RAW RANKED SITES ABOUT
#FIND ORDINARY

The most comprehensive list of find ordinary websites last updated on Nov 1 2019.
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Bonanza :: Find everything but the ordinary Shop for everything but the ordinary. More than 25,000 sellers offering you a vibrant collection of fashion, collectibles, home decor, and more.
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Is It Normal? | isitnormal.com Ever ask yourself whether something in your life is normal or not? Well now you can find out at https://www.isitnormal.com
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Acta Croatica - Home Preserve memories of extraordinary histories of ordinary people Millions of people mentioned in the numerous historical documents. Try to find your ancestors, and enrich historical sources with family narratives.
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Wigs Online | Wig Store | Divatress Divatress Is Your Ultimate Beauty Stop Where You Purchase The Highest-quality, Yet-affordable Wigs In Many Different Styles. No Matter What Your Beauty Goals Are For Hair That Looks Stunning And Real, Let Divatress Introduce You To The Best Wigs Online. Our Selection Is Curated With Everything You Need To Buy Wigs Online, Of Which You Can Be Proud To Use Again And Again. Change Your Look ... It’s All Up To You With Diva-approved Styles By Your Side. Be The Glam Goddess Of Your Dreams. Sexy. Chic. Stunning. We Have Wigs For Sale Online With Powerful Style. This Is Not Your Ordinary Online Wig Store — We Are Extraordinary Looks For A Beauty That’s All Your Own. Isn’t That What Being A True Divatress Diva Is All About? The Goal Is To Find A Glamorous Hair Style That Brings A Smile To Your Face Each Time You Glance In The Mirror. You’ll Love The Compliments You Receive On Hair And Beauty That Uniquely Expresses Who You Are. Types Of Wigs & Weaves Divatress Offers We Offer A Huge Selection Of The Best Wigs Online, Including: Wigs: With Wigs That Run The Gamut Of Synthetic And Real Hair, You’ll Love The Full, Lush Looks Of A Wig In The Style And Color Of Your Choice. It’s The Perfect Way To Change Your Look In An Instant — To Become An Icon Of Fabulous Style. Lace Front Wigs: These Cover Your Natural Hair Line In A Way That Looks Flawlessly Real. With So Many Styles Of Lace Front Wigs From Which To Choose, Don’t Hesitate To Ask One Of Our Consultants For Assistance With Any Of Our Top Brands. Braiding Hair: There Are Endless Styles You Can Create With Low-maintenance Braids That Can Double As Protective Styles As Long As The Scalp Is Nourished And The Right Products Are Used On The Hair. Our Braiding Hair Allows You To Create Crochet Hair Styles, Cornrows, Braided Buns, Twist-outs And A Variety Of Updos That Will Express Your Style In A Unique Way Half Wigs: In Synthetic And Human Hair Styles, A Half Wig Is The Best Way To Create A Fuller Style For Your Natural Hair. They Come In Many Colors To Best Blend With Your Current Hair Shade. Remy Hair: Remy Is One Of The Highest-quality Human Hair Extensions Brands You Can Buy From An Online Wig Store. Easy To Maintain, This Extension Can Also Be Dyed, Washed And Styled To Make Your Ultimate Hair Goddess Dreams Come True. The Options Are Limitless On How You Want To Rock Your Remy Hair Extensions. Hair Extensions: Quality Extensions For When You Want To Go Long, Short And Everything In Between. Options Are Virtually Endless — With Choices That Include Affordable Synthetic, Real Hair And Easy-to-use Clip-ins. The Benefit Of Changing Your Look Has Never Been Easier With Hair Extensions From Divatress. Ponytails: Simplify Your Look With An Easy-to-wear Ponytail, Available In Real And Synthetic Versions For A Picture-perfect You. Secure The Ponytail Or Bun With The Drawstring And Clip-ins For A Look That Makes You Instantly Chic. More Than Wigs Divatress Also Has A Wide Selection Of Hair Care Products And Beauty Goodies To Fit Your Entire Look. We Offer A Full Line Of Shampoos, Conditioners, Styling Products, Hair Color And Nourishing Hair Oils. Our Cosmetics Will Allow The Makeup Looks You Create To Shine. We Even Have Eyebrow Products, Faux Lashes And Nail Care. Divatress Is A Full-service Beauty Lovers’ Palace Where Shopping Online Will Feel Like A Dream. Calling You, Gorgeous! When You Shop Divatress For The Best Wigs Online, You’re Not Only Getting A Stunning Selection Of Top-notch Wigs, But We Routinely Update Our Inventory With Items That Will Delight And Surprise You. Be The Beautiful Diva You Know You Are With Divatress. View Our Collection Of Wigs, Hair Care And Beauty Products For All Your Diva Desires Now — Or Click Here To Learn More.
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Experience Gifts Beyond Ordinary | Truly The world''s most extraordinary experiences, for those who collect memories, not things. Browse our unique collection & find a gift that says: "I get you."
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BoB - BucketsOfBanners.com BucketsOfBanners.com is a banner advertising exchange.
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But First, Joy | A positivity blog inspiring ordinary women to find joy in everyday things. But First, Joy is a positivity blog inspiring ordinary women to find joy in everyday things. Written by Orlando Blogger, Joyce Santos.
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Modernist Pantry - Magical Ingredients for the Modern Cook Modernist Pantry is your one-stop shop for magical cooking ingredients and tools. Whether you‘re a home cook or a professional chef, you’ll find everything you need here to transform ordinary dishes into unique and memorable experiences.
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Fresh Food Box Delivered - Food Box Delivery in Australia We deliver fresh food boxes to your door so you can always enjoy your fresh & healthy meals hassle-free. Get in touch with us today to find out more.
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pin Cruise Recruit is an online service for finding cruise ship crew, jobs & positions within the maritime industry. Search training courses and much more.
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Welcome to The Little Things UAE- Home Page It’s time to level up your game, your style and mostly your figurine collections. The Little Things offers a wide range of diverse and exclusive gifts, novelties and Toys. The store carries a wide selection of anime, manga, collectible figurines, comics, model kits, pop culture apparel, video-gaming products and an assortment of merchandise. Each piece holds creativity, definition, and quality as we deliver the latest and exclusive items that will be a game changer to your figurine collection. We have unique and artistic pieces that range from small portable collectible toys to larger than life statues. So get your hands on these captivating items and make a bold statement in your collection of most prized possessions. We present our customers with unique and artistic pieces that are limited and exclusive editions. We offer original items from tokidoki a Japanese inspired apparels and accessories, Funko POP with pop culture vinyl figurine bobble heads and Kikkerland that turns ordinary gadget into a delightful discovery. If you are an NBA fan do not fret because we got you covered with NBA collectible figures from Enterbay and at the same time capturing and conserving the Emirati culture with the Arabian dolls. Be sure to find us in Dubai one of the most iconic city in UAE.
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Bus Service and Fare of Volvo, Sleeper and AC Bus Find out bus fare of ordinary, sleeper, deluxe, volvo and ac bus between two cities. Get to know road travel distance, road route & bus stations in metro city.
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Easy Science Fair Projects This book contains over 100 science experiments that are geared for grades K to 12. Yesthe classic egg in the bottle and the erupting volcano are here, but youll find many, many more fun and educational projects that are easy to do with ordinary household items.
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Best quality dog supplies at crazy reasonable prices - harnesses, leashes, collars, muzzles and dog training equipment Get Today High Quality Exclusive Dog Items - Dog Collars, Dog Leashes, Dog Harnesses, Dog Muzzles. Fordogtrainers produces and offers dog item for professional dog training and for ordinary dog owners. You can browse our huge selection and find appropriate collar, muzzle, harness, leash or dog training equipment for your dog. Leather and nylon are highest quality materials which are used in production of finest quality dog stuff we offer
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Pictures of People, Places and Things - Love's Photo Album Life is never still which is why we try to capture it when we can. Find thousands of pictures of people , places and things. Photography is our hobby & we enjoy sharing what we find through the lens of a camera. Some are ordinary pieces of everyday life, some are off the beaten path.
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Acta Croatica - Home Preserve memories of extraordinary histories of ordinary people Millions of people mentioned in the numerous historical documents. Try to find your ancestors, and enrich historical sources with family narratives.
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INK - We’re Not Your Ordinary Agency. We help companies who have lost their way to find it. We listen intently, then help them tell their story. We chart a path to their customers – then surprise and delight them.
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Sawday's Find the perfect place to stay in Britain, France, Ireland, Spain, Italy and Portugal. Inspected, selected and recommended by Sawday's Special Places to Stay
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Free Press Index | As with most things, there are do's and don'ts when it comes to texting. It has become the primary form of technological communication, and almost everyone does it. It's become such a huge part of our culture, and it doesn't seem to be going away anytime soon. Since texting is so relevant and common in our world today, shouldn't there be some guidelines for what to do and what not to do? We think yes, and have dug up eight texting rules you must know. 1. Do: text the person if you're running late. This is common courtesy and goes a long way if you're running late to an appointment or casual meet up with friends. Sending a quick text message won't take more than thirty seconds and is polite. 2. Don't: Text during an appointment, lunch, or dinner. Texting while you're having a conversation with someone over lunch, dinner, or during an appointment is flat out rude. Unless you're in high school or college, in which case everyone is glued to their phones anyways, don't do it. It shows that you're not interested in the conversation or person and that you're not really listening. 3. Do: Always double check before you hit the send button. It's not a secret that autocorrect, and spelling can turn a normal, innocent text into something out of the ordinary. Take the extra seconds to reread your text to make sure that everything sounds crystal clear, especially when talking with a professional or relatives. 4. Don't: Over correct yourself if you do happen to misspell something. We all have gotten a text from someone that's like: Hey! I donut want to go to lunch today, let's do tomorrow. *don Oops! **don't We get it. Simple spelling and autocorrect mistakes are inevitable, no need to tell us everytime. 5. Do: Keep it short. If your text is quickly becoming a novel, just pick up the phone or send an email. Reading a mile long text message is annoying, plain and simple. 6. Don't: Talk about important issues or have an argument over text. We've all done it, so we all know why we shouldn't. Having serious conversations or arguing over text is just not worth it. Things get miscommunicated; you're bound to take some words out of context, and it's just clearer and more concise to handle more meaningful stuff in person or over the phone. 7. Do: Group text. Group texts are by far the easiest way to get information to multiple of your friends at once. It's also super convenient for making group plans. Some people find group texts super annoying, and if that's the case for you, simply turn the text on "do not disturb." When it's on the do not disturb mode, you won't get the notifications that can cause annoyance, and simply can partake in it when you want to. 8. Don't: Make the mistake of talking smack in the group text. While younger people undoubtedly use group texts to talk smack sometimes, make sure you're not talking about the wrong person. Nothing is more awkward than saying something about someone's friend; and then they have the written proof that you said something bad. 9. Do: Text your crush or date to set up a hangout session. It is totally common and normal to send your crush or date a text about meeting up. It's casual, quick, and convenient. Also, you can always refer to the text that made plans to double check the time and location. 10. Don't: Double or triple text anyone. Unless they're you're super close friend or your mom, don't send more than one text if they don't reply. No one likes to be blown up like that! It seems desperate. If they're not replying, they're either busy or uninterested and don't want to be bothered. 11. Do: Use emoticons. They're there for a reason, right?! Emoticons are fun; it's as simple as that. Use emoticons with your friends, family, and crushes in the right contexts to enhance your text. 12. Don't: Use emoticons in professional settings. Like most things, there's a time and a place for emoticons, and it's not while texting someone professionally. It comes off as unprofessional and juvenile, so hold back. 13. Do: Be prompt with your responses. One of the benefits of texting is the fact that it's quick. If you spend ages to reply to someone's request or question over text, you're defeating the purpose. We get that sometimes you're busy, but if you're not, reply then and there. To get into the habit, turn your read receipts on. 14. Don't: Ask someone why they didn't reply to your text earlier. You know the answer to this question before you even ask it. They'll say they were busy, or that they didn't get it, or that they totally didn't see it. If they don't answer, whatever, move on and don't drag it out. 15. Do: Double-check the recipient. The last thing you want to do is send your Dad a sexy text that was meant for your boyfriend, Dan. Always make sure you're sending your text to the right person, especially if it's something you wouldn't want anyone else reading. 16. Don't: Send sexy photos to strangers. Seems like common sense, but if you meet someone on the internet or a dating app like Tinder, you'll probably begin texting them. Hence, it will probably come up at some point through flirtation to send a sexy picture. Don't do it unless you really know the person and trust that they won't do anything freaky with it. You don't want to risk your picture being sent around to a bunch of random people, or worse, end up on the internet. Bottom-line: don't sext or send sexy texts, nudes, or anything else racy with strangers unless you've met them through a reputable source. 17. Do: Send sexy pictures to your significant other. If you're in a loving and trusting relationship with someone, and you feel comfortable enough to send them sexy pictures, do it! Texting your bae sexy pictures is a fun way to spice up your love life. 18. Don't: Break up or ask someone out over text. This is a big no-no. Breaking up or asking someone out over text is super insensitive and immature. This might be okay in middle school, but it's not cool for grown adults.
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Find Local Guides - Shiroube.com Find local guides! Shiroube is the world''s largest marketplace for travelers and guides. Here, you can find your local destination guide, and locals can advertise to be a guide for travelers! Have you ever imagined that your travel could be filled with unexpected scenes, encounters and experiences, like in the movies? Are you fed up with carefully coordinated guided tours? Are you just following guide books? Shiroube aims to help travelers have superior rather than ordinary travel experiences. The site has features to assist people in finding the best travel guide, with no frills. This is the marketplace that offers a service where travelers and locals can make deals in guiding.
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Aspen Vacations & Getaways | Official Guide to Aspen, CO Find official visitor information from the Aspen Chamber Resort Association for hotels, restaurants, attractions, shopping, maps and free vacation guides.
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alcott | dog adventure gear | travel gear for active outdoor dogs our mission is to turn dog walking from an ordinary chore into an extraordinary adventure with high quality, affordable travel gear + accessories for dogs.
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Inspired Millionaires - Online Coach, Mentor & Father Inspired Millionaires - Online Coach, Mentor & Father, Helping Entrepreneurs Become Successful Through Utilizing Their God Given Gifts & Talents.
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TxtMania | The Philippines, a group of over 7,000 islands with combined land area encompassing 300,000 square kilometres, grew into a nation under more than three centuries of Spanish conquest and 42 years of American rule. It is the first country outside the New World that closely witnessed the United States' rise to power following the 1898 Spanish-American War. Situated 800 kilometres southeast of mainland Asia, the archipelago, named after King Philip II of Spain, was discovered in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, the same explorer who had discovered the Pacific Ocean in search of the so-called "Spice Islands" and is now widely considered the first navigator to have cruised around the planet. Ironically, the Filipinos, after having been subdued for centuries by foreign colonizers as a result of Magellan's voyage, would emerge as the best seafarers in the world, manning a third of all international vessels today. Some 7.8 million overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) and Filipino migrants would help rebuild cities in many countries and bring back over US$10 billion in annual remittances to their families in the Philippines. The country's geographical location and long exposure to foreign influences has placed the Philippines on a unique cultural base in Asia. It is now the only predominantly Catholic country in the region, with 70 million out of its total population of 85 million (as of 2005) confessing to be Catholic. There are also large numbers of Protestants and Born-Again Christians in the country while the Muslim population is concentrated in southern Mindanao. Early Trade The first inhabitants of the Philippines were the Negritos who traveled from mainland Asia over a land bridge that is now underwater. Migrants from other Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia later followed and established a Malayan culture that flourished before the Spaniards came. Chinese and Arab merchants helped establish markets at the community level. A sultanate system, first established in the southern island of Sulu in the 14th century, is believed to have reached the islands of Luzon and Visayas, giving way to the rise of the Islamic faith. The Spaniards would later drive the Muslims to the south and establish Catholicism as the main religion in the north and central parts of the country. Local villages, known as barangay, traded agricultural and fishery products with each other. The Igorot tribe in Northern Luzon carved the marvellous Banaue Rice Terraces from the mountains, a proof of their advanced agriculture technology. Communities near the shore exchanged goods with Chinese and Arab merchants, who came aboard large ships. These communities traded slaves, gold, beeswax, betel nuts, pearls, and shells for porcelain, silk, iron, tin and semi-precious stones. The Philippine islands were a part of an extensive trade route used by Chinese merchants as early as the 10th century. By the time Magellan arrived in the islands, regular trade and cultural contact between Chinese traders and local chieftains were firmly instituted. Many Chinese merchants settled in the country and shared their crafts with the natives. Some historians claim that an Italian Franciscan priest, named Father Odorico, was actually the first European to have reached the Philippines in 1324 when his ship bound for China took refuge from a storm in Bolinao Island in northern part of Luzon. Aside from the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordillera Mountains, early settlers did not leave any giant monument, and this is what makes conservative historians doubt the existence of the rich kingdoms in the country hundreds of years ago. However, it cannot be denied that early Filipinos were learned individuals who expressed their beliefs and sentiments in rich languages. According to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), there are actually 78 language groupings and over 500 dialects in the Philippines. Feudal Society Magellan, who claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, died in a battle with a group of local warriors led by Lapu Lapu at Mactan Island. It was Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in the fourth Spanish expedition, who named the territory as Filipinas after the heir to the Spanish throne in 1543. In 1565, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi led an expedition to colonize the islands and by 1571, most parts of the archipelago came under Spanish rule. The Spaniards established the colonial government first in Cebu in 1565 and then in Manila in 1571. Historians claim that University of San Carlos in Cebu and University of Sto. Tomas in Manila are the oldest universities teaching European type of education in Asia. Jesuit and Dominican priests established the two institutions. Under Spanish rule, Catholicism became the dominant religion. Catholic friars not only lorded over the congregations; they enjoyed vast political and economic influence, which they eventually used to repress Filipino peasants' uprisings in the largely feudal Philippine society at that time. The Spaniards also quelled a number of rebellions instigated by the Chinese migrants. The friars distributed lands to Spanish families, who later comprised the landowning class. To perpetuate their economic interests, this class would also rise to become the political elite that would remain in power to this day. This gave way to the hacienda system in the Philippines, where cacique or landowners managed large tracts of lands tilled by peasant workers. Under the system, farmers were supposed to receive half of the harvest, but they usually ended up with much less because they had to pay for large interests on debt incurred from the cacique. This would be later corrected with a system of land reform, which, however, remains to be fully implemented to this day. Galleon Trade The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade became the major trading system between Asia and the Americas for nearly two centuries. Manila became a transhipment point of American silver to China. It was through this trade that the first Chinese silk and porcelain reached the shores of the New World. There were unverified claims that Filipinos helped build the city of Los Angeles in America. The Chinese and Filipinos would later become the two largest Asian migrant groups in the United States. Coconut became the country's top agricultural product, because of Spain's huge need for charcoaled coconut shells used for the caulking of the galleons. In 1642, the colonial government issued an edict requiring each Filipino to plant 200 coconut trees all over the country. By 1910, coconut exports would account for a fifth of total Philippine exports and to this day, coconut oil remains the country's top agricultural shipment. The Galleon Trade lasted for about 200 years until 1815. It is during this period that rice and tropical fruits from the Philippines such as mango and banana made their way to Latin America. Beginning 1750, Spanish priests encouraged the development of plantations to grow abaca (hemp), tobacco, coffee and sugar. Sugar barons from the Visayas would later emerge as among the richest clans in the country. From 1762 to 1764, the British briefly captured Manila during the Seven Years War. The treaty of Paris ended the British occupation and returned the colony to the hands of their original colonial masters. Plantation Crops In 1781, the Spanish governor established the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines, which would become a major source of revenue for the colonial government. From 1820 to 1870, the Philippines would be transformed to an agricultural export economy. Located on the oceanic trading routes connecting Asia to other parts of the world, the Philippines became a transhipment point of merchandise goods from all over Southeast Asia on their way to Europe. The Philippines exported plantation crops such as sugar, abaca, other fibres, tobacco, coffee, and coconut products to China, Spain, United States, United Kingdom and British East Indies. In return, it imported textiles and rice. Historians claim that Spain administered the Philippine affairs through Mexico. Spanish administrators in the country were actually reporting to the Viceroyalty of Mexico. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Madrid directly governed its only Asian colony and even allowed rich Filipinos to study in Europe. The Spanish rule gave way to the rise of a small but highly powerful elite class, which to this day, controls most of the Philippine economy. The elite families, which own large plantations, were able to send their children to Europe for education. Foreign Investors Investors from Spain, Germany, Britain and other European countries laid the groundwork for utility companies in steam navigation, cable, telegraphy, railroads and electricity in the country. They also invested heavily in rice and sugar milling, textile and banking. The local elite developed the brewing industry, which would become one of the most profitable sectors in the economy. Although the educated Filipinos who studied in Europe shunned the use of force to topple the colonial government, their writings provoked nationalist sentiments among young men, who eventually formed a revolutionary movement against Spain. In 1896, the war between Spanish and Filipino soldiers escalated following the death of novelist Jose Rizal and rebel leader Andres Bonifacio. Emilio Aguinaldo, the new leader of the revolutionary forces, forged a pact with US Commodore George Dewey in Hong Kong to defeat the Spanish army. American Colony The Americans entered the scene because of its conflict with Spain over Cuba. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American war in the Pacific, the Philippines had to be taken by the US, lest other European countries such as Britain, France and Germany would fight for their next Southeast Asian colony. