You can also get a photo op with your friends and family at the Cradle Mountain. 4. Queensland Airlie Beach Skydive Experience the thrill of jumping from a plane by booking a skydiving trip on Airlie Beach! Whether you are a first-timer or have done it several times, you need not worry as a professional will be with you all throughout the ride. Enjoy amazing views of the beach from up above, while freefalling at over 220 km/hr. This is an experience that you should definitely try at least once in your life. 5. Kangaroo Island Sandboard Rental Hop on a sandboard on Kangaroo Island and experience a 2-hour sandboarding ride along the powdery dunes at a private property in the Southern part of the island. If you're one of the brave ones, then try the dunes that reach up to 230 feet. If you're a beginner but you're still dying to try it out, then head on to the smaller dunes perfectly suited for beginners. While you're up there, go on and enjoy the amazing view of the whole island below. 6. Glass House Mountains Rock Climbing Drive up north of Brisbane for about an hour, and you'll see Mt. Ngungun, which is an ancient volcanic peak in the Glass House Mountains. The mountain has a wide range of climbing routes that's perfectly suitable for beginners, intermediate, and even the experts. Spend the whole day exploring and climbing the mountain with a supervision of an experienced guide. You only live once, so go on and live it while you can! If after all these adventures you feel hungry, then go on and eat to your heart's desire! Here is a list of the most amazing places to eat out in Sydney. Enjoy and have tons of fun!
The Wave Accommodation & Restaurant The Wave apartments offers its guests economical holidays in amazing Corfu. All guests may enjoy our pool as well as our well known for Greek cuisine restaurant. The Wave is ideal for family vacations while its location in Sidati makes it ideal for couples holidays too. All guests may enjoy independent accommodation (apartments with their own kitchen) and a range of hotel facilities too.
LIMITLESS LEARNING TT - Home At its core Mathematics is about understanding concepts and applying logic to tackle problems. Located in Chaguanas Triinidad, Limitless Learning TT simplifies mathematical principles making them easy to understand and use in practice.
Seven Sky Hotel & Resort Hotel Seven Sky was established to serve the guests visiting Bhuj and not just for making profit. Since our establishment in the year 2009 till this date we have catered most satisfying hospitality service to all. Rooms at our hotel are most comfortable and make your stay homely. Our house keeping staffs are well mannered and they make sure that all rooms are cleaned and hygienically maintained.
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Right From the Hip | Observations & Opinions | Politics, Law & Current Events In which our Vagabond Seeks a City in Motion. It is early Saturday evening, the doors are open, the coffee house beckons. I enter into a crowd – young and old, in pairs, groups and singles, are standing in line, checking their phones, reviewing the menu board, sitting astride chairs, leaning on counters, stirring their mugs, contemplating their next move, and conversing with animation and verve. After securing a mug of herbal orange blossom tea and plain pound cake (something different and contemplative), no booths are available. I occupy a seat at a long, central bench and table with the other patrons. Immediately next to me sits a young couple, face to face, wearing various shades of blue denim (she also sports a floppy, soft-brim robin egg blue hat), who have stopped talking to enjoy one of the house's calorie-generous desserts. Their desserts are laden with strawberries, fresh, fragrant, jumbo-sized, strawberries, tumbling generously, abundantly, off the dessert cakes which shyly peek out underneath. These are six-dollar desserts, suitable for serious courtship. The whipped cream had disappeared already. Their strawberries are not shy - they flaunt their bright deep red strawberry color, their inviting texture, they flirt their white edges. These strawberries profligately cast about their unmistakable ripe fragrance. Indeed, the fragrance demands attention. For an unmeasured moment, these strawberries own the bench and my perceptions – my other senses have quietly stepped down and wait for the strawberry fragrance to master the stage, to take its bows, to aromatically speak for strawberries everywhere. Each strawberry is joined with all strawberries - connected in a web of genetic code, agricultural pedigree, sense perception and idea. The smell, the fragrance and appearance of these strawberries, and for a distinct slice of time, the connected picture, the taste, the idea of many strawberries, all strawberries, as an adjective as well as a noun, occupy my thoughts. If there had been no name for strawberries ever given, I would have conjured a name for them, then and there. Strawberries are versatile. We can give Latin names to their various genus, Fragaria. We may note that each apparent achene, or seed, on the outside is actually one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it, perhaps explaining why the couple beside me ordered them for dessert. Philosophers might debate whether or not there exists a non-physical essence of strawberry, an ideal Platonic form of strawberry, or be skeptical that we could ever be sure that what we perceive as strawberry was reliable. Mischievous children have picked them to throw at each other. We can observe them on wild vines, clip, transplant and cultivate them in our gardens, study what combination of sun and water gives them the greatest growth and sweetest flavor, pick them gingerly to set at our breakfast table, eat them singly or in groups in little morning fruit bowls. We have financed agri-businesses to grow them in vast number, might someday sell strawberry futures on a commodities exchange, have hired agricultural workers to pick them in mass quantity. Graduate students in economics might measure the economic impact of establishing a minimum wage for strawberry pickers, while employers make certain their immigration papers are in order. We can contest the right of strawberry pickers to go on strike, and use courtrooms to enjoin secondary strikes by other fruit pickers. Independent truck drivers can transport them in refrigerated, insured freight carriers at free-on-board rates. District managers of supermarket chains can offer them for retail sale in little green baskets at trendy supergrocers which have memorable advertising logos and trained-to-be-friendly checkout people, and serve them in coffee houses at upscale prices. In laboratories we can measure their molecular carbon chains, forensically identify them with gas and mass chromatography, and fit them into biochemical schema of study. We can mash them into lipstick or cream for purposes of skin and beauty enhancement, advertised by slender, photogenic models. We can handwash our dirty dishes in our neglected kitchen sinks, or shampoo our thinning hair with liquid soaps flavored with them. No small series of achievements, for an aggregate accessory fruit. But we have strawberries as descriptors also, as concepts and additions to the language in which we think and speak and describe, in which we write poetry and love sonnets. They act as triggers or stimulants, to remind us of things, things we may want to remember. I bend my head over my tea and soak a piece of my cake into my orange-blossom tea. But these strawberries are not yet done their work. The fragrances of my coffee-house neighbors' strawberries trigger vivid memories. A series of pictures is summoned up, interior miniatures composing a sequenced event in my life, a road trip of an altogether different sort. Gently unfaded, affectionately insistent, parading in silence one at a time yet making a whole, a set of gliding images from the past paints over my vision. ____________________ My wife, Erma, and I were dating, and engaged. I was just 32. At the time, she was just 23 years of age, not quite 5'2" unless she stood on her tiptoes (she was generous in describing her height on various health and application forms), slender, lithe, with