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SSS Online Portal | History of Bangladesh is full of power shifts, disasters, conflicts and victory. Though Bangladesh is a small country in Asia, historically it is very important. She has seen important rises and falls in history. The earliest history is a little vague. The political life of ancient Bangladesh can be found in the Greek and Latin History. In 326 BCE, when Alexander the Great invaded India, he withdrew from his conquered place as he anticipated a counter attack from the Bengal region. The Bengal region was then ruled by some valiant rulers. Bengal region was ruled by the Hindu kings. The Muslims first invaded the area in 13th Century. They seized control and established their independent rule. They ruled for nearly two hundred years without any major foreign invasion. But in 15th Century, the traders from different countries of Europe started coming to Bengal region. The Portuguese, Dutch, French and British came one by one into this region. The main reason of the European traders for coming to this region was to make money from the local market. They wanted to spread their influence in the field of trade and economy in South Asia. Though the traders had economic motives when they arrived, soon they took interest in the local politics. In 1757, the last Muslim leader of Bengal region was defeated by the British. The British started ruling the Bengal region. They imposed their rule upon the people of that region. They controlled West Bengal for approximately two hundred years. The British people had to leave India and Bengal region for strong pressure from the local intellectuals and ordinary people. Near the end of the Second World War, the size of the British Empire got reduced. The empire was breaking down. Though Gandhi and Viceroy Lord Mountbattan both tried to unite the Hindus and Muslims, the Muslims felt insecure. They were worried because they thought they will be neglected in India as this is a region dominated by the Hindus. Due to the situation, Lord Mountbattan decided to divide the subcontinent in 1947. Two countries were born instead of one. One is India and another is Pakistan. According to the partition agreement, India would be a Hindu state and Pakistan would be a Muslim state. Pakistan was divided into two parts: East Pakistan (Bengal) and West Pakistan (Punjab). Even after the partition, there were conflicts between the Hindus and Muslims. So, finally Muslims left India and moved to Pakistan. The Hindus left Pakistan and moved to India. Though there were disparity between the history, culture, lifestyle, language and customs of the two parts of Pakistan, they were united on the basis of shared belief in Muslim religion. But problems arose soon when the rulers started distinguishing the people of West Pakistan from the East Pakistan. The disparity in all sectors made the people of East Pakistan angry. The discontent grew due to the unfair policies and partial treatment of the people of East Pakistan by the government. When Urdu was imposed upon the people of East Pakistan, they revolted. Many people die for the language. The language movement brought the courage among the people of Bangladesh and they dreamt of freeing the land from the invasion of Pakistan. Finally, in 1971, after a bloody war of 9 months, Bangladesh became independent. Bangladesh Travel Guide – Three Cities to Visit With air travel becoming ever more affordable regardless of destination, scheduling a trip to exotic locations like Bangladesh is becoming the norm rather than the exception in today's travel culture. Likewise, the expansive reach of the internet now allows any traveler to check a prospective tourist destination in advance so much so that one can now plan a trip entirely on a mobile phone mobile internet device. Such advancements in travel and tourism have simplified the process so much that all one needs to do is decide exactly where to go and everything else is taken cared of from there. From insurance quotes to itinerary booking, any traveler is now safe in the hands of advance travel planning. For this reason, it comes down to deciding which three cities in, say Bangladesh, is well worth the visit for any traveler looking to relax, unwind, and see the world. You can find many article source references on the subject but for ease and convenience, we are listing down the three cities in Bangladesh that is well worth anyone's time. Dhaka. The capital and largest city in Bangladesh, Dhaka is a melting pot of the old and the new. Dhaka is also an ideal springboard for further incursions into other parts of the country. It features the most extensive list of local tourism agencies which will do all things for you short of sending a "Good Night SMS." Dhaka is also an excellent venue for getting all the necessary supplies in case you plan on spending a night or two in many of the more exotic destinations that grant access to wildlife, camping, hiking, and other outdoor adventures. Instead of spending your time reading phen375 reviews, perhaps you'd lose more weight if you spend time in Dhaka and other Bangladeshi