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo, first backed by American forces, declared the independence of Kawit, Cavite, the seat of the revolutionary Filipino government at that time, from Spanish rule. The Americans took possession of Manila on August 13, 1898. While armed clashes with Spanish forces continued in other parts of the country, the Americans and the Spaniards were negotiating for the purchase of the Philippines for US$20 million. In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the US. Filipinos felt insulted at the fact that their country has been passed from one colonial master to another for only US$20 million. When the US, which had not conquered any country before, made known its intention to succeed Spain as the next colonizer of the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his men waged a revolutionary resistance that ended with his capture in March 1901. The American soldiers easily subdued the remaining factions of rebellion with the help of their powerful weapons and their divide-and-conquer tactic. As an archipelago of 7,000 islands, the Philippines is home to different ethnic groups which do not speak the same language. The national government's attempt to declare Tagalog (spoken in Central and Southern Luzon including Metro Manila) as the national language would not easily win the support of other regions. The Philippine-American war took the lives of 4,234 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers. The death toll was much higher on the civilian population, with as high as 200,000 casualties. Although local resistance persisted until 1903, the US ended its military rule on July 4, 1901. American Way Under American civilian rule, the Philippines was introduced to US-type of education, Protestant religion, and later to the concept of democracy. Placed under US control were most parts of the country, except in the southern portion of Mindanao where Muslim rebels held strong resistance. William Howard Taft, the 27th US president, was the first American Civil Governor in the Philippines. Taft was praised for establishing a civil service system, creating a national legislature, suppressing prices, upgrading health standards, and sponsoring land reform and road building in the country. In 1907, the First Philippine Assembly composed of educated and rich Filipinos with vast landholdings. Manuel L. Quezon, who represented the Philippines in the US Congress, lobbied for the passage of the Jones Law, which in 1916 abolished the Philippine Assembly to give way for a bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. With the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934, Filipinos had their first taste of self-rule through the Philippine Commonwealth, a transitional government designed to prepare the Filipinos over a ten-year period for independence. By 1935, the Commonwealth was in place with Quezon as its first president. The Philippines also approved a new constitution in the same year. The United States is credited for helping establish the Republic of the Philippines, the first democratic government in Asia. Economically, the Philippines was ahead of its Asian neighbours, who were still subjects of European colonial powers before the war. Japanese Invasion In December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the Philippines and drove the Commonwealth Government from Manila. While Quezon continued to head the government-in-exile until his death in New York in August 1944, the Japanese forces handpicked Jose P. Laurel, a graduate of Yale University and Tokyo International University, to head a new government under their control. The Philippines was dragged into the war because of Japan's military ambition to become the dominant force in Asia and the Pacific. Japan wanted to be the leader of an economic zone in East Asia, which would be the source of its raw materials. The US presence in the Philippines, known for its strategic location in Southeast Asia, was the largest threat to the Japanese forces, following the destruction of the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. While the American forces were regrouping in the United States, Filipino soldiers formed a guerrilla organization called Hukbalahap (People's Anti-Japanese Army). Some 30,000 guerrillas at that time engaged the Japanese army in intermittent clashes. The Hukbalahap would later adopt the communist ideology and rule in the countryside. Meanwhile, Sergio Osmeña replaced Quezon as the head of the government-in-exile and joined General Douglas MacArthur in the liberation of Manila. General MacArthur returned to the Philippines via the island province of Leyte, along with 174,000 army and navy servicemen on October 20, 1944. The liberation of Manila took almost 20 days from February 3 to 23, 1945 and the fierce battle destroyed much of the city, with its ruins now often compared to the ruins of Warsaw, Poland in Europe. The Japanese army, however, continued to fight in the provinces, until September 2, 1945 when General Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya who was believed to have hidden vast amount of treasures during the war, surrendered in Baguio City. It is estimated that the battle of Manila cost the lives of 1 million Filipinos, 300,000 Japanese and 60,000 Americans. The intensity of the US-Japan war would force the former to drop an atomic bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and in Nagasaki three days later. US Bases By February 1945, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth in the Philippines but it was only on July 4, 1946 that the US granted the Philippines its independence, coinciding with the celebration of the Independence Day in America. However, US military bases would remain in the country for the next 45 years. On March 14, 1947, Manila and Washington signed the Treaty of General Relation, which provided the US to construct military bases for a lease period of 99 years. In 1959, the agreement was amended to shorten the lease period until 1991, after which both sides were to renegotiate the contract. When the US sought a ten-year extension of the lease period in 1991, the Philippine Senate, led by Senate President Jovito Salonga, rejected the proposal in a historic casting of vote on September 16, ending US military bases in the country. With newfound freedom in 1946, Filipinos elected Manuel A. Roxas, leader of the Liberal Party and one of the seven members of the Constitutional Convention who drafted the 1935 Constitution, as the first president of the independent republic in April 1946. His presidency was focused on rebuilding the cities and municipalities torn by the war, redistributing lands as wealthy landowners returned to reclaim their estates, and confronting the Hukbalahap, which by this time was tagged as a socialist-communist organization. The economy grew at a rapid pace, immediately after the war. Special Treatment Close economic ties between Manila and Washington continued after the war on the back of agreements providing for preferential tariffs for American exports and special treatment for US investors in the Philippines. In the 1946 Philippine Trade Act, the Americans were granted duty-free access to the Philippine market and special rights to exploit the country's natural resources. Because of the Trade Act, the Philippines suffered a huge trade deficit with the influx of American imports. In 1949, the Philippine government was forced to impose import controls, after getting the consent of Washington. Roxas' two-year presidency ended with his death, following a heart attack while delivering a speech at Clark Air Force Base in Pampanga province in April 1948. Vice president Elpidio Quirino succeeded Roxas as president and defeated Jose P. Laurel to keep his post in the 1949 presidential race. It was during Quirino's term that the Minimum Wage Law was enacted and the Central Bank was established to stabilize the peso and consumer prices. The country's gross national product grew by an average of 7.7 percent annually in the early 1960s, on the back of the double-digit increase in the manufacturing sector. In the 1953 presidential election, Ramon Magsaysay, who had served as defense secretary under the Quirino administration, won by a landslide. The charismatic Magsaysay initiated peace talks with the Hukbalahap, which would later evolve into a communist organization. He became popular for opening the gates of Malacanang Palace to ordinary people. He died in a plane crash on Mount Manunggal in Cebu in March 1957, which to this day remains a mystery to many Filipinos. While the standard of living in the Philippines was below that of the Western World, the country was often cited as the second richest economy in Asia, after Japan in the 1960s. However, ill-advised economic policies, poor governance and rapid population growth in the country would allow other Asian economies such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and China not only to catch up with but to leave the Philippines behind in the race towards industrialization. Filipino First Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the country's top government post following the death of Magsaysay. Garcia was known for his First Filipino Policy and Austerity Program, which put the interests of Filipinos ahead those of foreigners. Under his austerity measures, he encouraged temperate spending, which resulted in less imports and more exports. His nationalist policies, however, perpetuated the business interests of the ruling elite in the country and did not encourage local businesses to be competitive. Garcia lost to his vice-president in the 1961 presidential poll. Protectionist policies allowed local manufacturers to control the economy from 1949 to 1962, discouraging them from becoming competitive. Diosdado Macapagal, father of incumbent President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, was the president from 1961 to 1965. Before he became president, he authored the land reform program as a legislator and was vice-president to Garcia. As president, Macapagal began a five-year socio-economic program by removing imports control and liberalizing foreign exchange. It was Macapagal who declared June 12 as the national Independence Day. In 1962, the Macapagal administration began devaluing the peso by half to around 3.90 to the US dollar. Macapagal initiated a shift in investments from the light industries to chemicals, steel and industrial equipment. He was also one of the proponents of the MAPHILINDO, a trade bloc of three South East Asian countries – the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. This bloc later expanded to what is now the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). By 1965, foreign capital was present in nearly a third of the country's capital stock. Martial Law Ferdinand Marcos, the Senate president, defeated Macapagal in the presidential election to become the country's tenth president in November 1965. A close ally of the United States, Marcos launched military campaigns against the insurgents including the communist Hukbalahap and Moro rebels in Mindanao. In August 1967, Manila hosted a summit that led to the creation of the ASEAN. With his reelection in 1969, Marcos had to contend with worsening civil strife. An ideologist named Jose Ma. Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines on December 26, 1968. It was during the same year that University of the Philippines Nur Misuari founded the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the armed wing of Islamic resistance movement. In June 1971, the government convened the Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. Ironically, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972, following a series of bombings in Metro Manila, He abolished Congress, curtailed freedom of the press, imposed curfews, ordered the arrest of his political enemies, prohibited labour unions, and controlled the economy with the help of his cronies. Although his wife Imelda was credited for building some of the country's finest monuments, she was criticized for personal extravagance, a form of which was maintaining a collection of 3,000 pairs of shoes. Green Revolution The so-called green revolution in the early 1970s, which introduced new farming technologies, enabled the Philippines to export rice to its neighbours. The International Rice Research Institute was established in Los Banos town, Laguna province where Thai, Vietnamese and other Asian researchers trained to develop their own rice production. Thailand would later become the world's largest rice exporter and the Philippines one of the largest rice importers. With the introduction of new farming technologies, the Philippines became heavily dependent on importer fertilizers, which are mostly fuel-based. The increase in world crude oil prices also pushed prices of fertilizers, to the detriment of Filipino farmers trying to adopt the modern technologies. Chinese Tycoons On June 9, 1975, the Marcos administration signed a joint communiqué with Communist China to restore official diplomatic relations. The Communiqué recognized that "there is but one China, of which Taiwan is an integral part. In return, China vowed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Philippines and refrained from providing any substantial support to the Communist Party of the Philippines, the largest insurgent group in the country. The largest success story in the Philippines actually involved Chinese merchants who left China in pursuit of business opportunities abroad. Unlike rich American investors, Chinese migrants came to the Philippines with little money but large determination that the country's democratic society would help them become rich. True enough, they found goldmine in the Philippines. Today, the richest individuals in the Philippines have Chinese names, including billionaires such as Lucio Tan, Henry Sy, John Gokongwei, and George Ty. Together, they are the largest group of investors in the Philippines and control most of the largest companies in the country. Overseas Workers Under Martial Law, one man other than Marcos would singularly define labour relations in the Philippines and the role of the Filipino workers in the world. Labour Minister Blas Ople, a former journalist, authored the Labor Code on November 1, 1974 and launched the overseas employment program in 1976, which would send young and talented Filipinos who could not find work at home to other countries for dollar-earning jobs. Ople obtained the permission of Marcos to deploy thousands of Filipino workers overseas to meet the growing need of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates for skilled workers and the rising demand for Filipino seamen in flag-of-convenience vessels. Hesitant at first, Marcos later conceded to the proposal, if only to tame the growing militancy building among the hearts of the young and intelligent Filipinos who could not find job opportunities in their own land. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) were established to intensify recruitment of Filipino workers. This would make the Philippines the third largest destination of dollar remittances in the world, next to the more populous countries of India and Mexico. The Marcos administration also tried to court foreign investors, by committing guarantees against nationalization and imposing restrictions on trade-union activity. However, the blatant record of human rights abuses by the military under his administration was a big turnoff among foreigners. Under Martial law, the military and the police killed, abused, or arrested at least 10,000 Filipinos, including some of the brightest students and intellectuals. Many had disappeared without a trace. While Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981 in time for the visit of Pope John Paul II to Manila in February, he maintained most of his powers as a dictator. Benigno Aquino, an opposition senator living in asylum in the US, decided to return to Manila in 1983. His death, from assassins' bullets at the tarmac of the Manila International Airport, sparked adverse sentiments against the Marcos administration. Bankruptcy As the economy stagnated under the Marcos administration because of a mix of bad economic policies, corruption and uncontrolled population growth, the government had to resort to foreign borrowing to finance the fiscal deficit. In October 1983, the Central Bank notified its creditors about its plan to default payment on debt amounting to US$24.6 billion. With the growing loss of confidence by the business community, the peso depreciated by as much as 21 percent in 1983. The gross domestic product shrank by 6.8 percent in 1984 and by 3.8 percent in 1985. Emboldened by Marcos' dipping popularity, the opposition gathered around Aquino's widow, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who would later challenge Marcos in the 1986 snap presidential election. When Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) declared Marcos the winner amid allegations of widespread electoral fraud, protesters, buoyed by Manila archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin, trooped to the streets. Following the defection of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Armed Forces vice chief Fidel Ramos from Marcos, protesters began converging along EDSA near Ortigas Avenue, which would culminate in the ouster of Marcos from Malacanang Palace on February 25, 1986. The media called the bloodless uprising as the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution - something that political groups would later thought could be replicated time and again. Democratic Rule After Marcos, his family and his cronies fled from the Philippines, Aquino became president, organized a new government, freed the political prisoners and tried to restore democratic rule in the country. In February 1987, her government approved a new Constitution, which would later be subjected to heated debates over its restrictive provisions on foreign participation in the economy. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government with a bicameral legislature composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives and an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court chief justice. To avoid a replication of Marcos' excesses, the Constitution limited the president's stay in office to one six-year term. It also created the autonomous regions of Muslim Mindanao and Cordillera and put agrarian reform as the cornerstone of the government's plan for social transformation. A renegade faction in the Philippine military launched a series of coup attempts against the Aquino presidency. Perception of political instability dampened economic activities and refrained the economy from matching the large strides taken by its Asian neighbors in the 1980s and 1990s. By this time, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand have overtaken the Philippines in the race towards industrialization. The Arroyo administration, while taking pride of having restored democracy, failed to bring the economy on track towards industrialization, and one of the factors singled out was the president's political inexperience and lack of consistency in pushing for economic reforms. In the 1992 presidential election, Aquino endorsed the candidacy of her chosen successor – Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos. In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo's powerful eruption sent tons of ashes around the planet's atmosphere. Subsequent lava/lahar flow buried several towns in Central Luzon and jolted the economy. The natural tragedy also forced American soldiers at Clark Field and Subic Bay to withdraw from their bases earlier than stipulated. The US turned over to the Philippine government the two bases with total assets amounting to US$1.3 billion. The Philippine government later transformed the two bases into special economic zones. Liberalisation In 1992, Fidel Ramos was elected President. He began his term amid an energy crisis, which plunged the country literally into darkness. This he was able to resolve by inviting foreign investors to take part in the so-called build-operate-transfer (BOT) scheme, where they would serve as independent power producers (IPPs) enjoying a lot of incentives and guaranteed market. While it brought light to Filipino households, the scheme would later translate to high electricity rates. In 1995, the Ramos administration also had to contend with a rice shortage, as a result of low agricultural production and poorly managed importation program. Since then, the government has authorised the National Food Authority (NFA) to import rice at will in order to prepare for any shortage in domestic stock. The Ramos presidency was also responsible for economic reforms such as privatisation of government assets, trade and banking liberalisation and deregulation, which would push annual trade growth at double-digit levels and draw in large-ticket foreign investments. By 1996, the Philippines was described as a newly industrialising economy along with the likes of Thailand and Malaysia. It was also under the Ramos presidency that communism was legalised, and some leftist organisations would later join Congress as partylist groups. The government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) headed by Nur Misuari would sign a peace agreement that would establish a peace zone in southern Philippines. However, other militant rebel groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Abu Sayyaf would continue waging a war against the government for a Islamic state in the south. What Ramos failed to accomplish is the amendment to the 1987 Constitution to remove the restriction on foreign ownership of land and public utilities, which limits maximum ownership to 40 percent. The opposition party accused him of trying to tinker with the charter to remove the six-year term limit of the president and in the process perpetuate his stay in power. In the end, he had to give up such attempt under the weight of public opinion. Financial Crisis With the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis, the Philippine economy contracted by 0.6 percent in 1998, the same year Joseph Estrada, a popular politician with links to the movie industry, became president. The economy actually grew although at a slower pace at 3.4 percent in 1999 and at 4 percent in 2000 even as the inflation and interest rates began to decline. In comparison, growth reached 5.2 percent under the Ramos presidency in 1997. While Estrada got the backing of Filipino-Chinese businessmen by reducing the problem of kidnapping, he did not get the same support from other "elite" businessmen. Despite appointing top economists, Estrada, a former college dropout, could not convince the "high society" that he could resolve the country's economic woes. Ironically, what brought down the Estrada administration was not his economic policies, seen by many as not substantially different from those of Ramos, but the perception of wide corruption in his administration. In October 2000, a former ally implicated Estrada in illegal gambling payoffs and kickbacks. Reports that he has many wives housed in different mansions also got Estrada indifferent treatment from the Church, which was a force behind the 1986 People's Power Revolution. EDSA 2 In December 2000, the House of Representatives impeached Estrada. The subsequent impeachment trial at the Senate was aborted when senators from the opposition party walked out of the courtroom, triggering street demonstrations reminiscent of the 1986 revolt. Within hours after the walkout, the crowd at EDSA grew into millions of anti-Estrada protesters. When political and military leaders withdrew their support from Estrada, Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide swore Vice President Gloria Mapacagal Arroyo as the next president on January 20, 2001. Arroyo, a daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal, came to Malacanang with a promise to clean the government of corrupt officials and bring down the number of poor Filipinos, which represents a third of the total population. In her first year in office, she faced numerous challenges starting with the May 1 rebellion, instigated by the Estrada camp to regain the presidency. The rebellion proved futile, as the highly politicised military and the police remained loyal to Arroyo. She also had to contend with Muslim extremists, who began to target cities in their attacks. Following the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001, the Philippines was one of the first countries to express support for a US-led international campaign against terrorism. On the economic front, Congress passed the liberalisation of the retail trade sector and the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, which aims to privatise the state-owned National Power Corporation. The Arroyo administration also promoted business process outsourcing (BPO), information technology, tourism, and mining as key investment areas for foreign companies. Trade with other Asian countries was also given importance in view of the declining trade volume with the United States. Telecommunications One particular industry, which has led economic growth since 2000 is telecommunications, although this proved to be a bane for other industries as Filipinos cut their expenditures on other items to buy mobile phones and pay for monthly network services. By 2005, it is estimated that half of the 85 million Filipinos would have mobile phones, a high penetration rate for a developing market. Because of the global economic slump following the September 11 attacks, the GDP grew by merely 1.8 percent in 2001. Growth reached 4.3 percent in 2002 and 4.7 percent in 2003 even as the Arroyo administration confronted communist and Islamic insurgency problems and a shocking military coup in July 2003. After surviving the coup, Arroyo won the May 2004 presidential election over Estrada's close friend and popular actor Fernando Poe Jr. Economic growth reached 6.1 percent in 2004, the highest in 15 years, although this was negated by high inflation and uncontrolled unemployment rates which were more felt by the poor. Fiscal Deficit Pressed by economists to narrow the burgeoning fiscal deficit, President Arroyo urged Congress to pass a package of tax reform measures aimed at achieving a balanced budget by the end of her term in 2010. Because of a long history of budget deficits, the public debt hit more than 130 percent of the GDP in 2003 and has been rising since then. Different sectors, however, criticised the administration for passing a heavier burden of taxation on the people at a time crude oil prices were hovering at historic high levels and pushing prices of goods and services beyond the capacity of ordinary consumers. By the second half of 2005, there were signs that the fiscal deficit was narrowing, even with the delay in the implementation of the Expanded Value Added Tax (EVAT) law, which raised by 2 percentage points the tax rate on consumer products and services to 12 percent and by 3 percentage points the corporate income tax to 35 percent. The new EVAT law, which was expanded to cover fuel and electricity, took effect on November 1, 2005. New Constitution As the popularity of President Arroyo dipped to the lowest level amid allegations that she bought her way to the presidency in the 2004 presidential elections, she was given an option to correct the loopholes in the political system by amending the 1987 Constitution. She formed a Consultative Commission to recommend charter amendments focusing on lifting all restrictions to foreign investments and paving the way for a shift in the form of government from a presidential, central system into a parliamentary, federal system. Posted by Text Mates at 4:16 PM 0 comments Labels: Economy, History, National, Social Filipino Inventions Solar powered Balut maker The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology at the University of the Philippines-Los Banos has invented a solar "balut" maker. Engineer Fernando Paras Jr. said the machine, which covers an area of five square meters, is actually an incubator that can process duck eggs into embryonated eggs or balut for 15 to 17 days. Traditionally, balut makers in Pateros have been using electricity for incubation. The new invention is a two-way solar-powered system, with the solar water heater serving as the primary heat source while the photovoltaic cells serve as the auxiliary heat source regulating the temperature inside the incubator. The machine can process up to 4,000 eggs at the same time. This can double the income of farmers. SMS reader for the Blind A group of four engineering students from the De La Salle University invented the SMS reader, a device that allows the blind to read and send text messages. The prototype is composed of a black box with a Braille display that mimics the interface of a mobile phone. A data cable is connected to a slot in the black box. Superkalan Narciso Mosuela of La Union province invented the "superkalan", a novelty stove that can be fired with anything that burns—wood, paper, dried dung and leaves, corn cobs, and coco shells. The body of this stove is made of aluminum alloy, with a cast iron heat intensifier. For his invention, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) bestowed on Mosuela the "best design award" for Third World country category in 1987. Aside from the superkalan, Mr. Mosuela invented a functional rice thresher and other kitchen gadgets. Anti-cancer cream In November 2005, Filipino inventor Rolando dela Cruz won the gold medal for his "DeBCC" anti-cancer cream at the