quick, athletic reflexes, light brown hair never allowed to grow long, a bright upturned face full of energy, green-grey eyes that were never quite the same shade from day to day, and a stand-your-ground manner suitable for the youngest child who had five older brothers. Erma had been a Christian since her experiences as a teenager in church youth group, and had been well taught by a beloved senior pastor, Reverend Pusey. She could field a ground ball or steal third base, tell every player on the Philadelphia Flyers in 1977 (she still had a Bobby Clark doll) or quote scripture by memory, intelligently and to the point under discussion. She was a secretary at DuPont, a job she had held since the day after she graduated from high school. There was emotional trauma in her childhood, including a miserable relationship with her father (the misery shared by her brothers and sister), and a tragic gun accident which took the life of one of her brothers, after her father irresponsibly brought home a rifle and gave it to his children without supervision or safety instruction. The collapse of the family unit brought economic difficulties. Erma bubbled over with hope and energy – she was ready to wrestle wildcats, hid her fears, counted her pennies, and laughed loudly and easily. Erma pooled shock, grief, loss and anger in reservoirs of her soul. She introduced herself to a pair of young men attending a Christian singles conference in Sandy Cove, Maryland, one of whom was me, because she recognized the church my friend Dave had announced at the beginning of the conference, and that was enough of a conversational opening for her. We took a trip to North Carolina, to visit her brother Noel, the only one of her family to graduate from college. Noel was a marketing manager for a large agricultural chemicals company, and he was moved about the country every few years. For several years he had lived near Research Triangle Park outside Raleigh. Our trip was a happy one; we packed up Erma's silver Honda Civic, years old but running like a Swiss watch, and toodled down the highway one Monday in the early summer. Life was opening up. My disorderly life, spread across two coasts, was moving in a good direction. Erma, deeply emotionally cautious, was hoping that the world held good things as well. After staying the first night with friends in Virginia, we arrived after a day of easy driving at Noel's, still single. As always, he was a gracious host, owner of a sensible but well-maintained home. His practice of buying and selling homes as he was transferred around the company proved to be economically rewarding. I don't know whether he liked his job in its own right, but years later when he was offered a retirement package at the age of 50, he took it, and to my knowledge, has never worked 9-5 job since. Noel was working 9-5 when we arrived though, so during the day we were left to our own devices around Raleigh, Chapel Hill, Durham and the surrounding areas. Open to guidebook suggestions, we went to the North Carolina Botanical Gardens in Chapel HiIl. We walked the displays of native plants, violet-purple iris, milkweed, wood anemone, maidenhair ferns, wild indigo, water-plaintains, bluestars. The Gardens have a display of carnivorous plants, pitcher plants, Venus fly traps, along with their orchids and lilies. I found a very tiny spider among the carnivorous plant displays, picked him up with a leaf, and deposited him into a Venus fly-trap, which promptly, as advertised, closed its tender petals. The wispy trigger hairs of the plant quite quickly formed a bars-of-a-jail cell effect as the plant's leaves closed reflexively – I could see the tiny spider, looking out, as forlorn and puzzled as any prisoner would be. At the time, I had nothing to say to him, and regretted somewhat causing his fate. With the advantages of hindsight and advancing years, today, I might encourage him with words of sympathy – "you and me both, brother," a final salute, issued nunc pro tunc. Erma and I went to see a movie in the evening. Mr. Hulot's Holiday. Monsier Hulot, the French actor Jacques Tati, "decides to vacation at a beautiful seaside, resort. Rest and relaxation don't last long, given the gangly gent's penchant for ridiculous antics." Released in 1954, you have to be in the right mood to see this slapstick farce. Erma and I were nearly alone in the theater, it was a Tuesday evening. We were in the mood – I laughed hard. Erma laughed uproariously, full volume. I never heard anyone laugh so hard – her cackles filled the theater – no nook or cranny escaped the piercing volume of her laughter. Many times. How can you not fall in love with a girl like that? If anyone else was in the theater at all (maybe one other couple), they certainly knew they weren't alone. The next day, we visited Duke University in Durham. The lawns and grounds were green, immaculate, carefully maintained; the buildings, the Chapel, all were elite-college campus beautiful. I daresay visiting parents longed to expend vast sums of money to send their children there. After walking around for several hours, near the end of the day, we found a small restaurant/coffee-shop. Because of the day and hour we were again nearly alone. The shop featured a strawberry desert, loaded with whipped cream. They were the freshest, sweetest, most flagrantly-and-fragrantly-delicious strawberries imaginable. It was a lifetime trophy desert. The taste, the aroma of the strawberries filled our noses, our palates, our tongues – our sweet, ripe taste buds went off like bells. Erma was just swooning with joy. It seemed as if we just sat and ate for hours (which could not possibly be true), as if the strawberry dessert stopped local time to go on forever. These strawberries had royal, domestic, South American and continental antecedents. According to Wikipedia, the garden strawberry was first grown or bred in Brittany, France in the 1750s by crossing Fragaria Virginia from eastern North America with Fragaria Chiloenses, brought from Chile. The French began harvesting wild strawberries in the 14th century. Strawberries were added to cream in the Court of King Henry VIII. What can I add to that? World production of strawberries is in excess of nine million tons, and not a strawberry too many. After we had spent a few days at Noel's, we drove east to go to the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The Outer Banks are a resort area, but wilder, less cultivated than the homogenized resort areas one sometimes visits. We rented two separate hotel rooms to stay in the area around Kitty Hawk. I had sexual relationships prior to becoming a Christian. Erma had many dating relationships, but had learned her sexual ethics as a teenager at a conservative, evangelical church and drew a line she believed in. We did not sleep together on that trip. It helped to make our dating relationship simple, clean, pure, uncomplicated. (Our physical relationship began on our honeymoon - when Erma exited the bathroom and entered our bedroom the evening of our 11 a.m. wedding in Bear, Delaware. We had driven to a bed and breakfast in Milford, New Jersey, Linda and Rob Castagna's Chestnut Hill on the Delaware River. Looking at the teddy-bear decorated bed and room in the honeymoon suite and at me, Erma asked, "do you think we should pray?" I answered, "I already have.") But that wedding ceremony day was still in our distance, like a beckoning city on a hill. The next day on our excursion to North Carolina, we traipsed about on the Kitty Hawk beach. It was not yet warm enough for swimming; the beaches were nearly empty. I discovered that small fish, mullets or small kingfish, filled some of the deeper surf pools and beach ponds left by retreating waves. There is a picture of me taken by Erma, bending over at the waist, looking down, with my pants rolled up as I stood in the middle of one of these surf pools, wearing a plaid shirt with the sleeves rolled up, trying to catch little silver fish with my bared, cupped hands. Trying to catch small fish by hand was a predictably unsuccessful effort, but loads of fun to try. I looked perfectly ridiculous, and we were perfectly happy. On our trip back in the silver Honda Civic from North Carolina, driving north to Wilmington