locations. Not only are you seeing the world, but you are also doing your body a favor as well. Sundarbans. Located in the southern part of Bangladesh, Sundarbans is home to some of the most recognizable natural attractions anywhere in the world. This is a prime location for beautiful forests, the biggest mangrove growth in the world, and expansive delta swamps. Are you looking for an alternative to the Africa Safari? Sundarbans ably fits the bill. While you may not be able to buy premium Kratom here, you get everything else in the name of a crazy and wild adventure and for any nature lover, that's a trip that is well worth the attraction. Kuakata. Far away from the commercialized beaches in many other Asian locations, Kuakata in Bangladesh offers reclusive beach locations that make you feel like you are in paradise. The beaches here are strategically located to give you a stunning view of both the sunrise and the sunset. Bring your labrador retriever with you and it may feel like home away from home. Online public relations information allows you to scout your trip ahead of time. If you want more information on Bangladesh prior to scheduling a trip, do your homework and look up all the necessary information. Past that, you will not regret booking a trip to Bangladesh. Easily one of the most romantic getaways on Earth, you'll find all the comfort, relaxation and quiet that you need in Bangladesh, in the company of animals, the stunning beach and an expansive blue sky. You'll probably ask yourself why you did not come sooner. The History of Bangladesh Compared to its more popular neighbors Indian, Pakistan and Burma, the history of Bangladesh is not as well known. However, this does not mean that the history of this small country in South Asia is anything less dramatic or interesting. Like dreamweaver templates, the history of Bangladesh presents its own set of challenges and subplots that are intriguing to any student of world history but importantly to those who have taken a keen interest at this country. Bangladesh did not become a formal sovereign state until 1971 but even before this, it already had a rich culture that was well documented in the region. This is because the thriving religions of Hinduism and Buddhism all had their roots somewhere in the region where Bangladesh is located. As such, the land on which modern-day Bangladesh has stood has been a stirring witness to rise and fall of many civilizations in the area. No amount of anti wrinkle cream can hide the fact that Bangladesh has laid witness to countless wars for various purposes from the early Gupta and Harsha Empires of the 3rd to 6th centuries CE to the last war that led to its independence. The long history of Bangladesh paved the way to the occupation of the British in the 19th century. The change in governing authority was more like a drug detox for the people of Bangladesh who had to get accustomed to a new set of political, religious and economic policies. It was never a melaleuca experience; rather it was a time of serious struggle for the people who had to adjust to foreign influences for the very first time. Still, this also marks the period where the people of Bangladesh were formally introduced to the benefits coming from the West particularly in the area of education and medical aid. Formal independence for Bangladesh was gained following the war in 1971. This was after Bangladesh was originally considered as East Pakistan. While the country remained under Indian influences for the next few years, Bangladesh began to be freely ruled by people from within the country. This marked a period of steady progress where Bangladesh opened itself to modernization, and economic growth via capitalism. With the introduction of modern advantages like online mba for students, the growth of it jobs, and even technological benefits like home alarm systems, Bangladesh is slowly but surely introducing itself into the world. Still, the history of Bangladesh continues to evolve today as the country fights to overcome serious social, political and economic issues in the 21st century. Its economy enjoys a solid BB- rating which is higher than that of Pakistan and neighbor Sri Lanka but it also continues to suffer from rampant perceptions of corruption and crime. As Bangladesh forges ahead, there is no doubt it will be present in many an ebook reader detailing its ascent into the world stage. Only time will tell if Bangladesh makes the leap from being a developing country into a development one. That is something that the government and its people must work hard at achieving in order to be able to provide a bright future for the future generations of Bangladeshi citizens. The Three Must See Cities in Bangladesh If you are all for travel and tourism to exotic destinations particularly those in the Southeast Asian region, then there are three must-see cities in Bangladesh that you need to visit to complete your whirlwind tour of The Far East. While the name of these cities are fairly hard to remember or might cause you to cheat at scrabble, there are plenty of reasons – mainly religious and cultural – that make Bangladesh and its cities