prestigious International Inventor's Forum in Nuremberg, Germany. The "DeBCC" cream, developed from cashew nuts and other local herbs, was chosen over 1,500 entries as the "most significant invention" of the year. According to Mr. dela Cruz, the cream was a simple answer to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer worldwide. BCC affects around 800,000 Americans every year, according to the Skin Care Foundation. BCC also affects 500,000 Europeans and 190,000 Australians every year. Mole Remover In 2000, Rolando dela Cruz developed an ingenuous formula that could easily remove deeply grown moles or warts from the skin without leaving marks or hurting the patient. His formula was extracted from cashew nut (Annacardium occidentale), which is common in the Philippines. The formula won for dela Cruz a gold medal in International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology Exhibition in Kuala Lumpur in September 2000. In March 1997, dela Cruz established RCC Amazing Touch International Inc., which runs clinics engaged "in a non-surgical removal of warts, moles and other skin growths, giving the skin renewed energy and vitality without painful and costly surgery." Modular Housing System Edgardo Vazquez won a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal in 1995 for developing a modular housing system. Such a system called Vazbuilt is reportedly capable of building within weeks a house with prefabricated materials that can withstand typhoons and earthquakes. Ironically, Vasquez is not getting enough support from the Philippine government to propagate his technology, which could help provide shelter to some five million Filipino families without their own homes. Vazquez is the national president of the Filipino Inventors Society. Super Bunker Formula-L In 1996, Rudy Lantano Sr., a scientist from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST), won the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal for developing Super Bunker Formula-L, a revolutionary fuel half-composed of water. The mix burns faster and emits pollutants, 95 percent less than those released to the air by traditional fuel products. The inventor said his invention is a result of blending new ingredients and additives with ordinary oil products through agitation and mixing, which is a very safe process. The initial plan was to commercially produce two million liters of Alco-Diesel, two million liters of Lan-Gas and an unlimited quantity of Super Bunker Formula-L each day for customers in Luzon. Natural Gas Vehicle The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle that runs on natural gas, whose rich deposits remain untapped under the Philippine seabed. The project's main objective is to look into the potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel to conventional petrol and diesel for the transport sector. The natural gas vehicle (NVG) has been road-tested in Isabela where an existing natural gas supply from the PNOC Gas Plant is located. Test runs have also been made in Cagayan, Ifugao and Mountain Province. The test vehicle used was the Isuzu Hi-Lander 4JA-1, direct injected diesel engine. The use of natural gas as a fuel is cheaper. On a gallon-equivalent basis, natural gas costs an average of 15 to 40 percent less than gasoline and diesel. There are over one million NVGs in the world today, according to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Lamp Fixing Invention A Filipino inventor has developed a technology, which could revive a busted lamp (pundido) and give it more years of functional life than those of new ones. Acclaimed by the Filipino Inventors Society as timely and revolutionary, the Nutec system can prolong the life of fluorescent lamps up to seven years. Nutec was developed by New World Technology, headed by president Eric Ngo and chosen as the "Product of the Year" at the Worldbex 2000 Building and Construction Exposition held at the Manila Hotel. Engineer Benjamin S. Santos, national president of the Inventors Society, called Nutec a timely invention. "Tubig Talino" The Department of Science and Technology claimed that it has developed "Tubig Talino", an iodine-rich drinking water that treats micronutrient deficiencies responsible for goiter, mental and physical retardation, and birth defects. "Tubig Talino" is actually a mixture of 20 liters of water and 15 ml of "Water Plus + I2". Consumption of five glasses a day of this iodine fortification in drinking water is expected to provide 120 micrograms of iodine, which meets 100 percent of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a male adult. Feminine Hygiene Product Inventor Dr. Virgilio Malang won a gold medal for his invention "Psidium Guajava Effervescing Gynecological Insert", a silver medal for his "Patient Side-Turning Hospital Bed", and three bonze medals for his inventions "external vaginal cleanser", "light refracting earpick", and "broom's way of hanging" at the Seoul International Fair in held South Korea in December 2002. There were 385 inventions from 30 countries that joined the competitions. Patis Contrary to popular belief, there was no fish sauce or Patis yet during the Spanish occupation. Patis began to become a part of most Filipinos' diet only after the Japanese occupation. Here is an account of how an enterprising lady discovered the fermentation of Patis. Immediately after the war, the family of Ruperta David or Aling Tentay started a dried fish business. One day, Aling Tentay stored in jars some salted fish that turned into fragments even before they dried. While in jars, the fish fragments turned into a liquid substance that tasted like our Patis today. Thus the beginning of the thriving Patis business of Aling Tentay, which was officially registered in 1949 and is known today as Tentay Food and Sauces Inc. (Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer) A Showcase of Ingenuity Nothing perhaps has been associated with Filipino technology as much as the country's pride - jeepney. The word "jeep" evolved from the military designation, general-purpose or G.P., of a light vehicle first used by the Americans in World War II. Developed by the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, this vehicle was powered by a four-cylinder engine and was classified as a quarter-ton truck in carrying capacity. It had served as a command vehicle, reconnaissance car, and ammunition carrier. The American soldiers brought these vehicles to the Philippines in the 1940s. After the war, these vehicles were left by the Americans and converted by the Filipinos into public utility vehicles. Employing artistic and indigenous designs, the Filipinos came up with a longer, well-decorated, techni-colored and sleeker vehicle, which they later called jeepney. From the standard military jeep, the body was extended to accommodate between 20 to 30 passengers. Modern jeepneys now sport very colorful and intricate paintings, fancy adornments, and metallic decors reflective of Filipino sentiments, values, and culture. The town of Las Pinas has been recognized as the jeepney-producing center in the country. Today, public utility jeepneys or PUJs serve as the primary means of transportation in most provinces. For this, the Philippines came to be known as the "land of the jeepneys".
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Welcome to Millsboro Police Department - Millsboro Police Department Millsboro Delaware   It is our goal to provide you, the citizens of Millsboro, with information you need to make you more familiar with our police department and the services provided . If you visit the Important Links tab you will find many useful links, including the Delaware Sex Offender Registry, where users can search a certain area and locate all registered sex offenders in that specific area. The tab also has a link to the Delaware Emergency Management Agency where you can find information regarding emergency preparedness. There are two separate tabs where citizens can file a Citizen Complaint against an officer or can Commend an Officer based on your experiences with the men and women of the Millsboro Police Department. The members of the Millsboro Police Department request that any time you see anything that looks strange to you, or out of the ordinary, that you contact the police department as soon as possible at 302-934-8174 or 911 if it is an emergency. If you would like to contact any member of the Millsboro Police Department for a general question or just for information about events around town, please use the Contact Us section of the website. You can contact us by phone or e-mail with a listing of all e-mail addresses as well as phone numbers listed along with our mailing addresses.
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Welcome To MyBlogGuy - Where You Dream It & We Create It MyBlogGuy - A personal brand is stronger than a company brand. Nowadays, people tend to trust more in people rather than corporations. Customers know that people care about them more than corporations do.
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SSS Online Portal | History of Bangladesh is full of power shifts, disasters, conflicts and victory. Though Bangladesh is a small country in Asia, historically it is very important. She has seen important rises and falls in history. The earliest history is a little vague. The political life of ancient Bangladesh can be found in the Greek and Latin History. In 326 BCE, when Alexander the Great invaded India, he withdrew from his conquered place as he anticipated a counter attack from the Bengal region. The Bengal region was then ruled by some valiant rulers. Bengal region was ruled by the Hindu kings. The Muslims first invaded the area in 13th Century. They seized control and established their independent rule. They ruled for nearly two hundred years without any major foreign invasion. But in 15th Century, the traders from different countries of Europe started coming to Bengal region. The Portuguese, Dutch, French and British came one by one into this region. The main reason of the European traders for coming to this region was to make money from the local market. They wanted to spread their influence in the field of trade and economy in South Asia. Though the traders had economic motives when they arrived, soon they took interest in the local politics. In 1757, the last Muslim leader of Bengal region was defeated by the British. The British started ruling the Bengal region. They imposed their rule upon the people of that region. They controlled West Bengal for approximately two hundred years. The British people had to leave India and Bengal region for strong pressure from the local intellectuals and ordinary people. Near the end of the Second World War, the size of the British Empire got reduced. The empire was breaking down. Though Gandhi and Viceroy Lord Mountbattan both tried to unite the Hindus and Muslims, the Muslims felt insecure. They were worried because they thought they will be neglected in India as this is a region dominated by the Hindus. Due to the situation, Lord Mountbattan decided to divide the subcontinent in 1947. Two countries were born instead of one. One is India and another is Pakistan. According to the partition agreement, India would be a Hindu state and Pakistan would be a Muslim state. Pakistan was divided into two parts: East Pakistan (Bengal) and West Pakistan (Punjab). Even after the partition, there were conflicts between the Hindus and Muslims. So, finally Muslims left India and moved to Pakistan. The Hindus left Pakistan and moved to India. Though there were disparity between the history, culture, lifestyle, language and customs of the two parts of Pakistan, they were united on the basis of shared belief in Muslim religion. But problems arose soon when the rulers started distinguishing the people of West Pakistan from the East Pakistan. The disparity in all sectors made the people of East Pakistan angry. The discontent grew due to the unfair policies and partial treatment of the people of East Pakistan by the government. When Urdu was imposed upon the people of East Pakistan, they revolted. Many people die for the language. The language movement brought the courage among the people of Bangladesh and they dreamt of freeing the land from the invasion of Pakistan. Finally, in 1971, after a bloody war of 9 months, Bangladesh became independent. Bangladesh Travel Guide – Three Cities to Visit With air travel becoming ever more affordable regardless of destination, scheduling a trip to exotic locations like Bangladesh is becoming the norm rather than the exception in today's travel culture. Likewise, the expansive reach of the internet now allows any traveler to check a prospective tourist destination in advance so much so that one can now plan a trip entirely on a mobile phone mobile internet device. Such advancements in travel and tourism have simplified the process so much that all one needs to do is decide exactly where to go and everything else is taken cared of from there. From insurance quotes to itinerary booking, any traveler is now safe in the hands of advance travel planning. For this reason, it comes down to deciding which three cities in, say Bangladesh, is well worth the visit for any traveler looking to relax, unwind, and see the world. You can find many article source references on the subject but for ease and convenience, we are listing down the three cities in Bangladesh that is well worth anyone's time. Dhaka. The capital and largest city in Bangladesh, Dhaka is a melting pot of the old and the new. Dhaka is also an ideal springboard for further incursions into other parts of the country. It features the most extensive list of local tourism agencies which will do all things for you short of sending a "Good Night SMS." Dhaka is also an excellent venue for getting all the necessary supplies in case you plan on spending a night or two in many of the more exotic destinations that grant access to wildlife, camping, hiking, and other outdoor adventures. Instead of spending your time reading phen375 reviews, perhaps you'd lose more weight if you spend time in Dhaka and other Bangladeshi locations. Not only are you seeing the world, but you are also doing your body a favor as well. Sundarbans. Located in the southern part of Bangladesh, Sundarbans is home to some of the most recognizable natural attractions anywhere in the world. This is a prime location for beautiful forests, the biggest mangrove growth in the world, and expansive delta swamps. Are you looking for an alternative to the Africa Safari? Sundarbans ably fits the bill. While you may not be able to buy premium Kratom here, you get everything else in the name of a crazy and wild adventure and for any nature lover, that's a trip that is well worth the attraction. Kuakata. Far away from the commercialized beaches in many other Asian locations, Kuakata in Bangladesh offers reclusive beach locations that make you feel like you are in paradise. The beaches here are strategically located to give you a stunning view of both the sunrise and the sunset. Bring your labrador retriever with you and it may feel like home away from home. Online public relations information allows you to scout your trip ahead of time. If you want more information on Bangladesh prior to scheduling a trip, do your homework and look up all the necessary information. Past that, you will not regret booking a trip to Bangladesh. Easily one of the most romantic getaways on Earth, you'll find all the comfort, relaxation and quiet that you need in Bangladesh, in the company of animals, the stunning beach and an expansive blue sky. You'll probably ask yourself why you did not come sooner. The History of Bangladesh Compared to its more popular neighbors Indian, Pakistan and Burma, the history of Bangladesh is not as well known. However, this does not mean that the history of this small country in South Asia is anything less dramatic or interesting. Like dreamweaver templates, the history of Bangladesh presents its own set of challenges and subplots that are intriguing to any student of world history but importantly to those who have taken a keen interest at this country. Bangladesh did not become a formal sovereign state until 1971 but even before this, it already had a rich culture that was well documented in the region. This is because the thriving religions of Hinduism and Buddhism all had their roots somewhere in the region where Bangladesh is located. As such, the land on which modern-day Bangladesh has stood has been a stirring witness to rise and fall of many civilizations in the area. No amount of anti wrinkle cream can hide the fact that Bangladesh has laid witness to countless wars for various purposes from the early Gupta and Harsha Empires of the 3rd to 6th centuries CE to the last war that led to its independence. The long history of Bangladesh paved the way to the occupation of the British in the 19th century. The change in governing authority was more like a drug detox for the people of Bangladesh who had to get accustomed to a new set of political, religious and economic policies. It was never a melaleuca experience; rather it was a time of serious struggle for the people who had to adjust to foreign influences for the very first time. Still, this also marks the period where the people of Bangladesh were formally introduced to the benefits coming from the West particularly in the area of education and medical aid. Formal independence for Bangladesh was gained following the war in 1971. This was after Bangladesh was originally considered as East Pakistan. While the country remained under Indian influences for the next few years, Bangladesh began to be freely ruled by people from within the country. This marked a period of steady progress where Bangladesh opened itself to modernization, and economic growth via capitalism. With the introduction of modern advantages like online mba for students, the growth of it jobs, and even technological benefits like home alarm systems, Bangladesh is slowly but surely introducing itself into the world. Still, the history of Bangladesh continues to evolve today as the country fights to overcome serious social, political and economic issues in the 21st century. Its economy enjoys a solid BB- rating which is higher than that of Pakistan and neighbor Sri Lanka but it also continues to suffer from rampant perceptions of corruption and crime. As Bangladesh forges ahead, there is no doubt it will be present in many an ebook reader detailing its ascent into the world stage. Only time will tell if Bangladesh makes the leap from being a developing country into a development one. That is something that the government and its people must work hard at achieving in order to be able to provide a bright future for the future generations of Bangladeshi citizens. The Three Must See Cities in Bangladesh If you are all for travel and tourism to exotic destinations particularly those in the Southeast Asian region, then there are three must-see cities in Bangladesh that you need to visit to complete your whirlwind tour of The Far East. While the name of these cities are fairly hard to remember or might cause you to cheat at scrabble, there are plenty of reasons – mainly religious and cultural – that make Bangladesh and its cities a definite stopover during a trip in the region. Here are the three must-see cities in Bangladesh and what you should expect when you drop by these unique tourism destinations. Dhaka. The capital of Bangladesh, its primary attraction has to be its mind-boggling "collection" of rickshaw transports. By conservative estimates, there are roughly 400,000 rickshaws running around Dhaka on any given day and you do not need a masters of accounting to tell you that such a number is truly astounding especially when you consider that Dhaka is not even close to being considered a major metropolitan district by global standards. Rickshaws are the lifeblood of Dhaka as a city and they bring tourists closer to the city attractions figuratively and literally speaking. Dhaka is also home to plenty of cultural attractions like the prominent national holidays on March 26 commemorating the nation's Independence, February 21 as the Language Martyr's day, and the 16th of December as Victory Day. These carry the local Buddhist and Hindu influences in the region and are excellent attractions to those interested in learning about East Asian culture. Any masters in education or even those planning RN to BSN online programs but would want to take a break before plunging to the rigors of intensive studying can certainly benefit from the refreshing atmosphere that is Dhaka, Bangladesh. Of course, we mean that in the full cultural sense of the word. Chittagong. Next to Dhaka, Bangladesh, Chittagong is the next biggest city in the country and is home to a multicultural collection of beliefs influenced by Islamic, Buddhist, and Hindu cultures primarily because of its location as a port. Chittagong is also home to the rich historical chapters that helped defined Bangladesh as the struggles opposing the conquering invaders of the Second World War had its roots here. At its very best, Chittagong is undergoing a dramatic face lift and is becoming an attractive home to many an umbrella company as the city is widely considered as one of the fastest growing metropolitan districts in the world. If you want to see a third-world city in action, or if you are planning to grow your business in East Asia, there is little doubt that Chittagong is the best place to be in as it also gives you access to neighboring territories like Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Northeast India, and even Southern China. Khulna. Rounding up the list of the three must-see cities in Bangladesh is Khulna which, not surprisingly, is the 3rd largest city in the country after Chittagong and Dhaka. Khulna is a vital location for many a masters in health administration professional as majority of the world's battles against infectious diseases are being waged here, including malaria and water-borne diseases. Still, it cannot be denied that Khulna remains to be a vital and strategic location for business and economics in the region as it is like a city with a coach hire advertisement sign as it seeks to remodel itself into a vital economic hub next to Chittagong. As Bangladesh grows, so will Khulna with all the potential that it offers. While Bangladesh is far from being one of the most recognizable cities in the world, its potential for growth is more than apparent. Consequently, it remains to be a popular destination for exotic tourism escapades or even backpacking trips for religious and spiritual discoveries. The next time you find yourself in Bangladesh, check out Dhaka, Chittagong, and Khulna for all the great attractions that it offers. With these, you can make your Bangladesh visit one that will be truly memorable for many years to come. Travel Tips While Visiting Bangladesh If you have never been to Bangladesh and you are looking for more information on the country, its citizens, the roads, the sightseeing that is worth awhile there, the best types of hotels to stay in or what precaution measures should you be taking if you are planning on going here for the summer, you should read article here and learn everything there is to know about Bangladesh and Bangladesh tourism in particular. First and foremost, you are going to have to think about the prefect time of the year when you can visit Bangladesh. Once you are done with this type of planning, you should go ahead and decide what type of transportation means should you better opt for. Taking the bus could represent an action that is going to submit you to a constant threat of terrorism is some areas of Bangladesh. Driving to this far-distant country could also prove to not be a great idea. Taking your time and doing the proper amount of research about traveling to and visiting Bangladesh should also help you understand if taking your english mastiff along is a good idea or not, especially if you are going to be travelling to cities such as Sylhet and Chittagogn Hill Tracts. There are no top dental hygienist schools awaiting for there, but rather cruel acts of terrorism that might be welcoming you on these lands. As a matter of fact, the general lines of recommendations refer to the avoidance of tourism travelling to these parts of Bangladesh, as you will also be required to go through some rather harsh formalities. The official authorities are going to be asking for a 10-day notice in regards to your travel plans in Chittagong Hill Tracts. In other words, the situation can get so delicate there, that, at times, not even the best wrinkle creams on the planet should be able to help you forget all about your terrorism-related experience. Violent street disorders, local abductions of citizens or politicians and bus or public vehicle burning activities are not uncommon here. Ordering some books using Amazon Australia and doing some heavy reading about acts of terrorism should aid you learn more about this threats of the 21th century. Plus, pick pocketing and armed robberies are also often times occurring in Bangladesh, so special attention needs to attributed to doing your shopping there. As for the road travelling itself, you also need to pay special attention to the poor road conditions and the poor quality of the roads. Speeding and aggressive overtaking of the road are going to yet pose another threat to you, so if you are thinking about going to Bangladesh in order to be a part of some mph programs, you should probably think again. Upon preparing your incursion here, you might as well think about asking some masters of social work students to tell you how to handle travelling to countries that are under the threat of terrorism. Bangladesh Breakdown Country Analysis Bangladesh The Vibrant Culture of Bangladesh When eyeing a country to visit in Asia, it helps to be acquainted with the vibrant culture of Bangladesh, a small country of 148 million people sandwiched between India and Burma. Not too long ago, the reputation of Bangladesh was such that it was a poor country reliant on agriculture, tourism, and fishery as its primary means for livelihood. However, the growth of industrial and commercial markets primarily coming from India and spilling over to Bangladesh and fueled by more research into technologies designed to push the region forward has dramatically uplifted the quality of life in Bangladesh. As such, it is now one of the more enticing destinations for tourists from all over the globe. With regard to the culture of this vibrant country, everything begins with the influence of history and religion to what has become of Bangladesh today. It is heavily influenced by the cultures from India and the Cambodian peninsula which is discussed in better detail when you click here. Bangladesh also has very strong ties to Islamic traditions from nearby Middle East and this is also an essential determinant in today's economy where company ratings can be traced to connections in the Arab peninsula. The same can be said of the music coming from Bangladesh. While the country does not produce Taylor guitars for export, you can bet that it has a long list of musical instruments that pool together the country's rich history and cultural heritage. Such instruments include the ektara, dhol, dotara and tabla and are important musical pieces in North Indian classical music. The richness of the musical genre also spills over into the dance scene as there are many folk dances, not different from those in South Africa, which are predominantly buoyed by the local tradition in the area. More importantly, the myriad of festivals and celebrations in Bangladesh are major tourist attractions the whole year around and are strong enough that the industry fuels subsequent other businesses like home remodeling companies that kick into high gear at the onset of the tourist season. Festivals like the Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha of the Islamic calendar are well received and widely sought out by foreigners more than you would expect with a free cell phone. The same can be said of colorful Hindu festivals like Kali Puja, Durga Puja, and Saraswati Puja while Buddhist festivals like the birth of Buddha are also celebrated. There is so much to see and enjoy in Bangladesh, borne on the shoulders of its rich cultural heritage. Book a trip today and see for yourself why Bangladesh is one of the most traveled destinations in Central Asia. It's a trip that will surely fill your heart with great memories and one that