and Phoenixville, we sang hymns on the road. Neither Erma or I have any musical talent at all - neither of us can carry a melody. But there was no music critic in the car, no one to be distressed. We sang "Fairest Lord Jesus," in toneless acapella - it fit our mood and excursion well. _______________________ I was interrupted in my coffee-house reveries by a young man, of Asian background, whose face I recognized, but whose name I didn't know. He had been listening to me a previous week, when I was proclaiming out loud verses from the Book of Revelation, the lake of fire verses, the judgment verses, on a previous morning when the coffee house was much emptier than it was that Saturday evening. His interruption lead into quite an extended discussion, carried out over three locations in the coffee house. "Hello," he said. I responded with my own 'hello.' "I saw you here the other week. You were reading out loud. I was standing over there" – he indicated where he had been standing when I had my brief confrontation with the coffee house manager, Jen, over reading Bible verses out loud. I nodded 'yes' and offered my hand and introduced myself. "My name is Qi," he introduced himself with a small but perceptible bob of the head. His English was good, with a slight British accent. Qi looked to be in his early twenties, fifty years younger than I. His hair was black parted on one side, his chin and cheeks clean-shaven, his eyes brown, his lashes somewhat long, his build slim, probably 5' 10" in height and weighing 140 or 150 pounds, wearing blue jeans and a neat maroon pullover jersey. His facial expression was respectful, intelligent and friendly. "I wanted to ask you. Why were you reading out loud? And why did you choose those verses?" I had to think to recreate my thoughts and mood the previous week. "I can't answer that easily. God moves inside me without giving me explanations. Why those verses? I felt like I wanted to get somewhere - we ought to get somewhere. I saw those verses on the path." "I heard what you said to the manager. The owner doesn't mind?" His expression suggested that people reading out loud in a coffee house crossed a line in the culture he came from. "No," I told him, "the owner doesn't mind." We paused our conversation for a moment, so Qi could find a way around the bench and people to squeeze in opposite me. He was sitting right next to the strawberry-eating couple, also seated across each other on the bench, as I was. "Do you work, or are you a student?" I asked. Qi explained his background to me, responding to my questions. He was 23 years old, a graduate student seeking a Master's degree in statistics from the graduate department of a nearby university. He was an exchange student, a resident of China, whose family came from near Beijing. Much of his life was not spent in China however. His father was an investment banker, and they spent a number of years in different countries and cities, including London, where he learned as a teenager to speak English well, and learned his slight but discernible British accent. He was one of three children, and had two sisters, one older, who was married and living near Shanghai, and one considerably younger sister, who was living at home near Beijing, where his parents had returned. I asked him about China's one-child policy and he explained that his father had sufficient resources to obtain relief from the rule. Since the first child in the family was a daughter, apparently this exception was not difficult to obtain with respect to Qi. Having official sanction for having a third child was more difficult, but by then his father had political and economic connections. By this time the strawberry dessert-eating couple had left. Their seats were taken by others so it wasn't always easy to conduct our conversation. The coffee house was noisy, there was music in the background and people were sliding behind us at times to reach seats further down the long benches on which Qi and I were seated. When I paused my deposition-like questions, I asked if he attended any local church. He did, he explained, and had been for about a year. "What did you think when I read those verses out loud?" I asked. "How did you react?" "I like hearing the Book of Revelation read aloud. It doesn't often get read out loud. When you hear a sermon, somebody tells you what to think about it. There's always a doctrine or a system. Everything has to be explained." He thought for a few moments. "There's more in the words, than there is in the explanations." He said, and I quietly nodded in agreement. "Well, if you just listen to the words, read by somebody else, you wouldn't have a system," I offered. "You might have a language, though. A set of mutual symbols. Even if we didn't agree on what they meant." He listened to what I said and we talked about language, and symbols. His criticisms of symbolic language were well-thought out; a person whose native tongue is Chinese understands well the strengths and weaknesses of symbols to communicate. I suggested that symbols and graphic pictures cut through many language systems. The phrase "a woman clothed with the sun," eludes precise rational understanding, but it's an accessible image everywhere. We had the mutual and considerable pleasure of two people speaking thoughtfully to each other. "You don't agree with any systems about it?" I asked, meaning the Book of Revelation. "I don't know. My church teaches a system." "Which one is that? Dispensationalism? Premillennialism?" "Yes." "The Rapture, any minute. The Jews left to face the anti-Christ." "Yes. Yes." "You're not defending it very hard," I suggested. His facial expression indicated that I had discerned his feelings accurately. "Is that what you believe?" Qi asked me. "No. I'm a Postmillennialist. I believe in the Great Commission. Christ gave us an order. Go into the far reaches of the world. Convert the nations. So we will succeed. It's the prayer he taught us. 'Thy Kingdom come. Thy will be done.'" "How does reading about the burning lake of fire out loud, help that?" Qi queried. "I'm not sure. Does the Spirit have to explain everything to me? I respond as I'm called. But I think everybody wants good news. Ask them, and they'll tell you the world is a mess. But then they want good news - warm and reassuring. God's judgment in a burning lake of fire is a very unpopular topic. But it wakes people up. It made you ask me questions." "Do you think bad news is more likely to win converts?" Qi was looking at me with a certain amount of respectful skepticism. "I think telling people the truth helps people see the truth." "But you, too. You didn't recite the burning lake of fire verses with a big smile on your face." "Perhaps so. Me too," I admitted. "Maybe there's enough bad news already," Qi suggested. "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. That's true too. You're right. But why are all those burning lake of fire verses there? Fierce warnings, aren't they?" I asked rhetorically. "Maybe it's the bad news that already exists. Maybe the world loves judging. Maybe the world needs judging. There's a lot of judging inside of us already." As he said this, I thought I detected some personal history in Qi – perhaps his father was a judgmental person. "I think it's a warning - a guide and a look to the future. But I'll be careful about trying to interpret it, with you around. I'll let the words be the words. Burning lake of fire and all." I raised my hands slightly to indicate surrender – the acknowledgment of my limitations. "Don't some people believe the whole book was just meant for the 1st century Christians? They think it all relates to the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Roman armies. That's it – nothing else." Qi's knowledge suggested some study; his tone suggested questions, perhaps questions deeper than interpreting the Book of Revelation. "Are you a preterist?" I asked him. I wasn't sure whether his question was a narrow, specialized question over eschatology, or rather a deeper question that any young person might have, about whether the whole structure of religion is connected to anything real at all. "I'm not sure what that means," he admitted. "About what you said. Preterists believe