a definite stopover during a trip in the region. Here are the three must-see cities in Bangladesh and what you should expect when you drop by these unique tourism destinations. Dhaka. The capital of Bangladesh, its primary attraction has to be its mind-boggling "collection" of rickshaw transports. By conservative estimates, there are roughly 400,000 rickshaws running around Dhaka on any given day and you do not need a masters of accounting to tell you that such a number is truly astounding especially when you consider that Dhaka is not even close to being considered a major metropolitan district by global standards. Rickshaws are the lifeblood of Dhaka as a city and they bring tourists closer to the city attractions figuratively and literally speaking. Dhaka is also home to plenty of cultural attractions like the prominent national holidays on March 26 commemorating the nation's Independence, February 21 as the Language Martyr's day, and the 16th of December as Victory Day. These carry the local Buddhist and Hindu influences in the region and are excellent attractions to those interested in learning about East Asian culture. Any masters in education or even those planning RN to BSN online programs but would want to take a break before plunging to the rigors of intensive studying can certainly benefit from the refreshing atmosphere that is Dhaka, Bangladesh. Of course, we mean that in the full cultural sense of the word. Chittagong. Next to Dhaka, Bangladesh, Chittagong is the next biggest city in the country and is home to a multicultural collection of beliefs influenced by Islamic, Buddhist, and Hindu cultures primarily because of its location as a port. Chittagong is also home to the rich historical chapters that helped defined Bangladesh as the struggles opposing the conquering invaders of the Second World War had its roots here. At its very best, Chittagong is undergoing a dramatic face lift and is becoming an attractive home to many an umbrella company as the city is widely considered as one of the fastest growing metropolitan districts in the world. If you want to see a third-world city in action, or if you are planning to grow your business in East Asia, there is little doubt that Chittagong is the best place to be in as it also gives you access to neighboring territories like Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Northeast India, and even Southern China. Khulna. Rounding up the list of the three must-see cities in Bangladesh is Khulna which, not surprisingly, is the 3rd largest city in the country after Chittagong and Dhaka. Khulna is a vital location for many a masters in health administration professional as majority of the world's battles against infectious diseases are being waged here, including malaria and water-borne diseases. Still, it cannot be denied that Khulna remains to be a vital and strategic location for business and economics in the region as it is like a city with a coach hire advertisement sign as it seeks to remodel itself into a vital economic hub next to Chittagong. As Bangladesh grows, so will Khulna with all the potential that it offers. While Bangladesh is far from being one of the most recognizable cities in the world, its potential for growth is more than apparent. Consequently, it remains to be a popular destination for exotic tourism escapades or even backpacking trips for religious and spiritual discoveries. The next time you find yourself in Bangladesh, check out Dhaka, Chittagong, and Khulna for all the great attractions that it offers. With these, you can make your Bangladesh visit one that will be truly memorable for many years to come. Travel Tips While Visiting Bangladesh If you have never been to Bangladesh and you are looking for more information on the country, its citizens, the roads, the sightseeing that is worth awhile there, the best types of hotels to stay in or what precaution measures should you be taking if you are planning on going here for the summer, you should read article here and learn everything there is to know about Bangladesh and Bangladesh tourism in particular. First and foremost, you are going to have to think about the prefect time of the year when you can visit Bangladesh. Once you are done with this type of planning, you should go ahead and decide what type of transportation means should you better opt for. Taking the bus could represent an action that is going to submit you to a constant threat of terrorism is some areas of Bangladesh. Driving to this far-distant country could also prove to not be a great idea. Taking your time and doing the proper amount of research about traveling to and visiting Bangladesh should also help you understand if taking your english mastiff along is a good idea or not, especially if you are going to be travelling to cities such as Sylhet and Chittagogn Hill Tracts. There are no top dental hygienist schools awaiting for there, but rather cruel acts of terrorism that might be welcoming you on these lands. As a matter of fact, the general lines of recommendations refer to the avoidance of tourism travelling to these parts of Bangladesh, as you will also be required to