will open your eyes to the richness and diversity of Bengali culture. Is Bangladesh Worth Visiting? Whenever we hear of tourist destinations marketed heavily, we always end up asking ourselves whether that place is worth visiting or not in the first place. A classic case, for example, is Bangladesh where tourism ads have been revving in full gear for a while now. Those ads do not shy away from proclaiming all the good things in Bangladesh so much so that, just from reading the ads, one would surely be enticed to check out the potential travel destinations. You find yourself reading, and then shortly after, clicking the first link to people's testimonies about Bangladesh. So is it really worth visiting? Should you even bother to plan a trip to Bangladesh? The true answer is that it really depends on your goals as a tourist. Let's be honest; it's unreasonable to expect that you will find the best in First World amenities in Bangladesh. You can't expect to see first class counterparts of your Dentist Salem Oregon or Vancouver WA dentists. If you are expecting the best that the world has to offer when you visit Bangladesh, then you will be sorely disappointed. However, this does not mean that Bangladesh is the complete opposite of what you'd expect from a first class tourist destination. The capital, Dhaka, is fairly industrialized owing to the huge volume of businesses that finds its way into Bangladesh. As a result, the amenities have followed suit and international hotel brands are not setting shop in Bangladesh. On the one hand, you may not find a Domestic Violence Attorney Seattle counterpart in Bangladesh, but finding a Westin hotel or a Radisson Blu Garden Hotel is more than enough to make up for your worries. But of course, this is not why one should come to Bangladesh. For that, you would have to be interested in the culture. Bangladesh draws inspiration from the unique intersection of the Hindu and Buddhist religions resulting in one of the more unique cultural marriages in the world. Its literature, music and arts, and norms are heavily influenced by this social union. While you may not find fantasy football names here, the festivals and attractions will be more than sufficient to keep you engaged. The cities also offer a unique insight in Third World life. Bangladesh is dominated by huge populations packed in the metropolitan areas offering a unique avenue for observing the life of many who seek to make it in the big city. Between the cars, scooters, and rickshaws during the rush hour traffic, plus the added beauty of Bangladesh's many waterways, there is plenty to see and explore in the city. You can even watch people window cleaning high alongside tall skyscrapers, if only to see how the life in this progressive country relies heavily on manpower resources. Bangladesh has plenty to offer for the right person and is certainly a good place to find something new. Learn more about what Bangladesh can offer so you can personally decide if indeed, this is a country that is well worth visiting for a tourist getaway. Economic Progress in Bangladesh There seems to be a common perception from many in the Western world that most countries in Asia outside of the notables like China, Japan, Singapore, and Russiaare wallowing in continued poverty and have yet to enjoy the benefits of economic progress. Do a quick survey in Americaasking about the economic progress in Bangladesh and the long-standing perception is that the country is more than likely to have never heard of the somanabolic muscle maximizer scam and many similarly complicated ploys. All told, it is hard to picture a country as notoriously languid as Bangladesh snapping out of its funk and finally climbing the rungs of economic progress. Is this perception true or can we be any more farther from the truth? Consider the facts vetted by multiple UN agencies and recently released to pronounce Bangladesh's slow but sure arrival on the world economic stage: 6% GDP growth amidst the global economic crisis when most western countries were seeing declines 8% growth on the industrial sector 6% growth in the services department 4% growth in agriculture 90% of all annual public spending is now supported by domestic sources rather than borrowed from international agencies like the IMF and World Bank The economic progress shown by Bangladesh over the last few years has been nothing short of astounding especially when considered in the light of Bangladesh's recent economic struggles. In a relatively short period, the country has moved from basic cash advance transactions to being an attractive hub for foreign investments in South Asia. Bangladesh primarily draws on its manpower competitive advantage to funnel jobs from rising economic powers China and India so much so that in recent years, company equivalents to a Beaverton Auto Accident assistance firm are beginning to exist. A big portion of the rise in economic performance is driven by key changes to policies which have fostered a business-friendly climate well beyond your everyday plumber chester business. Specific examples include fair and speedy processing steps for local and foreign investors alike leveling the playing field and allowing outsiders to put up their business quickly and efficiently. A Scottish Trust Deed business equivalent deciding to establish a base in Bangladesh would take no more time than a local businessman putting up an agricultural company. The same can be said of legal measures to protect from nationalization, the strict enforcement of intellectual property laws, reduced duties on imports as well as subsidies on exports, and even corporate tax holidays among other things. The long road to economic independence is slowly off for Bangladesh although it is certain that more time is required before people begin to buy Kratom just because they can, rather than do it out of need. Still, any road to progress, no matter how slow, is much better than taking a few steps backward. No doubt,Bangladesh's recent economic data suggests it is trending in the right direction with more reason for continued optimism. Only time, and the vigorous implementation of more business-friendly policies, can guarantee that growth will be sustained. In the interim, there is cause for a minor celebration. In the long-term, there is certainly cause for much hope. The Flourishing Export Business in Bangladesh The People's Republic of Bangladesh is one of the flourishing countries in Asia, despite it being a flood-prone nation during the rainy season. It has quite a lot of resources that has attracted investors for import and export businesses and local trading as well, generating a positive input in supplier and client history. While farmers and crop cultivators make up the majority of the country's population, the export business in Bangladesh generally come from the supreme group of fabrics and textiles that they manufacture. They are also known to have large deposits of minerals such as limestone, hard rock and silicone sand. Even though the country has quite a lot of resources in almost every industry, especially in the agricultural side, the absence of competent technologies to harness them is one of the main reasons why their assets have yet to reach the full potential of being explored and properly utilized. They have yet to take advantage of the high-end equipments that will transform their raw materials to several things that are deemed useful to every country. Nevertheless, their current export ventures in the garment business are still a promising one for the Bangladeshis. They are also doing export on leather, paper, tea, ceramic items, to name a few, and all of which have given positive inputs in the economy. The major counterparts of Bangladesh in their imported and exported products are India, China, Japan, USA, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and other countries in Europe. Companies involved in this major activity stay in touch with suppliers and customers alike through the virtual phone service that helps them stay organized and connected with each other at all times. In doing so, they are keeping their economy in the balance by importing the goods they need and produce products for local and internal consumption, by means of export. True, Bangladesh may still be laid back in terms technology innovation, but their manpower has never failed to sustain and maintain their status in the global market. Aside from the thriving economy of Bangladesh, the country has also quite a number of natural resources to be proud of. It is primarily because of the Sundarbans, which is considered to be the world's biggest mangrove forest, where the Royal Bengal Tiger resides, among many other beautiful creatures in the wild. Shapla is the country's national flower, known to many as water lily, while Kathal, or jackfruit, is their national fruit, and of late, they have chosen their national tree to be that of a mango. With the natural beauty of the country and persistence among its citizens, Bangladesh will continue to attract new markets and globally be recognized as one of the leading exporters of prime commodities. Neighboring countries may have yet to learn more from their ways and adopt their simplicity and sincerity in approaching things. Needless to say, they have gone far with lesser modern mechanism, and will continue to achieve much more if they are given the opportunity to be explored. Is Bangladesh in Crisis? Bangladesh politics offers some great insights into what can happen when abuse of authority can corrupt an otherwise peaceful march to progress and equality. From late 2006 to 2008, Bangladesh was embroiled in a deadly and violent political crisis which claimed the lives of many people. Many a professional institute focusing on global political affairs point to the root of the whole conflict as the mismanagement of political authority when it was conferred by the Bangladeshi constitution during a period of political transition. There are basically two dominant political parties in Bangladesh; the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and the Awami League. In late 2006, a caretaker government was formed to oversee the administration of the national election following a two-decade long political conflict. This was not Ibiza where blue horizons were seen up ahead. Instead, the Awami League questioned what it termed where unfair acts by the caretaker government designed to manipulate the results of the upcoming election. When the Awami League announced that it would boycott the upcoming election, the political crisis boiled over leading to riots and clashes which claimed the life of many political supported on both sides. The cessation of hostilities in late 2008 was made possible by the intervention of the UN and the EU in Bangladeshi political affairs. This intervention led to the creation of an interim government where the President was not elected. It only served to momentarily diffuse the tensions like lulls on movie trailers online but as long as the issues remain, the threat continues to be present and waiting for the right moment to manifest itself. Enter 2013 when the EU and UN have suspended their participation in the election monitoring process owing to claims that a credible political system for fair and equal voting does not exist. This has set the stage for what can be another deadly round of political crisis in Bangladesh. Like sciatica that only lies dormant, now is perhaps the time where it can all resurface again with even more deadly consequences. The planned 2013 elections in Bangladesh give rise to two very important issues that require attention not only by the local ruling government but also by international watchdogs with a stake in the country. These are the rise of election-related violence as parties go against each other in the pursuit of their own respective agenda, and the role of the increasingly imbalanced military which can escalate violence even further. Both elements are so serious it cannot be addressed by the metaphorical coconut oil for face approach. Something needs to be done if a new round of violence is to be prevented. So what can we expect from this political turmoil? There is no clear answer to that question, but there are sound suggestions. First, the sitting government led by Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina from the Awami League must take careful steps to assure the BNP that a fair election will occur, much like when the Awami clamored for BNP to do the same in 2008. Second, a conciliatory approach needs to be taken akin to employing a car accident attorney to objectively settle matters. Third, the military must remain non-biased on the issue, but also restrained in its quest to control the conflict. This is a goal that is far easier said than done. So is Bangladesh in crisis? It might not be, YET. Only time will tell if the parties involved can come into a peaceful resolution of their differences so they can forge a credible government which will carry Bangladesh to its future;if not, then there is little doubt that a political crisis is about to happen again. And this time, the consequences can be even deadlier. ICC Twenty20 World Cup 2014 Held In Bangladesh The best cricket players in the world recently gathered in Bangladesh to compete in the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 tournament. Organized by the International Cricket Council (ICC), the games were played from March 16 to April 6, 2014 in three cities of Dhaka, Chittagong, and Sylhet. Although this was already the 5th ICC World Twenty20 competition, it was the second consecutive time that an Asian country, Bangladesh, hosted the event. The 2012 version was held in Sri Lanka. Established in June 15, 1909, the International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body of the popular sports of cricket. The ICC is headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and has 106 member countries including Bangladesh, Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Canada, and other countries. There are 10 Full Members that play official Test matches, 37 Associate Members, and 59 Affiliate Members. The ICC World Twenty20, aka ICC World T20 or World Twenty20, is an international championship of Twenty20 cricket normally held every two years. The first ever tournament was held in 2007 in South Africa and was won by India. Twenty20 cricket, commonly shortened to T20, is a form of cricket that was first played in England and Wales for professional inter-county tournaments in 2003 and administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). Introduced to create a more lively form of cricket, a Twenty20 game can be completed in approximately three hours. Each inning lasts about 75-90 minutes with 10-20 minutes interval. Such is the worldwide popularity of the Twenty20 game that the ICC adopted the format and made it into an international competition in the form of the ICC World Twenty20 tournament. The ICC World Twenty20 is played on a group stage and knockout format. Points are awarded to teams during Round 1 and Super 10 stages. 2 points for win, 1 point for no result/tie, zero for loss. During the 2014 tournament, 16 warm-up matches were played in March 12-19, 2014. In the Group stage, teams were clustered into Group A and Group B. In the Super 10, teams were organized into Group 1 and Group 2. In the Knockout stage, four teams competed in the Semifinals until two teams remain and competed in the championship round. The following teams directly qualified for the Super 10: Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and West Indies. The following teams qualified for the group stage: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Ireland, Nepal, Netherlands, United Arab Emirates, and Zimbabwe. After holding thirty-five matches at three different venues, the tournament closed by declaring Sri Lanka as the champion. Virat Kohli of India was declared the Man of the Series as well as the player with the most runs of 319. Most wickets awards were given to Imran Tahir of South Africa and Ahsan Malik of Netherlands, each with 12 wickets. To learn more about wicket, visit icc-cricket.com to get more information. If you have the desire to learn cricket, then go for it, have fun, and play. Please browse through the Web pages of our portal to find out more about the SSS organisation and our objectives, and to make a donation by clicking on the Donate logo, on the right hand side of the page. About SSS Welcome to SSS!Society for Social Service (SSS) is a local non-profit, non-political, non-governmental voluntary organisation. It was established in November 1986 by the initiative of a group of development workers of Tangail district in order to promote the socio-economic condition of the underprivileged and indigent Bangladeshi people with special attention to women and children.
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International Crime Authors Reality Check | We've all had that special moment of talking to or listening to the ones we love. Such an exchange spans time, cultures and generations. For most of history we've been talking to our kin. The people we trust, rely on for mutual aid and protection in a dangerous and uncertain world. Our kin were the ones we loved, who loved us in return and gave substance to life and made it worth living. The idea of family is simple on its face but complex in practice. Family, kin, and relatives have an enduring quality that has changed over time. In 1992, I was introduced to General Chavalit Yongchaiyudh at Sanam Luang. I watched as he addressed a crowd estimated to be 80,000 people who had come together to protest against the unelected prime minister General Suchinda Kraprayoon at a time of political strife in Thailand. I will never forget his opening words that rang through the vast audience assembled at Sanam Luang. "Poh, Mae, Pee, Nong…" The crowd roared their approval upon hearing the words (which translate to "Father, Mothers, Brothers and Sisters" in English. General Chavalit (who later became prime minister in 1996) addressed the assembled audience as members of the same family. This emotional moment struck a chord in 1992 but play the tape forward to 2019, a new generation of Thais no longer accept this trope as the organizing principle used in the political sphere. In Thailand and many other countries, the family model hasn't only lost traction with the young. The resistance of the young people has not stopped the family to continue as a powerful platform for populist and autocrats. Time is on the side of the young. The message is clear. We are shifting gears and pulling out of the kinship model of the world. The challenge is to shift our idea of the family so that it belongs to the scientific realm of DNA. We need to be on the alert to political systems that disconnect it from biology and insert it in politics. We are in an age of politicized kinship that is in transition. In 2017 I wrote an essay titled The Kinship Headlock. Over the last two years, the implications of our new digital connectivity have transformed the social and economic ecology for millions of people leaving the political realm in the position of catchup. "Thailand's culture largely revolves around a modified kinship model. This is not unique. China is an example of the kind of ancestor worship, paternal hierarchy, father/son set of values that underlies the political system. Given the success of China economically, and the ongoing decline of the United States in its international leadership role, it is time to assess the conflict between kinship-based and individual-based political systems." In my last book Rooms: On Human Domestication and Submission (2019) I explored the historical world of limited connectivity among people and the broad connectivity people shared with nature. There is a fair amount of evidence that we have technologically reversed this polarity giving us massive connectivity among genetically unrelated people and reduced our connectivity with nature to the level of Discovery or National Geographic channels. This is a challenge on many levels. We evolved over a couple of hundred thousand years in social relations which were based on kinship. Connectivity was an extension of our DNA to others with whom we traced a common ancestor. Our psychological wiring put in place by our relationship between kin and non-kin as the defining element to distinguish friend and foe, strangers and family, good people and bad people. The revolution in technology has been to rewire our psychology, norms and values, creating a new way of seeing the world. Thirty years ago, when I first came to live in Thailand, I entered a world of landline phones. Answering machines. Word of mouth. A variety of physical meeting places such as offices, FCCT, embassy receptions, restaurants, clubs and bars. We got our news from newspapers. Magazines. Letters. Books. We watched local Thai TV and occasional foreign films in theaters. There were no cable TV, Netflix, Amazon, Google, Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook. When I arrived in Bangkok in 1988, I was equal distance in time from Somerset Maugham and Graham Greene. Fast forward to 2019, the world is the same distance from my first arrival in Southeast Asia. The similarly ends when you consider how dramatic the changes have been in connectivity when compared to any earlier period of time. We are connected to vast networks of non-kin. This degree of connectivity is far beyond our biological, psychological, and cognitive heritage. In this new culture of connectivity, we start our day by scrolling through social media timelines. We notice headlines. We notice who left comments. Who liked or disliked our posts, many personalities, stories, or ideological inspired positions. Our morning information diet ranges anywhere from funny pet videos or hot political topics of the day to Trump's tweets, to the ethics of AI, Russian oligarchs, climate breakdown, BREXIT, robots, genetic engineering, to celebrity news. That's only before breakfast. We and our cognitive biases are connected to multiple information nodes. Algorithms continuously update on what we like and approve, and feed us more of the same kind of content. In this high probability algorithms, information of what we like and approve has high commercial and political value. Communities nest around the series of global information oasis. You are likely drinking information from one as you travel the digital silk road. Our old model of social and economic connectivity no longer accurately reflects how we define ourselves and others in terms of friend and foe. Kinship hasn't conceded its importance to the digital territorial advances on its domain. One finds the ideas based on kinship still an important factor in politics in many countries. The idea of greater political connectivity to match what is happening on the social and economic fronts has faced substantial resistance. Ethno-nationalists carry the torch for the old kinship to recapture the social and economic domains. Not surprisingly, there has been a clash between the two perspectives about connectivity. We have politicians and activists ringing the kinship bell, but their activities must now compete with the larger and expanded connectivity options. Kinship-based connectivity has a difficult time. Excluding strangers was never an easy task even in the pre-digital age. There were always exceptions for exceptional, talented, extraordinary people. Ordinary people stuck together to face down 'other' ordinary people not like them. The Internet has given ordinary people who are more educated than in the past a voice, a platform, and the possibility of influencing others. Connectivity is an enterprise. We've all become vendors and consumers, budding thought and idea entrepreneurs. We recycle the thoughts and ideas of others. We create memes that go viral. That's a digital homerun. The new connectivity appeals because it does more to meet our basic needs for recognition, status, rank and winning. A sea of ink has been used to write about the dopamine hit experienced on social media. It's not been only proverbial ink that has scrawled the message of our connectivity. Black Mirror in the episode titled Nosedive captured the impact of social ranking in a digital universe with a chilling brilliance. Chinese social credit ranking brought Black Mirror to reality for 1.3 billion Chinese. We find ourselves at this crossroad. Shedding the old styled kinship connectivity for the digital communities that share our feelings, likes, dislikes, with ability to form a mob at the drop of a few keystrokes. There is more at work that the digital revolution. In 1800, an estimated 1 billion people were scattered around the globe. A century and a half later, in 1950 the number had swelled to 2.5 billion. By 2019, the population inflated to 7.7 billion people and we have predictions of 9 to 11 billion crowding the earth by 2050. With such large numbers of people arriving in a relative short period of time, it is no surprise that the role of kinship has changed over the last 200 years. Without the global "room culture" that began 6,000 years ago, we would still be a population of a few million divided into kinship bands and clans. Instead, as I discussed my book Rooms, with the advent of agriculture, rooms and modern industries, billions of people are now living in cities. Inside rooms. Connected to people in other rooms, other cities half way around the world. Our connectivity will continue to accelerate until in the not-too-distant future we will all be connected 24-hours a day through one or more devices. Inside those rooms and cities, the connectivity served as an incubator for the rapid innovation of new technology that further accelerates our mutual connections. During the first 5800 years of the room culture, the kinship structure was the backbone of our personal relationship and could be found playing a central role in social, political and economic life. Rooms proved to be the perfect artificial construct to rewire the reality of social interaction. We view our lives in this artificial setting as normal. Building permanent rooms was the first step in a long transition to introducing greater degrees of artificiality—from a society closely knit based on kinship to organized networks of complex, multi-layered social relations involving far beyond kinship and borders. Many people now feel stronger affiliation with people whom they have never met in real life than with their own kin. We have become accustomed over the centuries to view the artificial (as in mad-made) and non-kin as norm. Once that happened, there was no return to nature or kin. What is the next step? That's difficult to predict. One possibility is as sexual reproduction is replaced by technical advances in biology, genetics, and chemistry, those born in the distant future may not share our view of kinship. We are at the beginning of a major transition of how our species connects and maintains connections. Connectivity has arrived faster than anyone would have thought. Ask yourself, who is another human being you spend more time with than your smartphone. We are gradually being weaned from human connection that isn't delivered by a device. Connectivity in the future is Homo sapiens connected to machine intelligence. Our massive population share a device connectivity that is a broader, wider and deeper than ever before. So far, the enhanced connectivity has led to not only a wider network of acquaintances and intense information overload, but also conflict, fear and anger. Many people have become highly emotional over kinship in the form of extreme nationalism or nativism. After 200,000 years, it is difficult to let go. But here we are, a transitional generation as will be the next couple of generations before the foundations of a new connectivity order reveal themselves. The Transhumanism movement embraces this transition of connectivity between human beings and machines. But others are horrified of where that road may lead. Meanwhile, hold on tight as the amusement ride of life has some sharp curves to navigate. How will we recognize the new foundation which replaces kinship in politics? When we start talking to the ones we don't like or approve. It's much easier talking to the ones you love. That's why the transition is difficult. Our emotional framework needs retooling. I'm looking around, and I see the first signs of the new tool makers. In 2021, I'll be back with another report on kin, digital devices and connectivity to see how far we have come.