most of the Book of Revelation has already been fulfilled. It was a warning for the 1st century, for the early church. A tract for the times. Now it's done – it has no future significance," I explained. "If that's what you're asking." "No, I haven't thought about it much, but don't think I think that. How about you?" Qi asked. There were questions in this young man, but I didn't know quite what they were. "I think it's prophecy. The Word of God to us. It's no more fulfilled and done than the Sermon on the Mount is fulfilled and done. Does that answer your question?" I returned. "I guess we'll never know, this side of Final Judgment," he offered. "Maybe we just wait for the Rapture?" "It makes a difference now. It changes how we act, because of what we expect. If all you're doing is sitting around here, waiting for the Rapture, that's one kind of answer. But I'll buy you a cup of coffee, and we can wait together." As I was about to get up to buy coffee, a young woman, talking to her friend following behind her, was trying to make her way behind the bench to a seat. She was holding a sandwich on a plate and a glass. Someone moved on the crowded bench, not knowing anyone was behind him, and bumped directly into her. Her sandwich spilled and tumbled across the back of an unshaven but pleasant-looking blonde young man and onto the floor. There, visible for the world, near Qi's feet, were the ingredients for her sandwich, two slices of multi-grain bread, two chunks of avocado, two generous slices of tomato, and a large stack of bean sprouts, scattered across the floor along with a slice of dill pickle. She moved back apologetically, waving the now-empty sandwich plate in her hand, obviously embarrassed. The young man stood up, rather mildly and saw who had spilled sandwich fixings on him. He didn't seem angry - he was apologetic and rather embarrassed himself. No one quite knew what to do. For a few moments the two of them milled about each other in rather disorganized fashion. The coffee house manager was nearby. She saw what had happened and signaled for a staff person to assist. Qi and I both stood up to move out of the way and sidestepped our way to leave the benches and table. As we were moving, I made brief eye contact with the manager and we mutually and quickly nodded. I didn't want her to think I had been a problem again, but she saw I was an innocent bystander, not an repeat instigator of disturbances. While the clean-up was being accomplished, Qi, seeing our mutual nod, asked if I knew the coffee house manager. "Yes, her name is Jen Geddes. She's a Christian. She's nice – a calm person." We watched the cleanup. I thought I would share a bit more, thinking still about what Qi's questions might be. "Years ago, she was in the newspaper, picture and all. She had a bit of a temper. I think she came from a very fundamental background. She was in a church, and for whatever reason, something was going with a visiting pastor she definitely didn't agree with. She expressed her theological disagreement by shouting out loud, picking up a stool, and heaving it at this visiting pastor. She actually hit him with it and there were disturbances in the church. The police had to be called. As a sentence I think she got what is called ARD, a non-trial diversion. It usually means she had to do some community service and get some counseling. I was practicing as a lawyer at the time, so I paid attention. Some years later, she got the job here. I recognized her when she started. Very calm - very welcoming to everybody these days. I never talked with her about it. I always wanted to ask her what it was about. Part of it was reported in the newspaper – apparently, whatever it was the visiting pastor was saying, her response was along the lines of "are you really going to say that, in my ear?" The cleanup was over, but Qi and I found a different place to sit and resumed our conversation. He wanted to know more about the type of law I had practiced, which was a general community practice. We started talking about the law and about the U.S. Constitution and some well-known constitutional principles, which were not, as Qi described, the rule or norm in China. He described a culture and circumstance in China which might be characterized as intense and ubiquitous favoritism. "We have those problems here - in a big way," I acknowledged. "You have laws about it, though. In China, there is no law to appeal to, to correct such things. The party is the law, and the party officials who operate without needing any approval." "We do have laws," I acknowledged. I narrated for Qi a United States Supreme Court case, which is a staple of the Constitutional Law curriculum in law school. "In San Francisco, around 1880, most of the laundry workers were Chinese. Laundries used heat in wooden buildings. There was a statute that said you couldn't operate a laundry without a permit. The statute itself wasn't crazy - there was a genuine fire risk with boiling water used in the laundries – not a joke in San Francisco. But Yick Wo had been operating his laundry for years, when he was told he couldn't operate his laundry anymore without a permit. Unfortunately, if you were Chinese, you didn't get a permit. If you weren't Chinese, then you got one. Yick Wo was fined for operating without the permit, and he couldn't or wouldn't pay the fine, so he was put in jail. The Supreme Court ruled that the administration of that permit law was unconstitutional – even if the laundry owners weren't citizens. Even if the law itself made sense considered in isolation. The Chinese laundry owners still had a right under equal protection, under the equal protection laws of the 14th Amendment." "You would not find such laws in China," Qi lamented. "Well, it took us years to take the legal principle serious," I told him. "Taking your principles seriously takes time." Our conversation continued. We talked about Chinese coolies and how they worked. We talked about Christianity in China. We talked about the beginning of the movie Crazy Rich Asians where they're having a Bible study. We talked about missionaries and Hudson Taylor and the Chinese Inland Mission, and when Qi's family had become Christians. We talked about wars in Asia – in the Pacific against Japan. Qi had a very distinct opinion about the treatment of the Chinese by the Japanese in WWII, which flowed over to his opinion over disputed islands in the South China sea. We talked about the wars in Korea and Vietnam. We talked about Mao, and Communism and the treatment of Christians in China during the cultural revolution. Qi's family had suffered and practiced their faith in secret, but had emerged. We talked about the Three-Self Church in China. "Sanzi Jiaohui" Qi explained, trying to help me to pronounce it correctly. "But my family has spent so much time overseas, it was not critical to us. We didn't argue about religion, we argued about how many hours my father worked." He looked not as happy making this last statement. I decided to change gears altogether. "You'll be married someday. You'll have a wife and probably children. Do you have a girlfriend?" I asked. "Yes. But she is in graduate school in Michigan now. So I only get to see her on vacations. Sometimes we meet in Chicago. We are making some plans, but they have to wait. We text. She likes it, but she thinks it's cold there." We talked about the weather in China, and in the U.S. We moved our location one more time, when a booth opened up. Time passed, but the Rapture still lay in the future. In the meandering talk and silence of our time together, we made friends. The Holy Spirit, as known to coffee houses as He is to great cathedrals, entered somewhere. Eventually Qi said it was time for him to get back home, and we parted company with the idea that he would be back in the coffee house, and we would have a chance to talk again. Perhaps further, on the Book of Revelation, he suggested. ___________________ And in the Spirit he carried me away to a great, high mountain, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God. Revelation 21:10. Those trained in theology and ministry should present the bulk of the inspired message of Rom. Ch. 12-15. But there is an element of those passages I want to address. I have a law degree, was valedictorian at law school, have practiced law for many years, and have held elected office. I serve as a volunteer on various boards with legal and executive authority over substantial matters. The business of law and government is something with which I am familiar. Although words like "law and government" don't sound San Francisco hippy-ish, don't seem to blend into a coffee-house or a road trip to the last chapters of Revelation, that is my direction now. Rom. 13:1-10 is my topic. Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. Rom13:1a. The passage is central. It does not stand for, nor should it be understood, to be a command to political authoritarianism. It is an invitation to law, to legitimacy, to ascertaining the will of the people in a democracy, enacting that will within the confines of a constitutional system, and then respecting the laws that flow therefrom. Within the world at large, we may be subject to, or may become the governing authorities – but we are always Christians. The Apostle Paul had multiple purposes in so writing – he had a concern with the relationship of Christians to the outside world and to the political authority of the Roman empire. Paul was also concerned about how Christians relate among ourselves. Christian religious/political conflict among ourselves has been a challenge for Christian theology. Theological disagreement may be the reason or the excuse for the ecclesiastical, political or social separation of Christians. Once reasons develop, theological disagreement, leading to differing communions and groupings, becomes the vehicle for separation. As the Reformation commenced and continued through the 16th and 17th centuries, it appeared the immovable object had met the irresistible force. When Christian conscience met Christian government in vehement disagreement, the results were tragically unacceptable in individual cases. Theologically, the issues have never been resolved. One person wishes to pray to the saints, another does not, one expects an early Rapture with no warning, another does not, one thinks the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, another does not. There are innumerable such differences. The continuing disagreements demonstrate that we have no recognized method of either resolving the dispute, or even a recognized method of staying in communication with each other. The argument continues unresolved. The fallback position for various Christian disputants is spiritual distance and intentional distancing, and attrition over time. Politically, we have addressed the most negative consequences of those 16th and 17th century conflicts by privatizing religious conscience. The results of privatizing Christian conscience are only partially satisfactory, as the 21st century is demonstrating. Organizing a better society is problematic, if each Christian has no greater loyalty than to his or her conscience. Conscience slides into self-will. Beyond denominational or theological boundaries, no one is able to present, to debate, to respond, to adjudicate, to give, or to obey an order issued by a recognized body of Christians, on any issue – not just very large important issues. All issues are 'off the table,' as it were, beyond joint resolution. No one could today post 95 theses on the door of a church and have an audience. We are stalled on Christian conscience-autonomy. No one says 'my conscience is God' but that is the net result. Each spider sits on her own web. The Old Testament analogue is the Book of Judges. The civil and political theory and authority that God has established pertinent to us, and to all, has been two thousand years in the making. The development of this theory is an argument for and an example of common grace, extended by God to all, who makes his sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and sends his rain on the just and on the unjust. "All peaceful beginnings of government have been laid in the consent of the people," John Locke, the British philosopher wrote in his Second Treatise on Government, Sect. 112. His work was instrumental in the framing of American constitutional ideas. Within the United States, we are both the governed, and the governing authorities. Perhaps odd, perhaps obvious to say, but if we as Christians want to reach the heavenly city of God, we have to be capable of governing and being governed by each other. This does not suggest extinguishing the ordinary and necessary debate and contentions that accompany civil and religious life. But at some point, a methodology of decision-making has to be established. Decisions are to be made, and they have to be respected. These 'decisions' are Christian decisions, critical to the communications and communal life of all Christians. That is not intended as a challenge to fundamental theological positions. When our government formed, Maryland did not become Pennsylvania – each state assigned certain powers to a federal government, and retained the rest. Lawful is not lawless, even where there is hard questioning and debate over what is really or ought to be 'lawful.' There are many different ways to connect with each other in the exercise of our Christian faith. Our movement toward the Jerusalem from above is obstructed, if we are situated like a collection of hermit crabs, each communion barricaded in its own shell of theological position, ecclesiastical organization and personal conscience. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Rom. 13:1 b. God created and enables all things, in providing the motive power for all events, outside of whose permissive will nothing ever can happen or could happen. Such establishment includes "the authorities that exist." As Jesus said to Pilate, "You would have no power over me if it were not given you from above." God is the source of lawful authority. The present state of world and national affairs, including our legal and political structures, is not accidental. It may be temporary, or cause us to pray "How long, O Lord, will the wicked by jubilant?" But if we cannot obey our own lawful authority, exercising decisions derived from faith, there is no possibility of building a genuinely lawful structure. If we cannot debate our Christian statements, decrees, findings or laws, enable and enact our Christian decrees, respect or obey our Christian laws, because they come from the authority already announced and ordained by our God and Savior, we're not going to move. We are stranded in the valley of stasis. I am postmillennial, a believer in the Kingdom of God that comes into this world. The extension of Rom. 13:1 b is necessary. This verse sends us forward, makes us look to the future. The current set of authorities have been established by God. The next set of authorities will be established by God - and the next set, after that. We want this set of authorities, each set of authorities, to be better, more Christ-like. When we say more 'Christ-like,' it is not reasonable to expect that denominational and theological differences are going to evaporate. We want to be Christ-like as we assume, or obey, or exchange, this developing authority which expresses itself in constitutional forms among us - not because it results in theocracy or theonomy (or any other system of being ruled by the laws of the Old Testament). Rather, we remember that the "authorities that exist" may be us, or may not be; and if we're not holding office at the moment, we may retain our theological positions or political differences. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you, has special significance when we are talking about different groups of Christians contending over beliefs, ideas, or courses of conduct which may be supported and advanced by force of decree, statement or law. If we are going to move toward a more complete Christian community, theological convictions count, inspiration counts, but also, impartiality counts. We want the debate (and the penalties for losing the debate on whatever topic is at hand) to be just and impartial. The rules, the conduct, the doctrine, whatsoever it is under discussion, and the statement or law that issues from them, or us, are to be impartial. The means and procedure of discussing, debating, challenging or appealing the decision regarding the resolution of Christian issues, have to be impartial. Due Process is a legal term but it paves a spiritual road. It means notice of the issue at hand, before the time and place of decision, and the opportunity to be heard on the point by the decision-makers. We hope valued impartiality flows into our political and national lives. But whether it does or does not flow nationally, we have to communicate these exchanges and accord this due process among ourselves in an impartial manner – and then voluntarily respect the outcome. The amorality of the present state of our national political life is not ultimately acceptable, but neither it is acceptable to go back to the political situation, rife with religious persecutions, that characterized Great Britain (and here in New England) in the 17th century. We do not criminalize people with whom we disagree. We will not move toward a golden, millennial age until we capture solutions to both sets of problems – spiritual unity which enables voluntary association and cooperation, and spiritual dissent. Our risen Lord Jesus has set us a mid-term examination. God has graciously provided us guidance. As explained by Locke in his Second Treatise, sect. 131: And so whoever has the legislative or supreme power of any commonwealth, is bound to govern by established standing laws, promulgated and known to the people, and not by extemporary decrees; by indifferent [impartial] and upright judges, who are to decide controversies by those law; and to employ the force of the community at home, only in the execution of such laws; or abroad to prevent or redress foreign injuries, and secure the community from inroads and invasion. And all this to be directed to no other end but the peace, safety, and public good of the people. The peace that Jesus confers - "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you" (John 14:27), connects to this Lockean peace, safety and the public good. The kingdom of God ("Thy kingdom come," Jesus taught us to pray, Mat. 6:10, "on earth as it is in heaven.") and "the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations," Rev. 22:2, converge on this peace. They are intended for this-world Christian implementation, and this implementation and obedience to God's will is not beyond us. John Locke described the "peace, safety and public good of the people" in terms that were attainable. He presented his solution at the time of intense religious persecution that frequently was the excuse, rather than the reason, for political persecution. The experience of the Amish community in self-regulation provides some useful guidance. The Nashville Statement, signed initially by more than 150 evangelical leaders, affirming what is set forth or implied in Scripture about sexuality, particularly Romans ch. 1, is a productive step toward our self-regulation and our movement toward a Holy City. The Nashville Statement engendered disagreement and resentment. Nor do I endorse all views, on all issues, of those Christians who developed the Nashville Statement. The point is to cooperate as actively and as far as we can, but no further. Theological statements and decisions are presented to address conflicting positions. The resentment within large elements of our national society, of the Christian position on the sexual issues addressed in the Nashville Statement, is intense – but that is acceptable. Disregard of God's Word engenders its own consequences. We want to be frog-marched off the Titanic of modern secular culture and nominal Christianity - thrown unceremoniously into a little lifeboat named Jesus and the Bible. We expect to be marginalized with the world's imprecations following, as the Titanic leaves us behind. We may bob in the ocean of broad societal disapproval for a short season. It's not hard to see the iceberg coming. After the iceberg has done its work, we, the Christian community, build a better world. We may communicate our own internal understandings and direction without surrendering those theological positions which are essentially non-negotiable. John Locke calls out the following elements in the above-recited passage: legislative power, established law, impartial judges, a judicious use of 'force' to execute such laws, directed to peace, safety and public good – and we would add, for the community of our faith. The challenge is to connect that political peace, of which we are clearly capable, with Jesus' spiritual peace. The alternative, the Valley of Christian Stasis, is incapable of being characterized as good faith. That is not how the Book of Revelation ends. To disconnect the two kinds of peace, to say that the peace that Jesus provides is always and forever not of this world, is to take a position on eschatology. That is to take the position that the Kingdom of God is not coming (despite praying "thy Kingdom come") in this world except by the visible return of Christ but in no other way. It is to take the position that the Great Commission does not fully succeed (apparently, then, a command to partial failure?). It is to take the position that the ending of Romans ch. 16 ("so that all nations might believe and obey him") doesn't count. If the Kingdom of God is coming in this world, then those good ends that John Locke asserted - peace, safety, the public good - have to be realized in the context of a multitude of Christian expressions (the 'Seven Churches' of Revelation), giving rise to our City in Motion. The political events of the last two thousand years include what has politically taken place in this country in the last 250 years. We may begin with the Deist-influenced proclamation of the Declaration of Independence (which, despite its Deist influences, repeatedly and insistently invokes God, the Creator, the Supreme Judge, and Divine Providence), which is also directly of God. The Declaration of Independence, like all other expressions of common grace, is directed by and under the authority of our risen Lord, Jesus. Pilate's authority derived from Roman military and civil power gets the benefit of God's imprimatur, as spoken by Jesus. Then surely also so does the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Federalist Papers. We have political tools. We need to use them. We don't want to supplant the state, we want to create a miniature of a Constitutional and legislative system, for ourselves, entered into by three gates: by Christian faith, by subscription to the doctrine of Scriptural inerrancy, and by a commitment to a forward-looking eschatology. Beyond that, once through those gates 'of the outer courtyard,' we acknowledge a diversity of views, a gathering of seven churches, a lively exchange of ideas. We will make and find our city and move toward peace, joy, and the enjoyment of the presence of God, characterized by our love for God, and our love for each other. There, we will be in a position to lead useful and interesting lives and have enjoyable and interesting discourse. We do not resurrect the past, look to the past, long for the days of ancient Israel, look for theocratical forms of government, or long for the days when our particular theology will be adopted by everyone. Christianity is just beginning. "By calling this covenant new, he has made the first one obsolete. And what is obsolete and aging will soon disappear." Heb. 8:13. The orchestra is just tuning up - we're barely getting started. I have no use at all for nostalgia. To quote a modern theologian, Greg Bahnsen: Postmillennialists believe, therefore, that the kingdom of God will gradually grow on earth, visibly, publicly, and externally. . . It will grow through the gradual conversion of the nations – through the preaching of the Word of God. . . . This salvation of many people must have visible expression and influence and be seen in an outward culture in society. (Victory in Jesus, Bahnsen, CMP 1999, p. 27). (See also, Postmillennialism, an Eschatology of Hope, Keith A. Mattison, P&R Publishing, 1999; The Victory of Christ's Kingdom, John Jefferson Davis, Canon Press, 1996; Prophecy and the Church, Oswald Allis, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1978 (critique of dispensationalism); He Shall Have Dominion, Kenneth Gentry, Apologetics Group Media, 2009 (thorough defense of postmillennialism); and An Eschatology of Victory, J. Marcellus Kik, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1971) ("the Holy City is situated in time and history . . . " p. 245). (Noting also with all these authors, that their theology is learned, their eschatology is inspiring, their legal and political theory needs better direction.) Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves." Rom:13:2. Paul instructed Christians in the Roman Empire, where we began as a tiny minority. Stay out of trouble, direct your energy away from rebellion, stay away from political revolt or disobedience. Move in our spiritual life and the witness to the growing faith. Paul was concerned about building the church locally and across geographical distances and cultural groups. It was the Holy Spirit saying, "it's okay to obey the Roman authorities – in fact, you should, this is part of your obedience to me, unless (as is clear from the Book of Revelation), you are being asked to deny Christ or otherwise blaspheme." Christ warned his disciples to stay clear of the military and political disaster coming because of the Jewish rebellion brewing against Roman authority in his pointed discourse at the Mount of Olives. In whatever direction we decide to move, it must meet the fundamental standards enunciated by Paul. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you. For he is God's servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God's servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment, but also because of conscience. That is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God's servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe him; if you owe taxes, pay taxes, if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor. Rom. 13:3-7. Christian, don't do the crime, if you can't do the time. The bearing of the sword is intended for punishment. The state has a monopoly on the use of force, for a good reason. Generally, Christian conscience acts in conjunction with the state (but not always, see, e.g., Martin Luther King's Letter from a Birmingham Jail). In his Letter to the Romans, Paul meant a number of different things by 'the Law,' understood by context: the Ten Commandments, the Law of Moses implying a special revelation of God's will to the Jews, natural law available to and applicable to all people, spiritual law to be followed by Christians out of obedience to the gospel, the law of love, Roman civil or criminal law to be obeyed at the risk of punishment, the law of conscience, including accusations or defenses of conscience, the law of interior struggle with sin, sin and death itself, and the new life of the Spirit - all are referenced in Paul's letter, all characterized in his writing as or associated with the Law. The Law shows us our sins by holding up a mirror to our conduct in the light of God's Law, sending us to call on Christ's atoning mercy. The Law protects the weak from wrongdoing at the hands of those stronger and is essential to a civil society. The Law in all its forms and expressions is surely the great chain, wielded by an angel, which binds Satan in Rev. 20:1 and 2. As the Holy City comes down out of heaven as described in the 21st Chapter of Revelation, it is not described as the City of Law. By implication, the City may be protected by Law. Law may reinforce its walls and its gate. Spiritual law may flow from and through the Church to separate those who may enter the City of God from those who may not. But the Holy City's light, foundations, jewels, gates, streets, river, fountains, or its Tree of Life are not described in terms of Law. In the Sacred City of divine and human joy, where Christ reigns by acclamation, by love and by power, the purposes of the Law have been fulfilled. Lawlessness has no place in the City as it can never enter in. The Abyss may be escaped, only to give rise to further battle and fire, but the Holy City is prepared as a bride. The description of the Millennial City calls us to something higher, further and more perfect than Law as a goal and end of human society. The Law has a purpose and an end, and it reaches fulfillment in Christ's work on the Cross. In a more perfect society, where equity is done everywhere, there is no need to petition a court of equity for relief. Where love and trust are more perfect among people, no judge is needed to assert jurisdiction, hear argument or rule for one party or the other. In a meeting with our beloved, we who love fold our papers, close our law books and put our contracts aside. Their purpose has been served. Love keeps no record of wrong, so we may leave the courtroom. We go to meet for a wedding ceremony and a feast. The beauty of the meeting calls us to travel the road. Questions arise about doing right, what obedience means, in a Constitutional democracy where we are asked to play a part. The part we play nationally, whatever it is, to which we are also called and from which we refuse to be disenfranchised, is not the same as the spiritual movement we pursue among ourselves. We are called to something higher than the surrounding political confrontation and factionalism (not an easy problem to solve; see Federalist No. 10 – Madison thought the danger of factionalism would be solved by the new Constitution, and clearly that has not been the case). John Locke thought the solution was self-evident. "[F]or nobody has an absolute arbitrary power over himself, or over any other, to destroy his own life, or take away the life or property of another. . . Thus the law of nature stands as an eternal rule to all men, legislators as well as others. The rules that they make . . . must be conformable to the law of nature, i.e., to the will of God . . ." 2nd Treatise, sect. 135. To say something must be conformable to the will of God, or the law of nature or an eternal rule, has proved to be guidance not so obvious, beyond the first application, of not destroying life. Many Christians are united on this point at least. Given the number of abortions being performed annually in the United States and western world generally, even Locke's standard of 'not taking away life' appears to have given way to a notion of personal rights that is practically unlimited in its scope or application. In the case of abortion on demand, the notion is tragic on a massive scale, leads to infanticide (and the purposeful abortion of Downs' syndrome babies), is contrary to God's will, is destructive of our national political fabric, and presents an irresistible temptation to federal courts to exceed their Constitutional jurisdiction and intended scope of authority. Next to the Dred Scott decision, Roe v. Wade is the worst decision ever made by the U.S. Supreme Court, and its consequences have been destructive. The decision raises political problems regardless of religious faith – there is no serious legal question of any type that cannot be formulated into a query about individual rights and then answered in such a way as to make individual rights (defined to assure the preferred outcome) preempt and supersede any other type of right. In the case of abortion, all that is necessary is to deny the definition of human life to children in the womb. The definitions decide the outcome. When we now use the term 'civil rights' the meaning is – rights of the individual. In current judicial reasoning, advancing individual rights is always expansive of the good, as long as the individuals are out of the womb. In current judicial reasoning, the rights of the group are nearly always oppressive, subtracting from the net benefit of civil society. My civil rights cannot be added to the civil rights of my fellow citizens, in such a way as to develop a society promoting religiously-based ethical views. One hundred thousand people may not be lead in prayer at a government-sponsored or funded event, if one objects. If it is necessary to justify protecting children in the womb from destruction by making a religious argument, because the definition of the beginning of life implies theological and ethical reasoning, then the destructive consequences of advancing individual rights above other rights are wrongly