go through some rather harsh formalities. The official authorities are going to be asking for a 10-day notice in regards to your travel plans in Chittagong Hill Tracts. In other words, the situation can get so delicate there, that, at times, not even the best wrinkle creams on the planet should be able to help you forget all about your terrorism-related experience. Violent street disorders, local abductions of citizens or politicians and bus or public vehicle burning activities are not uncommon here. Ordering some books using Amazon Australia and doing some heavy reading about acts of terrorism should aid you learn more about this threats of the 21th century. Plus, pick pocketing and armed robberies are also often times occurring in Bangladesh, so special attention needs to attributed to doing your shopping there. As for the road travelling itself, you also need to pay special attention to the poor road conditions and the poor quality of the roads. Speeding and aggressive overtaking of the road are going to yet pose another threat to you, so if you are thinking about going to Bangladesh in order to be a part of some mph programs, you should probably think again. Upon preparing your incursion here, you might as well think about asking some masters of social work students to tell you how to handle travelling to countries that are under the threat of terrorism. Bangladesh Breakdown Country Analysis Bangladesh The Vibrant Culture of Bangladesh When eyeing a country to visit in Asia, it helps to be acquainted with the vibrant culture of Bangladesh, a small country of 148 million people sandwiched between India and Burma. Not too long ago, the reputation of Bangladesh was such that it was a poor country reliant on agriculture, tourism, and fishery as its primary means for livelihood. However, the growth of industrial and commercial markets primarily coming from India and spilling over to Bangladesh and fueled by more research into technologies designed to push the region forward has dramatically uplifted the quality of life in Bangladesh. As such, it is now one of the more enticing destinations for tourists from all over the globe. With regard to the culture of this vibrant country, everything begins with the influence of history and religion to what has become of Bangladesh today. It is heavily influenced by the cultures from India and the Cambodian peninsula which is discussed in better detail when you click here. Bangladesh also has very strong ties to Islamic traditions from nearby Middle East and this is also an essential determinant in today's economy where company ratings can be traced to connections in the Arab peninsula. The same can be said of the music coming from Bangladesh. While the country does not produce Taylor guitars for export, you can bet that it has a long list of musical instruments that pool together the country's rich history and cultural heritage. Such instruments include the ektara, dhol, dotara and tabla and are important musical pieces in North Indian classical music. The richness of the musical genre also spills over into the dance scene as there are many folk dances, not different from those in South Africa, which are predominantly buoyed by the local tradition in the area. More importantly, the myriad of festivals and celebrations in Bangladesh are major tourist attractions the whole year around and are strong enough that the industry fuels subsequent other businesses like home remodeling companies that kick into high gear at the onset of the tourist season. Festivals like the Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha of the Islamic calendar are well received and widely sought out by foreigners more than you would expect with a free cell phone. The same can be said of colorful Hindu festivals like Kali Puja, Durga Puja, and Saraswati Puja while Buddhist festivals like the birth of Buddha are also celebrated. There is so much to see and enjoy in Bangladesh, borne on the shoulders of its rich cultural heritage. Book a trip today and see for yourself why Bangladesh is one of the most traveled destinations in Central Asia. It's a trip that will surely fill your heart with great memories and one that will open your eyes to the richness and diversity of Bengali culture. Is Bangladesh Worth Visiting? Whenever we hear of tourist destinations marketed heavily, we always end up asking ourselves whether that place is worth visiting or not in the first place. A classic case, for example, is Bangladesh where tourism ads have been revving in full gear for a while now. Those ads do not shy away from proclaiming all the good things in Bangladesh so much so that, just from reading the ads, one would surely be enticed to check out the potential travel destinations. You find yourself reading, and then shortly after, clicking the first link to people's testimonies about Bangladesh. So is it really worth visiting? Should you even bother to plan a trip to Bangladesh? The true answer is that it really depends on your goals as a tourist. Let's be honest; it's unreasonable to expect that you will find the best in First World amenities in Bangladesh. You can't expect to