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Right From the Hip | Observations & Opinions | Politics, Law & Current Events In which our Vagabond Seeks a City in Motion. It is early Saturday evening, the doors are open, the coffee house beckons. I enter into a crowd – young and old, in pairs, groups and singles, are standing in line, checking their phones, reviewing the menu board, sitting astride chairs, leaning on counters, stirring their mugs, contemplating their next move, and conversing with animation and verve. After securing a mug of herbal orange blossom tea and plain pound cake (something different and contemplative), no booths are available. I occupy a seat at a long, central bench and table with the other patrons. Immediately next to me sits a young couple, face to face, wearing various shades of blue denim (she also sports a floppy, soft-brim robin egg blue hat), who have stopped talking to enjoy one of the house's calorie-generous desserts. Their desserts are laden with strawberries, fresh, fragrant, jumbo-sized, strawberries, tumbling generously, abundantly, off the dessert cakes which shyly peek out underneath. These are six-dollar desserts, suitable for serious courtship. The whipped cream had disappeared already. Their strawberries are not shy - they flaunt their bright deep red strawberry color, their inviting texture, they flirt their white edges. These strawberries profligately cast about their unmistakable ripe fragrance. Indeed, the fragrance demands attention. For an unmeasured moment, these strawberries own the bench and my perceptions – my other senses have quietly stepped down and wait for the strawberry fragrance to master the stage, to take its bows, to aromatically speak for strawberries everywhere. Each strawberry is joined with all strawberries - connected in a web of genetic code, agricultural pedigree, sense perception and idea. The smell, the fragrance and appearance of these strawberries, and for a distinct slice of time, the connected picture, the taste, the idea of many strawberries, all strawberries, as an adjective as well as a noun, occupy my thoughts. If there had been no name for strawberries ever given, I would have conjured a name for them, then and there. Strawberries are versatile. We can give Latin names to their various genus, Fragaria. We may note that each apparent achene, or seed, on the outside is actually one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it, perhaps explaining why the couple beside me ordered them for dessert. Philosophers might debate whether or not there exists a non-physical essence of strawberry, an ideal Platonic form of strawberry, or be skeptical that we could ever be sure that what we perceive as strawberry was reliable. Mischievous children have picked them to throw at each other. We can observe them on wild vines, clip, transplant and cultivate them in our gardens, study what combination of sun and water gives them the greatest growth and sweetest flavor, pick them gingerly to set at our breakfast table, eat them singly or in groups in little morning fruit bowls. We have financed agri-businesses to grow them in vast number, might someday sell strawberry futures on a commodities exchange, have hired agricultural workers to pick them in mass quantity. Graduate students in economics might measure the economic impact of establishing a minimum wage for strawberry pickers, while employers make certain their immigration papers are in order. We can contest the right of strawberry pickers to go on strike, and use courtrooms to enjoin secondary strikes by other fruit pickers. Independent truck drivers can transport them in refrigerated, insured freight carriers at free-on-board rates. District managers of supermarket chains can offer them for retail sale in little green baskets at trendy supergrocers which have memorable advertising logos and trained-to-be-friendly checkout people, and serve them in coffee houses at upscale prices. In laboratories we can measure their molecular carbon chains, forensically identify them with gas and mass chromatography, and fit them into biochemical schema of study. We can mash them into lipstick or cream for purposes of skin and beauty enhancement, advertised by slender, photogenic models. We can handwash our dirty dishes in our neglected kitchen sinks, or shampoo our thinning hair with liquid soaps flavored with them. No small series of achievements, for an aggregate accessory fruit. But we have strawberries as descriptors also, as concepts and additions to the language in which we think and speak and describe, in which we write poetry and love sonnets. They act as triggers or stimulants, to remind us of things, things we may want to remember. I bend my head over my tea and soak a piece of my cake into my orange-blossom tea. But these strawberries are not yet done their work. The fragrances of my coffee-house neighbors' strawberries trigger vivid memories. A series of pictures is summoned up, interior miniatures composing a sequenced event in my life, a road trip of an altogether different sort. Gently unfaded, affectionately insistent, parading in silence one at a time yet making a whole, a set of gliding images from the past paints over my vision. ____________________ My wife, Erma, and I were dating, and engaged. I was just 32. At the time, she was just 23 years of age, not quite 5'2" unless she stood on her tiptoes (she was generous in describing her height on various health and application forms), slender, lithe, with quick, athletic reflexes, light brown hair never allowed to grow long, a bright upturned face full of energy, green-grey eyes that were never quite the same shade from day to day, and a stand-your-ground manner suitable for the youngest child who had five older brothers. Erma had been a Christian since her experiences as a teenager in church youth group, and had been well taught by a beloved senior pastor, Reverend Pusey. She could field a ground ball or steal third base, tell every player on the Philadelphia Flyers in 1977 (she still had a Bobby Clark doll) or quote scripture by memory, intelligently and to the point under discussion. She was a secretary at DuPont, a job she had held since the day after she graduated from high school. There was emotional trauma in her childhood, including a miserable relationship with her father (the misery shared by her brothers and sister), and a tragic gun accident which took the life of one of her brothers, after her father irresponsibly brought home a rifle and gave it to his children without supervision or safety instruction. The collapse of the family unit brought economic difficulties. Erma bubbled over with hope and energy – she was ready to wrestle wildcats, hid her fears, counted her pennies, and laughed loudly and easily. Erma pooled shock, grief, loss and anger in reservoirs of her soul. She introduced herself to a pair of young men attending a Christian singles conference in Sandy Cove, Maryland, one of whom was me, because she recognized the church my friend Dave had announced at the beginning of the conference, and that was enough of a conversational opening for her. We took a trip to North Carolina, to visit her brother Noel, the only one of her family to graduate from college. Noel was a marketing manager for a large agricultural chemicals company, and he was moved about the country every few years. For several years he had lived near Research Triangle Park outside Raleigh. Our trip was a happy one; we packed up Erma's silver Honda Civic, years old but running like a Swiss watch, and toodled down the highway one Monday in the early summer. Life was opening up. My disorderly life, spread across two coasts, was moving in a good direction. Erma, deeply emotionally cautious, was hoping that the world held good things as well. After staying the first night with friends in Virginia, we arrived after a day of easy driving at Noel's, still single. As always, he was a gracious host, owner of a sensible but well-maintained home. His practice of buying and selling homes as he was transferred around the company proved to be economically rewarding. I don't know whether he liked his job in its own right, but years later when he was offered a retirement package at the age of 50, he took it, and to my knowledge, has never worked 9-5 job since. Noel was working 9-5 when we arrived though, so during the day we were left to our own devices around Raleigh, Chapel Hill, Durham and the surrounding areas. Open to guidebook suggestions, we went to the North Carolina Botanical Gardens in Chapel HiIl. We walked the displays of native plants, violet-purple iris, milkweed, wood anemone, maidenhair ferns, wild indigo, water-plaintains, bluestars. The Gardens have a display of carnivorous plants, pitcher plants, Venus fly traps, along with their orchids and lilies. I found a very tiny spider among the carnivorous plant displays, picked him up with a leaf, and deposited him into a Venus fly-trap, which promptly, as advertised, closed its tender petals. The wispy trigger hairs of the plant quite quickly formed a bars-of-a-jail cell effect as the plant's leaves closed reflexively – I could see the tiny spider, looking out, as forlorn and puzzled as any prisoner would be. At the time, I had nothing to say to him, and regretted somewhat causing his fate. With the advantages of hindsight and advancing years, today, I might encourage him with words of sympathy – "you and me both, brother," a final salute, issued nunc pro tunc. Erma and I went to see a movie in the evening. Mr. Hulot's Holiday. Monsier Hulot, the French actor Jacques Tati, "decides to vacation at a beautiful seaside, resort. Rest and relaxation don't last long, given the gangly gent's penchant for ridiculous antics." Released in 1954, you have to be in the right mood to see this slapstick farce. Erma and I were nearly alone in the theater, it was a Tuesday evening. We were in the mood – I laughed hard. Erma laughed uproariously, full volume. I never heard anyone laugh so hard – her cackles filled the theater – no nook or cranny escaped the piercing volume of her laughter. Many times. How can you not fall in love with a girl like that? If anyone else was in the theater at all (maybe one other couple), they certainly knew they weren't alone. The next day, we visited Duke University in Durham. The lawns and grounds were green, immaculate, carefully maintained; the buildings, the Chapel, all were elite-college campus beautiful. I daresay visiting parents longed to expend vast sums of money to send their children there. After walking around for several hours, near the end of the day, we found a small restaurant/coffee-shop. Because of the day and hour we were again nearly alone. The shop featured a strawberry desert, loaded with whipped cream. They were the freshest, sweetest, most flagrantly-and-fragrantly-delicious strawberries imaginable. It was a lifetime trophy desert. The taste, the aroma of the strawberries filled our noses, our palates, our tongues – our sweet, ripe taste buds went off like bells. Erma was just swooning with joy. It seemed as if we just sat and ate for hours (which could not possibly be true), as if the strawberry dessert stopped local time to go on forever. These strawberries had royal, domestic, South American and continental antecedents. According to Wikipedia, the garden strawberry was first grown or bred in Brittany, France in the 1750s by crossing Fragaria Virginia from eastern North America with Fragaria Chiloenses, brought from Chile. The French began harvesting wild strawberries in the 14th century. Strawberries were added to cream in the Court of King Henry VIII. What can I add to that? World production of strawberries is in excess of nine million tons, and not a strawberry too many. After we had spent a few days at Noel's, we drove east to go to the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The Outer Banks are a resort area, but wilder, less cultivated than the homogenized resort areas one sometimes visits. We rented two separate hotel rooms to stay in the area around Kitty Hawk. I had sexual relationships prior to becoming a Christian. Erma had many dating relationships, but had learned her sexual ethics as a teenager at a conservative, evangelical church and drew a line she believed in. We did not sleep together on that trip. It helped to make our dating relationship simple, clean, pure, uncomplicated. (Our physical relationship began on our honeymoon - when Erma exited the bathroom and entered our bedroom the evening of our 11 a.m. wedding in Bear, Delaware. We had driven to a bed and breakfast in Milford, New Jersey, Linda and Rob Castagna's Chestnut Hill on the Delaware River. Looking at the teddy-bear decorated bed and room in the honeymoon suite and at me, Erma asked, "do you think we should pray?" I answered, "I already have.") But that wedding ceremony day was still in our distance, like a beckoning city on a hill. The next day on our excursion to North Carolina, we traipsed about on the Kitty Hawk beach. It was not yet warm enough for swimming; the beaches were nearly empty. I discovered that small fish, mullets or small kingfish, filled some of the deeper surf pools and beach ponds left by retreating waves. There is a picture of me taken by Erma, bending over at the waist, looking down, with my pants rolled up as I stood in the middle of one of these surf pools, wearing a plaid shirt with the sleeves rolled up, trying to catch little silver fish with my bared, cupped hands. Trying to catch small fish by hand was a predictably unsuccessful effort, but loads of fun to try. I looked perfectly ridiculous, and we were perfectly happy. On our trip back in the silver Honda Civic from North Carolina, driving north to Wilmington and Phoenixville, we sang hymns on the road. Neither Erma or I have any musical talent at all - neither of us can carry a melody. But there was no music critic in the car, no one to be distressed. We sang "Fairest Lord Jesus," in toneless acapella - it fit our mood and excursion well. _______________________ I was interrupted in my coffee-house reveries by a young man, of Asian background, whose face I recognized, but whose name I didn't know. He had been listening to me a previous week, when I was proclaiming out loud verses from the Book of Revelation, the lake of fire verses, the judgment verses, on a previous morning when the coffee house was much emptier than it was that Saturday evening. His interruption lead into quite an extended discussion, carried out over three locations in the coffee house. "Hello," he said. I responded with my own 'hello.' "I saw you here the other week. You were reading out loud. I was standing over there" – he indicated where he had been standing when I had my brief confrontation with the coffee house manager, Jen, over reading Bible verses out loud. I nodded 'yes' and offered my hand and introduced myself. "My name is Qi," he introduced himself with a small but perceptible bob of the head. His English was good, with a slight British accent. Qi looked to be in his early twenties, fifty years younger than I. His hair was black parted on one side, his chin and cheeks clean-shaven, his eyes brown, his lashes somewhat long, his build slim, probably 5' 10" in height and weighing 140 or 150 pounds, wearing blue jeans and a neat maroon pullover jersey. His facial expression was respectful, intelligent and friendly. "I wanted to ask you. Why were you reading out loud? And why did you choose those verses?" I had to think to recreate my thoughts and mood the previous week. "I can't answer that easily. God moves inside me without giving me explanations. Why those verses? I felt like I wanted to get somewhere - we ought to get somewhere. I saw those verses on the path." "I heard what you said to the manager. The owner doesn't mind?" His expression suggested that people reading out loud in a coffee house crossed a line in the culture he came from. "No," I told him, "the owner doesn't mind." We paused our conversation for a moment, so Qi could find a way around the bench and people to squeeze in opposite me. He was sitting right next to the strawberry-eating couple, also seated across each other on the bench, as I was. "Do you work, or are you a student?" I asked. Qi explained his background to me, responding to my questions. He was 23 years old, a graduate student seeking a Master's degree in statistics from the graduate department of a nearby university. He was an exchange student, a resident of China, whose family came from near Beijing. Much of his life was not spent in China however. His father was an investment banker, and they spent a number of years in different countries and cities, including London, where he learned as a teenager to speak English well, and learned his slight but discernible British accent. He was one of three children, and had two sisters, one older, who was married and living near Shanghai, and one considerably younger sister, who was living at home near Beijing, where his parents had returned. I asked him about China's one-child policy and he explained that his father had sufficient resources to obtain relief from the rule. Since the first child in the family was a daughter, apparently this exception was not difficult to obtain with respect to Qi. Having official sanction for having a third child was more difficult, but by then his father had political and economic connections. By this time the strawberry dessert-eating couple had left. Their seats were taken by others so it wasn't always easy to conduct our conversation. The coffee house was noisy, there was music in the background and people were sliding behind us at times to reach seats further down the long benches on which Qi and I were seated. When I paused my deposition-like questions, I asked if he attended any local church. He did, he explained, and had been for about a year. "What did you think when I read those verses out loud?" I asked. "How did you react?" "I like hearing the Book of Revelation read aloud. It doesn't often get read out loud. When you hear a sermon, somebody tells you what to think about it. There's always a doctrine or a system. Everything has to be explained." He thought for a few moments. "There's more in the words, than there is in the explanations." He said, and I quietly nodded in agreement. "Well, if you just listen to the words, read by somebody else, you wouldn't have a system," I offered. "You might have a language, though. A set of mutual symbols. Even if we didn't agree on what they meant." He listened to what I said and we talked about language, and symbols. His criticisms of symbolic language were well-thought out; a person whose native tongue is Chinese understands well the strengths and weaknesses of symbols to communicate. I suggested that symbols and graphic pictures cut through many language systems. The phrase "a woman clothed with the sun," eludes precise rational understanding, but it's an accessible image everywhere. We had the mutual and considerable pleasure of two people speaking thoughtfully to each other. "You don't agree with any systems about it?" I asked, meaning the Book of Revelation. "I don't know. My church teaches a system." "Which one is that? Dispensationalism? Premillennialism?" "Yes." "The Rapture, any minute. The Jews left to face the anti-Christ." "Yes. Yes." "You're not defending it very hard," I suggested. His facial expression indicated that I had discerned his feelings accurately. "Is that what you believe?" Qi asked me. "No. I'm a Postmillennialist. I believe in the Great Commission. Christ gave us an order. Go into the far reaches of the world. Convert the nations. So we will succeed. It's the prayer he taught us. 'Thy Kingdom come. Thy will be done.'" "How does reading about the burning lake of fire out loud, help that?" Qi queried. "I'm not sure. Does the Spirit have to explain everything to me? I respond as I'm called. But I think everybody wants good news. Ask them, and they'll tell you the world is a mess. But then they want good news - warm and reassuring. God's judgment in a burning lake of fire is a very unpopular topic. But it wakes people up. It made you ask me questions." "Do you think bad news is more likely to win converts?" Qi was looking at me with a certain amount of respectful skepticism. "I think telling people the truth helps people see the truth." "But you, too. You didn't recite the burning lake of fire verses with a big smile on your face." "Perhaps so. Me too," I admitted. "Maybe there's enough bad news already," Qi suggested. "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. That's true too. You're right. But why are all those burning lake of fire verses there? Fierce warnings, aren't they?" I asked rhetorically. "Maybe it's the bad news that already exists. Maybe the world loves judging. Maybe the world needs judging. There's a lot of judging inside of us already." As he said this, I thought I detected some personal history in Qi – perhaps his father was a judgmental person. "I think it's a warning - a guide and a look to the future. But I'll be careful about trying to interpret it, with you around. I'll let the words be the words. Burning lake of fire and all." I raised my hands slightly to indicate surrender – the acknowledgment of my limitations. "Don't some people believe the whole book was just meant for the 1st century Christians? They think it all relates to the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Roman armies. That's it – nothing else." Qi's knowledge suggested some study; his tone suggested questions, perhaps questions deeper than interpreting the Book of Revelation. "Are you a preterist?" I asked him. I wasn't sure whether his question was a narrow, specialized question over eschatology, or rather a deeper question that any young person might have, about whether the whole structure of religion is connected to anything real at all. "I'm not sure what that means," he admitted. "About what you said. Preterists believe most of the Book of Revelation has already been fulfilled. It was a warning for the 1st century, for the early church. A tract for the times. Now it's done – it has no future significance," I explained. "If that's what you're asking." "No, I haven't thought about it much, but don't think I think that. How about you?" Qi asked. There were questions in this young man, but I didn't know quite what they were. "I think it's prophecy. The Word of God to us. It's no more fulfilled and done than the Sermon on the Mount is fulfilled and done. Does that answer your question?" I returned. "I guess we'll never know, this side of Final Judgment," he offered. "Maybe we just wait for the Rapture?" "It makes a difference now. It changes how we act, because of what we expect. If all you're doing is sitting around here, waiting for the Rapture, that's one kind of answer. But I'll buy you a cup of coffee, and we can wait together." As I was about to get up to buy coffee, a young woman, talking to her friend following behind her, was trying to make her way behind the bench to a seat. She was holding a sandwich on a plate and a glass. Someone moved on the crowded bench, not knowing anyone was behind him, and bumped directly into her. Her sandwich spilled and tumbled across the back of an unshaven but pleasant-looking blonde young man and onto the floor. There, visible for the world, near Qi's feet, were the ingredients for her sandwich, two slices of multi-grain bread, two chunks of avocado, two generous slices of tomato, and a large stack of bean sprouts, scattered across the floor along with a slice of dill pickle. She moved