justified as compelled by the implied language of the Constitution. An intellectual shell game has been played by our federal judiciary, of which Roe v. Wade is the most notorious example – get the definitions right, set up the conflict as the individual vs. the group (included in 'the group' is any assembly of state legislators) – and the desired judicial result will pop out like candy from a dispenser. From this Christian's viewpoint, and I am also a citizen of this nation, this is unacceptable. As an individual, my name is not "Congress," as in the 1st Amendment ("Congress shall make no law"). The idea that ethical decisions, which result in law, may not have religious foundations, is to be rejected. The idea that I may not join with others to vote for or to pass laws which at some point in their chain of reasoning, rely on religious belief or revelation, is to be rejected. A method of judicial reasoning which relies on carefully-crafted initial definitions and nomenclature to avoid the obvious, observable acts of medically terminating life, with the resulting infant body parts available for marketing, is to be rejected. Political acts which have ethical foundations, which themselves have religious foundations, are ordinary acts of Constitutional self-rule, not the establishment of a theocracy. We will do better, because God will compel a better result. The City of God is a promise to seven churches, standing for a society of communities engaged in the voluntary worship of God and obedience to Christ. Discovering the will of God, in our own relations with other Christians, raises harder questions than challenging bad national law or opposing abortion on demand. Discovering God's will mean moving forward to our own better self-governing society, even if we construct a model first on a 'table-top,' as it were. I quote a passage from Locke which will have a familiar sound to any reader familiar with the Declaration of Independence: Great mistakes in the ruling part, many wrong and inconvenient laws, and all the slips of human frailty, will be born by the people without mutiny or murmur. But if a long train of abuses, prevarications, and artifices, all tending the same way, make the design visible to the people, and they cannot but feel what they lie under, and see whither they are going; it is not to be wondered, that they should then rouse themselves, and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected . . . 2nd Treatise, sect. 225. Locke observed that the people may "rouse themselves." Indeed, 'rousing ourselves' is essential. But in what way did the Apostle Paul view 'rousing ourselves?' The difficulty with Paul's passage in Romans ch. 13:3-7, is its static nature. Those admonitions made sense then, for a small religious minority in a vast pagan empire. The Roman authorities were there, and the Roman Christians submitted to them, and were grateful to God for the opportunity to worship him in peace. There was no political development implied; it was intentional separation from Roman interference, by giving no cause for offence, for purposes of Christian religious practice. A difficulty with the passage of Locke cited above is that it takes the matter one, but only one, drastic step forward. If the authorities are inflicting a "long train of abuses . . . all tending the same way" then the people ought to put "the rule into such hands as may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected." Locke's concepts are binary, but they also will become static – either the people accept the "great mistakes and wrong laws without mutiny or murmer" – or, as the American people did in 177 6, they "rouse themselves" to "put the rule into such hands, etc.," in other words, to put governmental rule into American hands in the legislatures of the American states. Continuing, aspirational movement was not contemplated by John Locke either. The wasn't the problem he was facing 320 years ago, but it is a problem we are facing now. There is much the Book of Revelation does not do. There is one thing it does do, beyond its powerful encouragement in the face of persecution – it says, 'look, there's a goal here, a destination, and we want to get to it.' The Book has an end, and the end is a City. The Great Commission is equally dynamic – Jesus telling us "Go, make disciples." There's a goal here, a command, something we are supposed to be doing – and disciples, discipling and discipline has to extend to more than personal conscience, to the exclusion of Christian community. The argument against amillennialism is parallel to the argument against premillennialism (whether in its dispensational presentation or classical presentation) – those doctrines don't go anywhere. When it comes to Revelation ch. 21 and 22, these doctrines 'sit on their hands.' Rather, our doctrine of eschatology is postmillennial (Christ comes after ("post") the millennium) by our voluntary choice, by Revelation's destination, by inspiration of the Holy Spirit to reach a millennium in this world. Jesus is awaited at the end of the golden, millennial period, however long and wonderful that period may be, a thousand years or a ten times a thousand years – and we have acted in obedience to him in making or moving to such a society and such a world. (For the Kingdom of God will be like a man going on a journey, who called his servants and entrusted to them his property - one to receive five talents, one to receive two, another, to receive one). Our goal is forward. Neither John Lock or the Apostle Paul, or Jesus, say: "let's go back to an Old Testament theocracy as soon as we have a chance." Hence, my profound disagreement with all forms of political theocracy, theonomy, etc. We move to the future here, in terms of our political understanding – our Lord Jesus has not been asleep for the last 2000 years. For that matter, if you need open-heart CABG surgery as I did, you will not seek out a doctor who applies the methods of healthcare available in the days of Moses – there are no instructions in the Old Testament for a triple-bypass procedure. Common grace has done something with respect to medical care, as it has done something with respect to political theory which the churches may apply. After the passage quoted above about obeying the authorities, the Apostle Paul moved directly, with no further transition, to a society characterized by love that has already internalized the Law. The movement is sudden between Rom. 13:7, extolling obedience to external Roman authority, sharing neither political power or a faith with us, to Rom. 13:8. Here is our endpoint: Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for he who loves his fellow man has fulfilled the law. The commandments, "Do not commit adultery," Do not murder," "Do not steal," "Do not covet," and whatever other commandment there may be, are summed up in this one rule: "Love your neighbor as yourself." Love does no harm to its neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law. If we wish to go On the Road now (and we find ourselves On the Road whether we wish it or not) – static conceptions will not do. We construct with the law in the manner of a homebuilder, using our tools to lay on progressively wiser and more effective structural elements, until we reach the fulfillment of home-building, a home where we may love. That is the postmillennial vision – a millennial world, a golden age of faith, love and peace, before Christ returns. The thousand years of the millennium in Ch. 20 is both a reality and a symbol for that vision. The reality of God's ordaining will is a driving movement. Growth through the Holy Spirit is neither limited to or circumscribed by the symbol of a thousand year time period. We travel to an end and a society good beyond words. Our driving force and our destination comes from God. Golden ages are hard to come by, but not only can we get there, we will. Christ has called us to this, and his sobriety and his power in doing so is beyond question. ____________________________________
Teresa Wilde's Demon of the Week Blog | Featuring a new demon every Saturday! (No demons were harmed in the making of this blog) Featuring a new demon every Saturday! (No demons were harmed in the making of this blog)