see first class counterparts of your Dentist Salem Oregon or Vancouver WA dentists. If you are expecting the best that the world has to offer when you visit Bangladesh, then you will be sorely disappointed. However, this does not mean that Bangladesh is the complete opposite of what you'd expect from a first class tourist destination. The capital, Dhaka, is fairly industrialized owing to the huge volume of businesses that finds its way into Bangladesh. As a result, the amenities have followed suit and international hotel brands are not setting shop in Bangladesh. On the one hand, you may not find a Domestic Violence Attorney Seattle counterpart in Bangladesh, but finding a Westin hotel or a Radisson Blu Garden Hotel is more than enough to make up for your worries. But of course, this is not why one should come to Bangladesh. For that, you would have to be interested in the culture. Bangladesh draws inspiration from the unique intersection of the Hindu and Buddhist religions resulting in one of the more unique cultural marriages in the world. Its literature, music and arts, and norms are heavily influenced by this social union. While you may not find fantasy football names here, the festivals and attractions will be more than sufficient to keep you engaged. The cities also offer a unique insight in Third World life. Bangladesh is dominated by huge populations packed in the metropolitan areas offering a unique avenue for observing the life of many who seek to make it in the big city. Between the cars, scooters, and rickshaws during the rush hour traffic, plus the added beauty of Bangladesh's many waterways, there is plenty to see and explore in the city. You can even watch people window cleaning high alongside tall skyscrapers, if only to see how the life in this progressive country relies heavily on manpower resources. Bangladesh has plenty to offer for the right person and is certainly a good place to find something new. Learn more about what Bangladesh can offer so you can personally decide if indeed, this is a country that is well worth visiting for a tourist getaway. Economic Progress in Bangladesh There seems to be a common perception from many in the Western world that most countries in Asia outside of the notables like China, Japan, Singapore, and Russiaare wallowing in continued poverty and have yet to enjoy the benefits of economic progress. Do a quick survey in Americaasking about the economic progress in Bangladesh and the long-standing perception is that the country is more than likely to have never heard of the somanabolic muscle maximizer scam and many similarly complicated ploys. All told, it is hard to picture a country as notoriously languid as Bangladesh snapping out of its funk and finally climbing the rungs of economic progress. Is this perception true or can we be any more farther from the truth? Consider the facts vetted by multiple UN agencies and recently released to pronounce Bangladesh's slow but sure arrival on the world economic stage: 6% GDP growth amidst the global economic crisis when most western countries were seeing declines 8% growth on the industrial sector 6% growth in the services department 4% growth in agriculture 90% of all annual public spending is now supported by domestic sources rather than borrowed from international agencies like the IMF and World Bank The economic progress shown by Bangladesh over the last few years has been nothing short of astounding especially when considered in the light of Bangladesh's recent economic struggles. In a relatively short period, the country has moved from basic cash advance transactions to being an attractive hub for foreign investments in South Asia. Bangladesh primarily draws on its manpower competitive advantage to funnel jobs from rising economic powers China and India so much so that in recent years, company equivalents to a Beaverton Auto Accident assistance firm are beginning to exist. A big portion of the rise in economic performance is driven by key changes to policies which have fostered a business-friendly climate well beyond your everyday plumber chester business. Specific examples include fair and speedy processing steps for local and foreign investors alike leveling the playing field and allowing outsiders to put up their business quickly and efficiently. A Scottish Trust Deed business equivalent deciding to establish a base in Bangladesh would take no more time than a local businessman putting up an agricultural company. The same can be said of legal measures to protect from nationalization, the strict enforcement of intellectual property laws, reduced duties on imports as well as subsidies on exports, and even corporate tax holidays among other things. The long road to economic independence is slowly off for Bangladesh although it is certain that more time is required before people begin to buy Kratom just because they can, rather than do it out of need. Still, any road to progress, no matter how slow, is much better than taking a few steps backward. No doubt,Bangladesh's recent economic data suggests it is trending in the right direction with more reason for continued optimism. Only time, and