back apologetically, waving the now-empty sandwich plate in her hand, obviously embarrassed. The young man stood up, rather mildly and saw who had spilled sandwich fixings on him. He didn't seem angry - he was apologetic and rather embarrassed himself. No one quite knew what to do. For a few moments the two of them milled about each other in rather disorganized fashion. The coffee house manager was nearby. She saw what had happened and signaled for a staff person to assist. Qi and I both stood up to move out of the way and sidestepped our way to leave the benches and table. As we were moving, I made brief eye contact with the manager and we mutually and quickly nodded. I didn't want her to think I had been a problem again, but she saw I was an innocent bystander, not an repeat instigator of disturbances. While the clean-up was being accomplished, Qi, seeing our mutual nod, asked if I knew the coffee house manager. "Yes, her name is Jen Geddes. She's a Christian. She's nice – a calm person." We watched the cleanup. I thought I would share a bit more, thinking still about what Qi's questions might be. "Years ago, she was in the newspaper, picture and all. She had a bit of a temper. I think she came from a very fundamental background. She was in a church, and for whatever reason, something was going with a visiting pastor she definitely didn't agree with. She expressed her theological disagreement by shouting out loud, picking up a stool, and heaving it at this visiting pastor. She actually hit him with it and there were disturbances in the church. The police had to be called. As a sentence I think she got what is called ARD, a non-trial diversion. It usually means she had to do some community service and get some counseling. I was practicing as a lawyer at the time, so I paid attention. Some years later, she got the job here. I recognized her when she started. Very calm - very welcoming to everybody these days. I never talked with her about it. I always wanted to ask her what it was about. Part of it was reported in the newspaper – apparently, whatever it was the visiting pastor was saying, her response was along the lines of "are you really going to say that, in my ear?" The cleanup was over, but Qi and I found a different place to sit and resumed our conversation. He wanted to know more about the type of law I had practiced, which was a general community practice. We started talking about the law and about the U.S. Constitution and some well-known constitutional principles, which were not, as Qi described, the rule or norm in China. He described a culture and circumstance in China which might be characterized as intense and ubiquitous favoritism. "We have those problems here - in a big way," I acknowledged. "You have laws about it, though. In China, there is no law to appeal to, to correct such things. The party is the law, and the party officials who operate without needing any approval." "We do have laws," I acknowledged. I narrated for Qi a United States Supreme Court case, which is a staple of the Constitutional Law curriculum in law school. "In San Francisco, around 1880, most of the laundry workers were Chinese. Laundries used heat in wooden buildings. There was a statute that said you couldn't operate a laundry without a permit. The statute itself wasn't crazy - there was a genuine fire risk with boiling water used in the laundries – not a joke in San Francisco. But Yick Wo had been operating his laundry for years, when he was told he couldn't operate his laundry anymore without a permit. Unfortunately, if you were Chinese, you didn't get a permit. If you weren't Chinese, then you got one. Yick Wo was fined for operating without the permit, and he couldn't or wouldn't pay the fine, so he was put in jail. The Supreme Court ruled that the administration of that permit law was unconstitutional – even if the laundry owners weren't citizens. Even if the law itself made sense considered in isolation. The Chinese laundry owners still had a right under equal protection, under the equal protection laws of the 14th Amendment." "You would not find such laws in China," Qi lamented. "Well, it took us years to take the legal principle serious," I told him. "Taking your principles seriously takes time." Our conversation continued. We talked about Chinese coolies and how they worked. We talked about Christianity in China. We talked about the beginning of the movie Crazy Rich Asians where they're having a Bible study. We talked about missionaries and Hudson Taylor and the Chinese Inland Mission, and when Qi's family had become Christians. We talked about wars in Asia – in the Pacific against Japan. Qi had a very distinct opinion about the treatment of the Chinese by the Japanese in WWII, which flowed over to his opinion over disputed islands in the South China sea. We talked about the wars in Korea and Vietnam. We talked about Mao, and Communism and the treatment of Christians in China during the cultural revolution. Qi's family had suffered and practiced their faith in secret, but had emerged. We talked about the Three-Self Church in China. "Sanzi Jiaohui" Qi explained, trying to help me to pronounce it correctly. "But my family has spent so much time overseas, it was not critical to us. We didn't argue about religion, we argued about how many hours my father worked." He looked not as happy making this last statement. I decided to change gears altogether. "You'll be married someday. You'll have a wife and probably children. Do you have a girlfriend?" I asked. "Yes. But she is in graduate school in Michigan now. So I only get to see her on vacations. Sometimes we meet in Chicago. We are making some plans, but they have to wait. We text. She likes it, but she thinks it's cold there." We talked about the weather in China, and in the U.S. We moved our location one more time, when a booth opened up. Time passed, but the Rapture still lay in the future. In the meandering talk and silence of our time together, we made friends. The Holy Spirit, as known to coffee houses as He is to great cathedrals, entered somewhere. Eventually Qi said it was time for him to get back home, and we parted company with the idea that he would be back in the coffee house, and we would have a chance to talk again. Perhaps further, on the Book of Revelation, he suggested. ___________________ And in the Spirit he carried me away to a great, high mountain, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God. Revelation 21:10. Those trained in theology and ministry should present the bulk of the inspired message of Rom. Ch. 12-15. But there is an element of those passages I want to address. I have a law degree, was valedictorian at law school, have practiced law for many years, and have held elected office. I serve as a volunteer on various boards with legal and executive authority over substantial matters. The business of law and government is something with which I am familiar. Although words like "law and government" don't sound San Francisco hippy-ish, don't seem to blend into a coffee-house or a road trip to the last chapters of Revelation, that is my direction now. Rom. 13:1-10 is my topic. Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. Rom13:1a. The passage is central. It does not stand for, nor should it be understood, to be a command to political authoritarianism. It is an invitation to law, to legitimacy, to ascertaining the will of the people in a democracy, enacting that will within the confines of a constitutional system, and then respecting the laws that flow therefrom. Within the world at large, we may be subject to, or may become the governing authorities – but we are always Christians. The Apostle Paul had multiple purposes in so writing – he had a concern with the relationship of Christians to the outside world and to the political authority of the Roman empire. Paul was also concerned about how Christians relate among ourselves. Christian religious/political conflict among ourselves has been a challenge for Christian theology. Theological disagreement may be the reason or the excuse for the ecclesiastical, political or social separation of Christians. Once reasons develop, theological disagreement, leading to differing communions and groupings, becomes the vehicle for separation. As the Reformation commenced and continued through the 16th and 17th centuries, it appeared the immovable object had met the irresistible force. When Christian conscience met Christian government in vehement disagreement, the results were tragically unacceptable in individual cases. Theologically, the issues have never been resolved. One person wishes to pray to the saints, another does not, one expects an early Rapture with no warning, another does not, one thinks the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, another does not. There are innumerable such differences. The continuing disagreements demonstrate that we have no recognized method of either resolving the dispute, or even a recognized method of staying in communication with each other. The argument continues unresolved. The fallback position for various Christian disputants is spiritual distance and intentional distancing, and attrition over time. Politically, we have addressed the most negative consequences of those 16th and 17th century conflicts by privatizing religious conscience. The results of privatizing Christian conscience are only partially satisfactory, as the 21st century is demonstrating. Organizing a better society is problematic, if each Christian has no greater loyalty than to his or her conscience. Conscience slides into self-will. Beyond denominational or theological boundaries, no one is able to present, to debate, to respond, to adjudicate, to give, or to obey an order issued by a recognized body of Christians, on any issue – not just very large important issues. All issues are 'off the table,' as it were, beyond joint resolution. No one could today post 95 theses on the door of a church and have an audience. We are stalled on Christian conscience-autonomy. No one says 'my conscience is God' but that is the net result. Each spider sits on her own web. The Old Testament analogue is the Book of Judges. The civil and political theory and authority that God has established pertinent to us, and to all, has been two thousand years in the making. The development of this theory is an argument for and an example of common grace, extended by God to all, who makes his sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and sends his rain on the just and on the unjust. "All peaceful beginnings of government have been laid in the consent of the people," John Locke, the British philosopher wrote in his Second Treatise on Government, Sect. 112. His work was instrumental in the framing of American constitutional ideas. Within the United States, we are both the governed, and the governing authorities. Perhaps odd, perhaps obvious to say, but if we as Christians want to reach the heavenly city of God, we have to be capable of governing and being governed by each other. This does not suggest extinguishing the ordinary and necessary debate and contentions that accompany civil and religious life. But at some point, a methodology of decision-making has to be established. Decisions are to be made, and they have to be respected. These 'decisions' are Christian decisions, critical to the communications and communal life of all Christians. That is not intended as a challenge to fundamental theological positions. When our government formed, Maryland did not become Pennsylvania – each state assigned certain powers to a federal government, and retained the rest. Lawful is not lawless, even where there is hard questioning and debate over what is really or ought to be 'lawful.' There are many different ways to connect with each other in the exercise of our Christian faith. Our movement toward the Jerusalem from above is obstructed, if we are situated like a collection of hermit crabs, each communion barricaded in its own shell of theological position, ecclesiastical organization and personal conscience. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Rom. 13:1 b. God created and enables all things, in providing the motive power for all events, outside of whose permissive will nothing ever can happen or could happen. Such establishment includes "the authorities that exist." As Jesus said to Pilate, "You would have no power over me if it were not given you from above." God is the source of lawful authority. The present state of world and national affairs, including our legal and political structures, is not accidental. It may be temporary, or cause us to pray "How long, O Lord, will the wicked by jubilant?" But if we cannot obey our own lawful authority, exercising decisions derived from faith, there is no possibility of building a genuinely lawful structure. If we cannot debate our Christian statements, decrees, findings or laws, enable and enact our Christian decrees, respect or obey our Christian laws, because they come from the authority already announced and ordained by our God and Savior, we're not going to move. We are stranded in the valley of stasis. I am postmillennial, a believer in the Kingdom of God that comes into this world. The extension of Rom. 13:1 b is necessary. This verse sends us forward, makes us look to the future. The current set of authorities have been established by God. The next set of authorities will be established by God - and the next set, after that. We want this set of authorities, each set of authorities, to be better, more Christ-like. When we say more 'Christ-like,' it is not reasonable to expect that denominational and theological differences are going to evaporate. We want to be Christ-like as we assume, or obey, or exchange, this developing authority which expresses itself in constitutional forms among us - not because it results in theocracy or theonomy (or any other system of being ruled by the laws of the Old Testament). Rather, we remember that the "authorities that exist" may be us, or may not be; and if we're not holding office at the moment, we may retain our theological positions or political differences. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you, has special significance when we are talking about different groups of Christians contending over beliefs, ideas, or courses of conduct which may be supported and advanced by force of decree, statement or law. If we are going to move toward a more complete Christian community, theological convictions count, inspiration counts, but also, impartiality counts. We want the debate (and the penalties for losing the debate on whatever topic is at hand) to be just and impartial. The rules, the conduct, the doctrine, whatsoever it is under discussion, and the statement or law that issues from them, or us, are to be impartial. The means and procedure of discussing, debating, challenging or appealing the decision regarding the resolution of Christian issues, have to be impartial. Due Process is a legal term but it paves a spiritual road. It means notice of the issue at hand, before the time and place of decision, and the opportunity to be heard on the point by the decision-makers. We hope valued impartiality flows into our political and national lives. But whether it does or does not flow nationally, we have to communicate these exchanges and accord this due process among ourselves in an impartial manner – and then voluntarily respect the outcome. The amorality of the present state of our national political life is not ultimately acceptable, but neither it is acceptable to go back to the political situation, rife with religious persecutions, that characterized Great Britain (and here in New England) in the 17th century. We do not criminalize people with whom we disagree. We will not move toward a golden, millennial age until we capture solutions to both sets of problems – spiritual unity which enables voluntary association and cooperation, and spiritual dissent. Our risen Lord Jesus has set us a mid-term examination. God has graciously provided us guidance. As explained by Locke in his Second Treatise, sect. 131: And so whoever has the legislative or supreme power of any commonwealth, is bound to govern by established standing laws, promulgated and known to the people, and not by extemporary decrees; by indifferent [impartial] and upright judges, who are to decide controversies by those law; and to employ the force of the community at home, only in the execution of such laws; or abroad to prevent or redress foreign injuries, and secure the community from inroads and invasion. And all this to be directed to no other end but the peace, safety, and public good of the people. The peace that Jesus confers - "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you" (John 14:27), connects to this Lockean peace, safety and the public good. The kingdom of God ("Thy kingdom come," Jesus taught us to pray, Mat. 6:10, "on earth as it is in heaven.") and "the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations," Rev. 22:2, converge on this peace. They are intended for this-world Christian implementation, and this implementation and obedience to God's will is not beyond us. John Locke described the "peace, safety and public good of the people" in terms that were attainable. He presented his solution at the time of intense religious persecution that frequently was the excuse, rather than the reason, for political persecution. The experience of the Amish community in self-regulation provides some useful guidance. The Nashville Statement, signed initially by more than 150 evangelical leaders, affirming what is set forth or implied in Scripture about sexuality, particularly Romans ch. 1, is a productive step toward our self-regulation and our movement toward a Holy City. The Nashville Statement engendered disagreement and resentment. Nor do I endorse all views, on all issues, of those Christians who developed the Nashville Statement. The point is to cooperate as actively and as far as we can, but no further. Theological statements and decisions are presented to address conflicting positions. The resentment within large elements of our national society, of the Christian position on the sexual issues addressed in the Nashville Statement, is intense – but that is acceptable. Disregard of God's Word engenders its own consequences. We want to be frog-marched off the Titanic of modern secular culture and nominal Christianity - thrown unceremoniously into a little lifeboat named Jesus and the Bible. We expect to be marginalized with the world's imprecations following, as the Titanic leaves us behind. We may bob in the ocean of broad societal disapproval for a short season. It's not hard to see the iceberg coming. After the iceberg has done its work, we, the Christian community, build a better world. We may communicate our own internal understandings and direction without surrendering those theological positions which are essentially non-negotiable. John Locke calls out the following elements in the above-recited passage: legislative power, established law, impartial judges, a judicious use of 'force' to execute such laws, directed to peace, safety and public good – and we would add, for the community of our faith. The challenge is to connect that political peace, of which we are clearly capable, with Jesus' spiritual peace. The alternative, the Valley of Christian Stasis, is incapable of being characterized as good faith. That is not how the Book of Revelation ends. To disconnect the two kinds of peace, to say that the peace that Jesus provides is always and forever not of this world, is to take a position on eschatology. That is to take the position that the Kingdom of God is not coming (despite praying "thy Kingdom come") in this world except by the visible return of Christ but in no other way. It is to take the position that the Great Commission does not fully succeed (apparently, then, a command to partial failure?). It is to take the position that the ending of Romans ch. 16 ("so that all nations might believe and obey him") doesn't count. If the Kingdom of God is coming in this world, then those good ends that John Locke asserted - peace, safety, the public good - have to be realized in the context of a multitude of Christian expressions (the 'Seven Churches' of Revelation), giving rise to our City in Motion. The political events of the last two thousand years include what has politically taken place in this country in the last 250 years. We may begin with the Deist-influenced proclamation of the Declaration of Independence (which, despite its Deist influences, repeatedly and insistently invokes God, the Creator, the Supreme Judge, and Divine Providence), which is also directly of God. The Declaration of Independence, like all other expressions of common grace, is directed by and under the authority of our risen Lord, Jesus. Pilate's authority derived from Roman military and civil power gets the benefit of God's imprimatur, as spoken by Jesus. Then surely also so does the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Federalist Papers. We have political tools. We need to use them. We don't want to supplant the state, we want to create a miniature of a Constitutional and legislative system, for ourselves, entered into by three gates: by Christian faith, by subscription to the doctrine of Scriptural inerrancy, and by a commitment to a forward-looking eschatology. Beyond that, once through those gates 'of the outer courtyard,' we acknowledge a diversity of views, a gathering of seven churches, a lively exchange of ideas. We will make and find our city and move toward peace, joy, and the enjoyment of the presence of God, characterized by our love for God, and our love for each other. There, we will be in a position to lead useful and interesting lives and have enjoyable and interesting discourse. We do not resurrect the past, look to the past, long for the days of ancient Israel, look for theocratical forms of government, or long for the days when our particular theology will be adopted by everyone. Christianity is just beginning. "By calling this covenant new, he has made the first one obsolete. And what is obsolete and aging will soon disappear." Heb. 8:13. The orchestra is just tuning up - we're barely getting started. I have no use at all for nostalgia. To quote a modern theologian, Greg Bahnsen: Postmillennialists believe, therefore, that the kingdom of God will gradually grow on earth, visibly, publicly, and externally. . . It will grow through the gradual conversion of the nations – through the preaching of the Word of God. . . . This salvation of many people must have visible expression and influence and be seen in an outward culture in society. (Victory in Jesus, Bahnsen, CMP 1999, p. 27). (See also, Postmillennialism, an Eschatology of Hope, Keith A. Mattison, P&R Publishing, 1999; The Victory of Christ's Kingdom, John Jefferson Davis, Canon Press, 1996; Prophecy and the Church, Oswald Allis, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1978 (critique of dispensationalism); He Shall Have Dominion, Kenneth Gentry, Apologetics Group Media, 2009 (thorough defense of postmillennialism); and An Eschatology of Victory, J. Marcellus Kik, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1971) ("the Holy City is situated in time and history . . . " p. 245). (Noting also with all these authors, that their theology is learned, their eschatology is inspiring, their legal and political theory needs better direction.) Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves." Rom:13:2. Paul instructed Christians in the Roman Empire, where we began as a tiny minority. Stay out of trouble, direct your energy away from rebellion, stay away from political revolt or disobedience. Move in our spiritual life and the witness to the growing faith. Paul was concerned about building the church locally and across geographical distances and cultural groups. It was the Holy Spirit saying, "it's okay to obey the Roman authorities – in fact, you should, this is part of your obedience to me, unless (as is clear from the Book of Revelation), you are being asked to deny Christ or otherwise blaspheme." Christ warned his disciples to stay clear of the military and political disaster coming because of the Jewish rebellion brewing against Roman authority in his pointed discourse at the Mount of Olives. In whatever direction we decide to move, it must meet the fundamental standards enunciated by Paul. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you. For he is God's servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God's servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment, but also because of conscience. That is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God's servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe him; if you owe taxes, pay taxes, if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor. Rom. 13:3-7. Christian, don't do the crime, if you can't do the time. The bearing of the sword is intended for punishment. The state has a monopoly on the use of force, for a good reason. Generally, Christian conscience acts in conjunction with the state (but not always, see, e.g., Martin Luther King's Letter from a Birmingham Jail). In his Letter to the Romans, Paul meant a number of different things by 'the Law,' understood by context: the Ten Commandments, the Law of Moses implying a special revelation of God's will to the Jews, natural law available to and applicable to all people, spiritual law to be followed by Christians out of obedience to the gospel, the law of love, Roman civil or criminal law to be obeyed at the risk of punishment, the law of conscience, including accusations or defenses of conscience, the law of interior struggle with sin, sin and death itself, and the new life of the Spirit - all are referenced in Paul's letter, all characterized in his writing as or associated with the Law. The Law shows us our sins by holding up a mirror to our conduct in the light of God's Law, sending us to call on Christ's atoning mercy. The Law protects the weak from wrongdoing at the hands of those stronger and is essential to a civil society. The Law in all its forms and expressions is surely the great chain, wielded by an angel, which binds Satan in Rev. 20:1 and 2. As the Holy City comes down out of heaven as described in the 21st Chapter of Revelation, it is not described as the City of Law. By implication, the City may be protected by Law. Law may reinforce its walls and its gate. Spiritual law may flow from and through the Church to separate those who may enter the City of God from those who may not. But the Holy City's light, foundations, jewels, gates, streets, river, fountains, or its Tree of Life are not described in terms of Law. In the Sacred City of divine and human joy, where Christ reigns by acclamation, by love and by power, the purposes of the Law have been fulfilled. Lawlessness has no place in the City as it can never enter in. The Abyss may be escaped, only to give rise to further battle and fire, but the Holy City is prepared as a bride. The description of the Millennial City calls us to something higher, further and more perfect than Law as a goal and end of human society. The Law has a purpose and an end, and it reaches fulfillment in Christ's work on the Cross. In a more perfect society, where equity is done everywhere, there is no need to petition a court of equity for relief. Where love and trust are more perfect among people, no judge is needed to assert jurisdiction, hear argument or rule for one party or the other. In a meeting with our beloved, we who love fold our papers, close our law books and put our contracts aside. Their purpose has been served. Love keeps no record of wrong, so we may leave the courtroom. We go to meet for a wedding ceremony and a feast. The beauty of the meeting calls us to travel the road. Questions arise about doing right, what obedience means, in a Constitutional democracy where we are asked to play a part. The part we play nationally, whatever it is, to which we are also called and from which we refuse to be disenfranchised, is not the same as the spiritual movement we pursue among ourselves. We are called to something higher than the surrounding political confrontation and factionalism (not an easy problem to solve; see Federalist No. 10 – Madison thought the danger of factionalism would be solved by the new Constitution, and clearly that has not been the case). John Locke thought the solution was self-evident. "[F]or nobody has an absolute arbitrary power over himself, or over any other, to destroy his own life, or take away the life or property of another. . . Thus the law of nature stands as an eternal rule to all men, legislators as well as others. The rules that they make . . . must be conformable to the law of nature, i.e., to the will of God . . ." 2nd Treatise, sect. 135. To say something must be conformable to the will of God, or the law of nature or an eternal rule, has proved to be guidance not so obvious, beyond the first application, of not destroying life. Many Christians are united on this point at least. Given the number of abortions being performed annually in the United States and western world generally, even Locke's standard of 'not taking away life' appears to have given way to a notion of personal rights that is practically unlimited in its scope or application. In the case of abortion on demand, the notion is tragic on a massive scale, leads to infanticide (and the purposeful abortion of Downs' syndrome babies), is contrary to God's will, is destructive of our national political fabric, and presents an irresistible temptation to federal courts to exceed their Constitutional jurisdiction and intended scope of authority. Next to the Dred Scott decision, Roe v. Wade is the worst decision ever made by the U.S. Supreme Court, and its consequences have been destructive. The decision raises political problems regardless of religious faith – there is no serious legal question of any type that cannot be formulated into a query about individual rights and then answered in such a way as to make individual rights (defined to assure the preferred outcome) preempt and supersede any other type of right. In the case of abortion, all that is necessary is to deny the definition of human life to children in the womb. The definitions decide the outcome. When we now use the term 'civil rights' the meaning is – rights of the individual. In current judicial reasoning, advancing individual rights is always expansive of the good, as long as the individuals are out of the womb. In current judicial reasoning, the rights of the group are nearly always oppressive, subtracting from the net benefit of civil society. My civil rights cannot be added to the civil rights of my fellow citizens, in such a way as to develop a society promoting religiously-based ethical views. One hundred thousand people may not be lead in prayer at a government-sponsored or funded event, if one objects. If it is necessary to justify protecting children in the womb from destruction by making a religious argument, because the definition of the beginning of life implies theological and ethical reasoning, then the destructive consequences of advancing individual rights above other rights are wrongly justified as compelled by the implied language of the Constitution. An intellectual shell game has been played by our federal judiciary, of which Roe v. Wade is the most notorious example – get the definitions right, set up the conflict as the individual vs. the group (included in 'the group' is any assembly of state legislators) – and the desired judicial result will pop out like candy from a dispenser. From this Christian's viewpoint, and I am also a citizen of this nation, this is unacceptable. As an individual, my name is not "Congress," as in the 1st Amendment ("Congress shall make no law"). The idea that ethical decisions, which result in law, may not have religious foundations, is to be rejected. The idea that I may not join with others to vote for or to pass laws which at some point in their chain of reasoning, rely on religious belief or revelation, is to be rejected. A method of judicial reasoning which relies on carefully-crafted initial definitions and nomenclature to avoid the obvious, observable acts of medically terminating life, with the resulting infant body parts available for marketing, is to be rejected. Political acts which have ethical foundations, which themselves have religious foundations, are ordinary acts of Constitutional self-rule, not the establishment of a theocracy. We will do better, because God will compel a better result. The City of God is a promise to seven churches, standing for a society of communities engaged in the voluntary worship of God and obedience to Christ. Discovering the will of God, in our own relations with other Christians, raises harder questions than challenging bad national law or opposing abortion on demand. Discovering God's will mean moving forward to our own better self-governing society, even if we construct a model first on a 'table-top,' as it were. I quote a passage from Locke which will have a familiar sound to any reader familiar with the Declaration of Independence: Great mistakes in the ruling part, many wrong and inconvenient laws, and all the slips of human frailty, will be born by the people without mutiny or murmur. But if a long train of abuses, prevarications, and artifices, all tending the same way, make the design visible to the people, and they cannot but feel what they lie under, and see whither they are going; it is not to be wondered, that they should then rouse themselves, and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected . . . 2nd Treatise, sect. 225. Locke observed that the people may "rouse themselves." Indeed, 'rousing ourselves' is essential. But in what way did the Apostle Paul view 'rousing ourselves?' The difficulty with Paul's passage in Romans ch. 13:3-7, is its static nature. Those admonitions made sense then, for a small religious minority in a vast pagan empire. The Roman authorities were there, and the Roman Christians submitted to them, and were grateful to God for the opportunity to worship him in peace. There was no political development implied; it was intentional separation from Roman interference, by giving no cause for offence, for purposes of Christian religious practice. A difficulty with the passage of Locke cited above is that it takes the matter one, but only one, drastic step forward. If the authorities are inflicting a "long train of abuses . . . all tending the same way" then the people ought to put "the rule into such hands as may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected." Locke's concepts are binary, but they also will become static – either the people accept the "great mistakes and wrong laws without mutiny or murmer" – or, as the American people did in 177 6, they "rouse themselves" to "put the rule into such hands, etc.," in other words, to put governmental rule into American hands in the legislatures of the American states. Continuing, aspirational movement was not contemplated by John Locke either. The wasn't the problem he was facing 320 years ago, but it is a problem we are facing now. There is much the Book of Revelation does not do. There is one thing it does do, beyond its powerful encouragement in the face of persecution – it says, 'look, there's a goal here, a destination, and we want to get to it.' The Book has an end, and the end is a City. The Great Commission is equally dynamic – Jesus telling us "Go, make disciples." There's a goal here, a command, something we are supposed to be doing – and disciples, discipling and discipline has to extend to more than personal conscience, to the exclusion of Christian community. The argument against amillennialism is parallel to the argument against premillennialism (whether in its dispensational presentation or classical presentation) – those doctrines don't go anywhere. When it comes to Revelation ch. 21 and 22, these doctrines 'sit on their hands.' Rather, our doctrine of eschatology is postmillennial (Christ comes after ("post") the millennium) by our voluntary choice, by Revelation's destination, by inspiration of the Holy Spirit to reach a millennium in this world. Jesus is awaited at the end of the golden, millennial period, however long and wonderful that period may be, a thousand years or a ten times a thousand years – and we have acted in obedience to him in making or moving to such a society and such a world. (For the Kingdom of God will be like a man going on a journey, who called his servants and entrusted to them his property - one to receive five talents, one to receive two, another, to receive one). Our goal is forward. Neither John Lock or the Apostle Paul, or Jesus, say: "let's go back to an Old Testament theocracy as soon as we have a chance." Hence, my profound disagreement with all forms of political theocracy, theonomy, etc. We move to the future here, in terms of our political understanding – our Lord Jesus has not been asleep for the last 2000 years. For that matter, if you need open-heart CABG surgery as I did, you will not seek out a doctor who applies the methods of healthcare available in the days of Moses – there are no instructions in the Old Testament for a triple-bypass procedure. Common grace has done something with respect to medical care, as it has done something with respect to political theory which the churches may apply. After the passage quoted above about obeying the authorities, the Apostle Paul moved directly, with no further transition, to a society characterized by love that has already internalized the Law. The movement is sudden between Rom. 13:7, extolling obedience to external Roman authority, sharing neither political power or a faith with us, to Rom. 13:8. Here is our endpoint: Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for he who loves his fellow man has fulfilled the law. The commandments, "Do not commit adultery," Do not murder," "Do not steal," "Do not covet," and whatever other commandment there may be, are summed up in this one rule: "Love your neighbor as yourself." Love does no harm to its neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law. If we wish to go On the Road now (and we find ourselves On the Road whether we wish it or not) – static conceptions will not do. We construct with the law in the manner of a homebuilder, using our tools to lay on progressively wiser and more effective structural elements, until we reach the fulfillment of home-building, a home where we may love. That is the postmillennial vision – a millennial world, a golden age of faith, love and peace, before Christ returns. The thousand years of the millennium in Ch. 20 is both a reality and a symbol for that vision. The reality of God's ordaining will is a driving movement. Growth through the Holy Spirit is neither limited to or circumscribed by the symbol of a thousand year time period. We travel to an end and a society good beyond words. Our driving force and our destination comes from God. Golden ages are hard to come by, but not only can we get there, we will. Christ has called us to this, and his sobriety and his power in doing so is beyond question. ____________________________________
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Amy Ghosh Chiropractic Care Blog | Keeping your baby's behind smooth, healthy, and rash-free can be a real challenge when it is constantly covered with a nappy which could be wet in no time at all. However well we care for babies, the rashes just somehow find their way into the baby's behind. A baby's diaper rash can range from ordinary redness to infections, inflammation, and sores. For your baby, this simple itch and soreness can be extremely irritating. How to Deal with Your Baby's Rashes Diaper rash is best prevented by keeping your baby always dry and clean. This means changing diapers – whether cloth or disposable – as soon as it is wet or dirty as moisture can aid in the development of bacteria that may develop into a rash. This also means cleaning your baby and washing diapers properly. The following are easy to-do tips to help keep your baby rash-free: Wash your baby thoroughly with clean lukewarm water when your baby wets or dirties himself. It may not be necessary to always use soap, no matter how mild, as this may encourage irritation, especially since you will be doing this more than 10 times a day. Remember that baby's skin is milder than the average and that constant exposure to chemicals, perfume and other irritants can lead to the formation of rashes. Before changing diapers, make sure the baby is dry. It is also advisable to apply a waterproofing layer of ointment or cream. However, test the creams carefully first before using it to make sure that your baby's skin will not yield any allergic reactions. Carefully wash, rinse, and if possible, sterilize cloth diapers. Rinse thoroughly as remaining laundry soap residue could also cause rashes. Avoid using fabric conditioners and ironing aids as these could contain harsh perfumes and chemicals. Researches have also revealed that breastfeeding can help protect your baby against many allergic reactions, including diaper rash. Moreover, the stools of breast-fed babies have been found to be generally less irritating to the baby's skin. The change in weather can also affect the baby's skin's reaction to the air around him. Make sure to apply safe and gentle baby cream and moisturizer to your baby after every bath and before going to sleep to prevent any skin irritation. However, when rashes start developing, it is advisable to supplement your usual cream with a special soak containing two to three drops of lavender oil. The scent of lavender is calming and this encourages the development of new skin cells. This stimulates faster healing of rashes and sores. Soak your baby in the morning and in the evening.
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Vegan Diet Plans For Athletes - Mark Kislich.com Home of Mark Kislich's Vegan Diet Plans for Athletes. All about the Vegan, Lean and Healthy Life, Sports Fitness and Athletic Training.
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Ordinary Voices Ordinary Voices is a resource for people wherever they might be on their spiritual journey to find expressions of hope in daily life. The OV Podcast, blogs, and study materials focus on meaning & purpose, as well as hope.
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Out Of The Ordinary Gifts | Unique Gift Ideas | bNifty Find cool range of unusual novelty gifts for men, women, kids, lifestyle, clothing, home, games. Diversity of unique gifts and gift ideas. Fast and Free UK delivery over £50.
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IMAGINE Artful Things IMAGINE…a shop to find the unusual, whimsical, beautiful, functional, wearable and wonderful. Featuring contemporary design items from the Italian product design house Alessi, the Memphis movement, Michael Graves and Ettore Sottsass…as well as manufactured products and handmade contemporary American crafts, from hand blown glass to ceramics and furniture, and clothing—from the contemporary design of Oska and Lilith, and the architectural lines of Japanese designers Ji-U and Moyuru, to the whimsy of Krista Larson—we’ve been keeping up our passion for nothing ordinary, since 1983.
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Everyday Extraordinary — Weston Table At Weston Table, you will find extraordinary goods not found in ordinary places, food, travel, and adventure.
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Bonanza :: Find everything but the ordinary Shop for everything but the ordinary. More than 25,000 sellers offering you a vibrant collection of fashion, collectibles, home decor, and more.
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Prudential Financial Journalist Laura Ling uncovers six stories of unsung heroes facing difficulties, and the mentors that help them find the courage to overcome. Be inspired by the everyday bravery of these extraordinary ordinary people.
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Point Forward We draw on the tools of anthropology, sociology, and social psychology to look deeply into consumers'' lives. Then we use creative techniques to translate what we find into product, service, and strategy recommendations.
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But First, Joy | A positivity blog inspiring ordinary women to find joy in everyday things. But First, Joy is a positivity blog inspiring ordinary women to find joy in everyday things. Written by Orlando Blogger, Joyce Santos.
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GoPractice Simulator - gopractice.io This is not an ordinary course, but a product company job simulator. You will get real experience,working on an ambitious product, analyzing real data in analytics and making data-driven decisions. Product manager educational course.
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R & S Rock & Stone, Crystals, Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, Australia, Rocks, Stones, Online, Shop, Brooke, Cefai, Store, and, Polished, Cluster, Power, Points, Therapy, Extra, Ordinary, Jewellery, Body, Soul, Practices, Healing, Buy, Pyrite, Sphere, amethyst, spirit, Rose, Quartz, Carnelian, Freeform, clear quartz, metaphysics, Celestite, Interior, Consultations, Holistic, Counselling, wellbeing, wellness, spirituality
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Express Yourself | Fancy dress costume sales & hire | Southampton Amazing fancy dress costume sales and quality hire shop. The largest most competitively priced fancy dress costume shop in Southampton and Hampshire.
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Veda - Healthy Indian Takeout Veda is not your typical ghee-drenched, oil-soaked, sodium-rich food you would normally find at an Indian restaurant. If you''re looking for a healthy change from the ordinary, give us a try today!
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Bern Unlimited | Stylish Bike, Snow, Skate, and Water Helmets – Bern Helmets Find stylish, innovative, and purpose-built helmets that appeal to riders looking for something a little out of the ordinary. Being the original all season helmet brand, we are people passionate about staying outdoors. Whether you ride for transportation, exercise, or just to get outdoors, we have your head covered.
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Since we opened in 2003, we have curated all types of functional furniture.  With an average of 300-400 pieces arriving and leaving every week, there is always a different treasure to find. We are well known in the design community for having everything from the ordinary to the extraordinary. Because of the large turnover we…
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Steve Spohn - An ordinary writer's extraordinary journey. Join Steve Spohn, a writer and editor, nonprofit chief and disabled man as he finds his way through a world filled with obstacles, overcoming one at a time.