the vigorous implementation of more business-friendly policies, can guarantee that growth will be sustained. In the interim, there is cause for a minor celebration. In the long-term, there is certainly cause for much hope. The Flourishing Export Business in Bangladesh The People's Republic of Bangladesh is one of the flourishing countries in Asia, despite it being a flood-prone nation during the rainy season. It has quite a lot of resources that has attracted investors for import and export businesses and local trading as well, generating a positive input in supplier and client history. While farmers and crop cultivators make up the majority of the country's population, the export business in Bangladesh generally come from the supreme group of fabrics and textiles that they manufacture. They are also known to have large deposits of minerals such as limestone, hard rock and silicone sand. Even though the country has quite a lot of resources in almost every industry, especially in the agricultural side, the absence of competent technologies to harness them is one of the main reasons why their assets have yet to reach the full potential of being explored and properly utilized. They have yet to take advantage of the high-end equipments that will transform their raw materials to several things that are deemed useful to every country. Nevertheless, their current export ventures in the garment business are still a promising one for the Bangladeshis. They are also doing export on leather, paper, tea, ceramic items, to name a few, and all of which have given positive inputs in the economy. The major counterparts of Bangladesh in their imported and exported products are India, China, Japan, USA, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and other countries in Europe. Companies involved in this major activity stay in touch with suppliers and customers alike through the virtual phone service that helps them stay organized and connected with each other at all times. In doing so, they are keeping their economy in the balance by importing the goods they need and produce products for local and internal consumption, by means of export. True, Bangladesh may still be laid back in terms technology innovation, but their manpower has never failed to sustain and maintain their status in the global market. Aside from the thriving economy of Bangladesh, the country has also quite a number of natural resources to be proud of. It is primarily because of the Sundarbans, which is considered to be the world's biggest mangrove forest, where the Royal Bengal Tiger resides, among many other beautiful creatures in the wild. Shapla is the country's national flower, known to many as water lily, while Kathal, or jackfruit, is their national fruit, and of late, they have chosen their national tree to be that of a mango. With the natural beauty of the country and persistence among its citizens, Bangladesh will continue to attract new markets and globally be recognized as one of the leading exporters of prime commodities. Neighboring countries may have yet to learn more from their ways and adopt their simplicity and sincerity in approaching things. Needless to say, they have gone far with lesser modern mechanism, and will continue to achieve much more if they are given the opportunity to be explored. Is Bangladesh in Crisis? Bangladesh politics offers some great insights into what can happen when abuse of authority can corrupt an otherwise peaceful march to progress and equality. From late 2006 to 2008, Bangladesh was embroiled in a deadly and violent political crisis which claimed the lives of many people. Many a professional institute focusing on global political affairs point to the root of the whole conflict as the mismanagement of political authority when it was conferred by the Bangladeshi constitution during a period of political transition. There are basically two dominant political parties in Bangladesh; the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and the Awami League. In late 2006, a caretaker government was formed to oversee the administration of the national election following a two-decade long political conflict. This was not Ibiza where blue horizons were seen up ahead. Instead, the Awami League questioned what it termed where unfair acts by the caretaker government designed to manipulate the results of the upcoming election. When the Awami League announced that it would boycott the upcoming election, the political crisis boiled over leading to riots and clashes which claimed the life of many political supported on both sides. The cessation of hostilities in late 2008 was made possible by the intervention of the UN and the EU in Bangladeshi political affairs. This intervention led to the creation of an interim government where the President was not elected. It only served to momentarily diffuse the tensions like lulls on movie trailers online but as long as the issues remain, the threat continues to be present and waiting for the right moment to manifest itself. Enter 2013 when the EU and UN have suspended their participation in the election monitoring process owing to claims that a