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VillaconMundial | La Voz de Villa Consuelo The speedy evolution connected with rock audio Rock Popular music & it has the Rapid Advancement Introduction Songs has been having man since dawn of your energy. Every conquer or appear can getting be considered in the form of form of songs. Dating back towards early fella music happens to be something as simple as the comforting sound to a waterfall or possibly a tree unsteadiness with the the wind or a wild animal performing through a natrual enviroment. Today music is so diversified and so engrained in our everyday life that almost every youngster or young adults & also an adult contains a vast set of songs that they can might take note of on their audio players. There are various varied branches of favorite songs existing at this time. These companies have now enlarged to involve everything from the tribal music to most things that comes out of any synthesizer. And even although look for music in a great many forms at present, I'm absolutely sure the idealists would refuse with what the youth of today call great music. Now-a-days it seems typically the search is actually on for that "in music". Music that is making anyone feel good at this time and which is discarded inside a heartbeat the moment something a great deal better comes along. Precisely what is it which includes made ordinary music visit so stable all these several years? The reason why We have chosen Rock music intended for my class paper issue is that, I truly am really passionate about this kind of genre of music. Coarse Music or perhaps Rock as it is so called will be vastly often neglected by individuals, most of who simply correlate it using negative stereotypes like drug addiction, alcohol dependency facts, violence, sexual abuse, demonic control along with vices. An individual cannot responsibility people for having these types of misconceptions about Rock considering that over the years most of the famous Natural stone artists have come to be referred to mainly for their own drug dependancy and other stupendous behaviour under the influence of alcohol and toxic chemicals. However it is vital to understand that certain must independent the artisan from his particular music not pass pointless judgment on the music just based on the vices of the specialit. Another misunderstanding is that natural stone is only percussion and guitar, when that could be only individuals face involving Rock. The good news is host involving other tools that are important elements to really are fun music as one, other than basically guitar and percussion. Coarse Music -- History & Origins I may now always like to begin with the History of Stone music. Just where did it start? What are their roots? Ways has it developed along the ages? What is the circumstance at present? There are several views as to where the Rock style got right up and planning. And many think Rock originated in the west with the daybreak of Coarse & Spin by Elvis Presley. Even so that is not the case. All this started off during the post-war urbanization of The united states. The popular tunes of the overdue 1940s bundled country new music, folk audio, the reds, rhythm as well as blues (known as R& B), jazz music and ancient music. Generally rock songs hails from a combination of various popular music styles at that time in the country of North america. Rock popular music started off in the late 1940s when folks wanted to go out on their own from the gradual beat punk music along with the slow electrified blues audio to a with more speed beat & rhythm brimming tune at that time. The rock sound will be believed to possess primarily came with the any guitar. It is believed that the active guitar tracks used in yellows music appeared to be soon mixing up in with other forms of music like folk, classical music, folk popular music and other preferred forms of audio existing good. All this generated the beginning of Natural stone music to be a separate sort of favorite songs which previously came to be called Rock a few Roll towards the early 1950's. Around that point i. electronic. the delayed 1940's to early 1950's Rhythm in addition to Blues (R& B) artists mainly targeted on the dark audience. Even so later onwards musicians started playing for one multi-racial customers. These music artists and bands also themed the modern forms or even blends about music toward this customers. Later on the fast overcom blends regarding R& B and the troubles etc came into existence coined since 'Rock d Roll'. "It is assumed that for 1951 within a town with Cleveland, Oh in STATES a artist by the name of Joe Freed has been said to have began playing a new form of R& B audio for a multi-racial audience & is regarded an have 1st used the term 'Rock 'N' Roll' to indicate his songs. " Supply: Icons involving Rock instructions Scott Schinder with Andy Schwartz & Encyclopaedia Britannica - Rock Music. Really are fun Music tutorial Evolution Rock and roll music can be believed to be those types of genres of music containing evolved really rapidly during the last 50 for you to 60 many years. Its high-speed evolution is witnessed mostly over the last 50 years. It all initiated with good old Rock a few Roll in the exact 1950's. That later advanced in the 1960's which was thought of as a Golden Era for Rock audio. Rock required a totally diverse turn along with the British invasion of ordinary by the Beatles. This was soon after followed by what exactly came to be often known as Surf tunes in America that had been a mix of typically the catchy really are fun n rotate n often the hip in addition to happening Beatles music. The exact Beatles new music also led to a new type of music that is called because the hippy plus psychedelic really are fun music. In the 1970's which will came to be identified as the memorable years advanced different different rock popular music such as Tough Rock, A-hole Rock & also Put Rock. The very 1980's viewed a change within the band members' hair styles. That era at the same time was recognized for what was named as curly hair bands. That included varieties rock which include punk stone & funk rock. That led to the exact evolution about Heavy Metal. Groups used to wear well leather dirt bike pants and carried insane extended hairdos. Typically the 1990's exhibited a completely completely new and outrageous evolution of rock. Them gave more recent forms of natural stone such as Grunge Rock & Alternative Ordinary. It presented the revolutionary any guitar distortion & feedback. Most genres with the 1950's onwards till the very 1999's continue to be well known right now. Most of the bandz in people eras are nevertheless popular right now. Many of today's bands still play all the styles of rock music. A few of them even get remakes of them songs implementing modern day kinds and instruments. The afterward half of 2000 also witness something that very well came to be often known as fusion favorite songs. It anxious bringing together conventional music (Western or Indian) and blending it in with modern day natural stone music. This unique style right now is very popular specially in our country among all of our Indian youngsters that have combined the Native indian classical instruments very properly with assets like the any guitar, keyboard, carambolage, etc . The particular 1950's The actual 1950's afforded rise to the Youth culture. It suffering problems like racial tensions & the advent of the main Cold War. This earliest saw typically the advent of Really are fun n Move with fantastic artists including Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Little Rich, Jerry Lee Lewis, The Dark areas, Buddy Holly, Bo Diddley, Bill Haley & often the Comets, Gene Vincent, the Everly Friends, and Carl Perkins, among the many others. These were considered to be the first wave associated with Rock some remarkable Rollers. Good ole' in its initially stage has been described as simply just blues by electric guitar audio attached to them. In its purest form, Really are fun & Move was as basic as about three chords, a solid yet insistent guitar to come back beat, together with a catchy tune. Early natural stone & spin was sucked from sources mainly including pinks, R& H, and nation, but also gospel, traditional put, jazz, together with folk. Those genres were definitely combined together in a straightforward, blues-based melody structure which has been fast, danceable, and catchy. Rockabilly come about in the mid1950's. It is only a mix of rock 'n roll, country audio, blues, along with a little spruce too. Obtained a fundamental audio genre belonging to the 50's. The actual father's and also founders with Rock some remarkable Roll emerged t be known as Costs Haley, Elvis Presley, Bit of Richard & Chuck Maqui berry. Their audio revolutionized the music industry and later it was gave strategy to new varieties of rock song in the many decades to follow. Within today's situations their tunes is still favored. Rockabilly appeared to be popularized by means of white singers like Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins & Jerry Lee Lewis who typically concentrated on the country sources of the music. The Popular visits recorded around that time was "That's Okay (Mama)" - Elvis Presley, "Heartbreak Hotel" - Elvis Presley, "Rock Around the Clock" - Charge Haley & the Comets, "Folsom Living hell Blues" -- Johnny Funds, "Blue Suede Shoes" tutorial Carl Kendrick. Another popular form of Rock n Are collected the 1950's was called the 'Doo Wop'. It emphasized on multi-part vocal harmonies and insignificant backing words of the melody & helped with lumination instrumentation. It is origins were being African American vocal groups similar to the Inkspots & the Mill Brothers. Famous bands on this form of songs were The actual Orioles, Often the Ravens and The Clovers, the fact that used a substantial element of traditional gospel new music in their songs. The great hits included "The Great Pretender" - The actual Platters, "Yakety Yak" - The Coasters & "Yes Sir, That's my Baby" - The exact Clovers coupled with many others. Down the road during the 1950's Elvis Presley came to be named the California king of Rock n Function. Even today he has still commemorated as 'The King'. The actual decline about Rock a few Roll has been witnessed in the early 1960's with the dying of popular musicians including Buddy Holy and Richie Valens inside of a plane wreck; the travel of Elvis Presley in the army, the actual retirement about Little Richard to become a preacher, prosecutions regarding Jerry Lee Lewis and Place Berry and also the breaking of your payola scandal. All of the preceding incidents provided a sexual enjoyment that the good ole' era provides come to a stop. However during its diminish rock in the roll observed a feminine area with an intro to probiotics benefits of love ballads targeted to a female audience & the surge of female groups for example the Crystals and then the Shirelles. The many events the fact that occurred in the very 1950's at some point led to what precisely came to be generally known as Surf Popular music, Garage Ordinary & the main Twist dancing craze. Risk major celebration that was successful in the 1960's was those of the climb of Language Rock in Roll while using emergence with the Beatles which had been greatly affected by the America's 1950's Rock and roll n Roll. The 1960's The 1960's witnessed a lot of events that adheres to that of the Vietnam War, Civil Rights Showdown, Surf Popular music, Hippie customs, The Bay area Scene, The Music of Protests & typically the birth with Heavy Metal. Also Rock some remarkable Roll in the particular 1960's had 4 development or elements. These sections are the following: Part As i - Often the Beatles & The British isles Invasion Element II - Motown New music Part 3 - Typical Rock: The exact Sounds on the 1960's Section IV aid Message New music Before 1963 i letusdothehomework.com/. at the. 1961 onwards America noticed the rise of Ocean Music some sort of Rock and Roll. This particular music has been pioneered by way of Duane Eddy, Link Wray, and The Efforts that put in distinctive "wet" reverb design & speedy alternate choosing to the popular music. One of the well-known hits has been "Let's Visit Trippin" in 1961 and this announced the ocean music trend. The in history favourite string quartet of this years is The Beach Boys. Area I - The Beatles & Often the British Incursion During this decades i. y. post 1963 America and the rest of the universe witnessed just what exactly came to be well-known only simply because 'The English Invasion'. While in the 1960's the most well find out and globally renowned band with the British offensive was the one and only Beatles. Often the Beatles till today are believed to be to be the in history success stories of the 1960's. The reason the Beatles are considered the most effective and most powerful rock groups of all time would be the because they had taken what Elvis and other Good ole' n Move artists established in the 1950's and metamorphosed it towards a whole new distinct thing. That's why this years is known as a bed that gave birth and labor to a modern of Ordinary. The Beatlemania had began with its first of all single hurt song throughout 1962 "Love Me Do" in Great Britain. Along with the Rock a few Roll of your 1950's the very Beatles widely popularized new genre of good ole' music including ranging from folks rock that will psychedelic appear. The Beatles were thus influential through the 1960's this their modern ideals had been considered to be cultural & societal revolutions. Several other great visitors of the Beatles include "I Wanna Store Your Hand" which offered 2 . 6th million copies in the United States in barely two weeks. The particular Beatles came out with many visitors during this years such as "She Loves You", "Please Please Me", and so forth Other growing bands within this era enclosed The Dork Clark Five, The Kinks & Typically the Rolling Stones. The In business Stones finest hit during this period was "Honky Tonk Woman" Part II - Motown Music Motown was a Detroit based track record company this was founded through Berry Gordy who was some one-time flow line worker within Ford Motor. It became essentially the most successful dark-colored owned history company by means of 1963. Motown had many vocal communities, songwriters & musicians. The background music recorded appeared to be known for her "tight orchestrations and catchy lyrics". The music was according to the injustice to the black locality during the Municipal War. The exact Motown greats were The particular Temptations, The actual Four Passes, Martha Reeves & typically the Vandellas as well as Diana Ross & Typically the Supremes. Area III -- Classic Really are fun: The Tones of the 1960's This era witnessed the fact that was known as the Hippe tradition. Their significant chant seemed to be 'Make Enjoy Not War'. Peace has been their actual theme. The Beatles is amongst the famous groups that transitioned during this period in terms of their own look along with music. Various other artist installed to everyday living were Jefferson Airplane, Elegance Slick, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, The Doors, Steppenwolf, Clair & Garfunkel, Mamas and also the Pappas and also Lovin Spoonful. The famous show of this age was The Woodstock. This was some sort of concert regarding promoting contentment, love & brotherhood. Artists like Jimi Hendrix shook up the conjunction. Part IV - Note Music A good number of themes in rock and roll on this era addressed love and even relationships removed wrong. It all followed the war on Vietnam & the variety of protests getting undertaken. The music was a trial to magnify upon the government actions occurring at this time like the civilizado rights exercise, the expanding unrest above the war around Vietnam, along with the rise about feminism. The main "message" inside song aimed at peace. Quite a few songs gained substantial airplay and became "anthems" at concert events, rallies, in addition to demonstrations. The main Message thru Folk Tunes & Often the Message by Rock Tunes The most well known artists to emerge from the particular folk custom include Joe Dylan, Nancy Baez, Phil Ochs, and also the trio identified as Peter, Paul holmes, and Betty. In 1965, a strong artist, Barry McGuire strong ! the charts with a song that resembled the escalating turmoil on the globe. Other favorite hippy and even psychedelic artists such as White Floyd, The actual Who, The very Rolling Gemstones, The Yardbirds, the Happier Dead, Jimi Hendrix, Cream, and others did start to rule the earth. These bands provided rise on the counterculture exercise, trendsetters, by their drug caused lyrics together with hypnotic tunes. Other genres of ordinary began to come out such as progressive rock and that is experimenting with many other instruments except for guitar, muskie and pieces. This was prominent by Pinkish Floyd. Men or women rock ended up being popularized by just Bob Dylan and Janis Joplin. Typically the 1960's inevitably gave your pregnancy to heavy metal and rock which is a thicker, heavy, and highly amplified genre involving rock primarily popularized through Black Sabbath. The world had been just now starting out witness the particular tremendous electrical power & impact rock seriously had about society. The particular 1970's From the 1970's the Vietnam World war had was concluded, the protests stopped & people begun to settle down. Along with that, the background music too performed settle down. The whole world witnessed often the split on the Beatles & also often the death regarding John Lennon. The 70's rock audio brought various cultures and even audiences more together than you ever have. Rock music began to part out straight into new races like Tough Rock, Heavy metal and rock & Punk Rock. Directed Zeppelin became extremely popular using its perfect mix of Hard Coarse & Sorrow music how they could phone call its own. In that era bands and artists and painters such as Brian Bowie, Indeed, The Eagles, and California king became very influential. Concerning the late 70's the world furthermore witnessed often the rise of Punk Rock and roll. The starting up fathers connected with punk had been The Ramones. They blended thoroughly anarchism along with teenage wrath with rock 'n roll and this came to be known as Punk Rock. Various other bands for example the Sex Pistols and The Clash helped popularize and redefine punk rock. This new, highly effective and forceful genre about music affected many groups of the future. The exact 1980's Thereafter came typically the 1980's. Good ole' Music improved itself in a manner that everyone was going to be part of the very upcoming field. The music required a different switch, more in relation to punk coarse, new tide, heartland really are fun and choice rock. The majority of people would consider the 80's as interesting features of big hairdos and androgyny. The gay and lesbian activists required to inside of a big simply by this several years. People begun embracing one other sex and everybody had coloring in almost everything they did or possibly wore. The inspired often the rock popular music scene dramatically. The eighties saw from enthusiasm to neon pinkish socks, damaged by adult males. Creativity was expressed which means that greatly within the 1980's and also artists put on their identity with golden technologies. The 1980's music picture is probably considered as amongst the strangest moments in the advancement of stone music. Music artists were carrying out everything, a variety of00 bubblegum appear, sentimental always ballads to be able to thumping utility beats and perhaps the hardest good ole' metal. This particular decade pretty much saw it. Artist including Bruce Springsteen, Guns as well as Roses, Viajan Halen, AC/DC, Aerosmith, Flat iron Maiden, Metallica, Bon Jovi, and Motley Crue can best end up being remembered for his or her power ballads and excellent guitar solos. A new type of music called like 'New wave' also blossomed from dick, funk, and even disco. It turned out made well-known by music artists such as Estrella, The B-52's, Talking Head, and Blondie. Indie coarse or Renewable rock currently well known begun to emerge in the late 1980's with artists for instance U2, R. E. Meters., The Cure, The main Smiths, and Sonic Youngster were very fashionable with young people. Punk moreover became more popular with rings such as Dark colored Flag and then the Dead Kennedys. This was at the same time the time for producers. They are importance matured and musicians took our own a good the manufacturer could take most of their records for the market. Subsequently came often the advent of possessing soundtracks with movies. File companies had any idea the economics in placing song inside a movie, the response was basically tremendous. Regardless of variety, the background music is the eighties was a huge hit, this still is. In addition to that's considering that the music mention the imagination of the people, it all made zero apologies, you can identify with the slow ballad by Phil Collins within the afternoon and set up their particular black leather-based jacket, rocking to In terms of iron Maiden by means of night time, everyone dint need to apologize that will anyone. Flexibility of manifestation, experimenting along with lyrics grew to be an integral part of the main eighties. Which is precisely the good reason that the eighties they say can not ever die. The actual 1990's The early to mid 90's was basically known as typically the era connected with grunge along with alternative rock. Nirvana was known as the most common grunge wedding band of the 90's. Grunge song can be described as dusty guitar, robust guitar riffs with distortion and opinions. It contains dark words of the tune and attributed teenage worry. Popular grunge and choice bands ended up Pearl Jam, Nirvana, Jane's Addiction in addition to Alice around Chains. A very iconic scene was associated with the occurence of female artists. Women were becoming much less dependent on men, and fewer oriented on the way to having a family-based future. These folks were daughters of girls who fought for same rights they usually expressed it- in the form of terms and information. The paper, Billboard contributed to the financial success within the music marketplace. It altered the way it ranked available girls and albums of music artists by tallying actual income at retailers instead of with the industry-manipulated word of mouth marketing. Rock unexpectedly beat pop in terms for sales, and "minority" genre such as state and hip-hop began to enter the charts. That led the industry to invest a lot more in these fraction genres. The 1990's demonstrated that music appeared to be for the crowd and that the concept behind popular music was to see the artist as one, his construction, his team, his lyrics, his image, his songs video spectacular personality. Anyone had their favorite type of favorite songs and a favourite genre, popular artist together with a favorite cd. You couldn't help it- there were plenty of choices by this time. 2000 aid Present Alternate choice rock even now is one of the famous and largest genre associated with rock songs. Emo, is known as a new sub-contract genre for rock which consists of extreme emotional words of the tune with serious punk root. It was widely popularized by rings like Through First for you to Last, Often the Used, Brand New and softer bands for example Dashboard Confessional and Brilliant Eyes that may also be identified as indie. The word "indie" literally stands for unbiased and is the term for bands that are part of a private record tag. However , at this time indie includes a whole new that means. Indie serves as a mainly up until now hidden and better version of other rock. Well-liked indie bands and artists include Passing away Cab meant for Cutie, The very Strokes, Elliott Smith, The Decemberists, The particular Arcade Fire, The Misiva Service & a few many others. Heavy metal has now reached a really new degree. Sub-genres regarding heavy metal just like black combination, death stainlesss steel and thrash metal which is certainly very deafening, aggressive and fast approached the industry. Preferred hardcore metal bands include Slipknot, Because i Lay Coloring, Korn, Indicacion Jean and also Cannibal Depouille. Alternative stone has now grow to be an all effort hit utilizing bands that include Incubus, Pink Hot Chili Peppers, Chevelle, Coldplay, and also the Foo Mma fighters. Pop ordinary is another common genre. It is rock combined with a more general approach together with popular song lyrics. Pop rock bands can include Fall Out Youngster, All-American Rejects, Ashlee Simpson, Avril Lavigne, and others. One other form of favorite songs that came in relation to was the hiphop rock. People symbolized the actual fusion with the raw, streets music and also hard natural stone pelting sounds. It was a fast hit along with the fans with both the categorie. Examples of these kinds of were Linkin Park, Limp Bizkit, Religious beliefs no More, Rage Against the Machines, etc Really are fun Music inside the Indian Predicament Rock favorite songs caught about in Asia during the the middle of 70's. From the hearing reports of my dad and his friends in small time bands actively playing the good oldies like Elvis Presley, The actual Carpenters, Typically the Beatles, The particular Shadows, Joe Dylan and various other artists their guitars. Just read was many these types of small online communities which were predominantly Catholics which played the many dance volumes mainly for marriage ceremonies & the Christmas flow. These were the main jive & the turn numbers that others used to love to dance in order to back in the day. In regards towards the 80's artists like Directed Zeppelin, Ominous Straits & Jethro Tull became noiseless popular. People used to order these music cassettes in addition to listen to these kinds of music particular audio cassette players & Sony Walkman. That nonetheless was a quite a while ago. Points soon transformed with the Gulf of mexico War for 1991 opening the entrance to medium in The indian subcontinent. MTV was initially one of the options that were beamed, along with CNN. Apart from Put music what exactly caught at quickly had been rock. Nevertheless as an viewers, the amounts in Asia were yet minimal. It previously was only bands like Outl Leppard, Note Jovi and also U2 that will caught the fancy of a lot of people. For a large extent, rock began and concluded with Profound Purple's Interstate Star. The love for rock only designed name-dropping and wanting to tone fashionably edgy. All that adjusted quickly converted to from the calendar year 2000 onwards. Hard rock and roll quickly snagged on in conjunction with its in the us Heavy Metal and is also literally worshipped in many technological innovation colleges across India. Numerous groups are formed in a number of areas where the exact rock landscape is still lively. These include Goa, Bangalore, Mumbai, Pune & Delhi. A lot of popular India bands come from these kind of areas and still have composed rather famous bites that are well recognized to the Indian native Rockers. Many engineering educational facilities still shell out tribute for you to Rock by hosting Natural stone shows in which fans from various parts from the country hasty to gather head bang with harmony. The earliest rock band with India to get famous seemed to be Indus Creed. Famous Native american rock rings of today comprise of bands for example Zero, Pentagram, Parikrama, These individuals Clones plus various some. One taking place rock displays of Mumbai used to be often the Independence Really are fun gig on Rang Bhavan popularly often known as I-Rock which used to be jam-packed and packed as it was seriously popular and had rings playing with all over the country. Away from late very good of i-rock has deceased down because of the change in time and venue due to specific restrictions. Some other new genre of rock music containing probably advanced in The land of india is Fusion rock that involves blending Of india classical equipment with that on the electric guitar, key pad & accus. This is whatever is definitely springing up in the country together with rock melodies in Hindi rather than English language and even in Hinglish. I even now feel that you can find very poor liberalization for Coarse music in your country but since time goes by by elements will definitely are considered getting better. You evident simply to Channel V's 'Launch Pad' that arises every year the fact that hunts to search for the Countries most well liked and ideal Rock band. Alongside Channel Sixth v, MTV even offers started one thing called seeing that Rock with Desi Beats that hunts for fusion rock groups of the region and popularizes the best. One other evident undeniable fact that rock tunes is reeling in up easily was the release of the dvd 'Rock On' directed by just & with Farhan Akhtar. Conclusion For that reason I ardently believe that Natural stone music which consists of legendary Past can never perish out. It will probably always be a component of culture and may always be find out as truley what shapes customs & firmly affects world. It is lastly meant for customers to understand that Stone is just with regards to the music and also the passion this drives inside youth. It should not be stereotyped with drug abuse alcoholism & other bassesse. For this to happen this gives lingual braces the people that need to change their valuable ways along with it is essential in the famous performers to set a example as they owe the idea to their lovers as much as that they owe it to the new music. Another important element is that although opportunities near your vicinity for Coarse music have become low & it is extremely hard to become significant, society need to encourage the kids that have a desire for this new music.
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No Ordinary Hello and welcome to this blog for pretty crossdressers and selected trans-TVs. Here you will find elegance and class only. No nudity. Please be polite and civil. I always mention the source of the...
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Welcome to Neolithicsea This is a personal journey through time and space, visiting many places and the story told in pictures and words. As with most journeys, we encounter the ordinary, the unusual and the obscure. Some we seek, some we find and some even find us.
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Inspire Apartments | Luxury Las Vegas Apartments for Rent in 89128 Escape the ordinary at Inspire Apartments in Las Vegas, NV. New studio, one & two bedroom luxury apartments for rent in 89128. Close to shopping, dining & entertainment.