credible political system for fair and equal voting does not exist. This has set the stage for what can be another deadly round of political crisis in Bangladesh. Like sciatica that only lies dormant, now is perhaps the time where it can all resurface again with even more deadly consequences. The planned 2013 elections in Bangladesh give rise to two very important issues that require attention not only by the local ruling government but also by international watchdogs with a stake in the country. These are the rise of election-related violence as parties go against each other in the pursuit of their own respective agenda, and the role of the increasingly imbalanced military which can escalate violence even further. Both elements are so serious it cannot be addressed by the metaphorical coconut oil for face approach. Something needs to be done if a new round of violence is to be prevented. So what can we expect from this political turmoil? There is no clear answer to that question, but there are sound suggestions. First, the sitting government led by Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina from the Awami League must take careful steps to assure the BNP that a fair election will occur, much like when the Awami clamored for BNP to do the same in 2008. Second, a conciliatory approach needs to be taken akin to employing a car accident attorney to objectively settle matters. Third, the military must remain non-biased on the issue, but also restrained in its quest to control the conflict. This is a goal that is far easier said than done. So is Bangladesh in crisis? It might not be, YET. Only time will tell if the parties involved can come into a peaceful resolution of their differences so they can forge a credible government which will carry Bangladesh to its future;if not, then there is little doubt that a political crisis is about to happen again. And this time, the consequences can be even deadlier. ICC Twenty20 World Cup 2014 Held In Bangladesh The best cricket players in the world recently gathered in Bangladesh to compete in the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 tournament. Organized by the International Cricket Council (ICC), the games were played from March 16 to April 6, 2014 in three cities of Dhaka, Chittagong, and Sylhet. Although this was already the 5th ICC World Twenty20 competition, it was the second consecutive time that an Asian country, Bangladesh, hosted the event. The 2012 version was held in Sri Lanka. Established in June 15, 1909, the International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body of the popular sports of cricket. The ICC is headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and has 106 member countries including Bangladesh, Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Canada, and other countries. There are 10 Full Members that play official Test matches, 37 Associate Members, and 59 Affiliate Members. The ICC World Twenty20, aka ICC World T20 or World Twenty20, is an international championship of Twenty20 cricket normally held every two years. The first ever tournament was held in 2007 in South Africa and was won by India. Twenty20 cricket, commonly shortened to T20, is a form of cricket that was first played in England and Wales for professional inter-county tournaments in 2003 and administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). Introduced to create a more lively form of cricket, a Twenty20 game can be completed in approximately three hours. Each inning lasts about 75-90 minutes with 10-20 minutes interval. Such is the worldwide popularity of the Twenty20 game that the ICC adopted the format and made it into an international competition in the form of the ICC World Twenty20 tournament. The ICC World Twenty20 is played on a group stage and knockout format. Points are awarded to teams during Round 1 and Super 10 stages. 2 points for win, 1 point for no result/tie, zero for loss. During the 2014 tournament, 16 warm-up matches were played in March 12-19, 2014. In the Group stage, teams were clustered into Group A and Group B. In the Super 10, teams were organized into Group 1 and Group 2. In the Knockout stage, four teams competed in the Semifinals until two teams remain and competed in the championship round. The following teams directly qualified for the Super 10: Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and West Indies. The following teams qualified for the group stage: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Ireland, Nepal, Netherlands, United Arab Emirates, and Zimbabwe. After holding thirty-five matches at three different venues, the tournament closed by declaring Sri Lanka as the champion. Virat Kohli of India was declared the Man of the Series as well as the player with the most runs of 319. Most wickets awards were given to Imran Tahir of South Africa and Ahsan Malik of Netherlands, each with 12 wickets. To learn more about wicket, visit icc-cricket.com to get more information. If you have the desire to learn cricket, then go for it, have fun, and play. Please browse through the Web pages of our portal to find out more about the SSS organisation and our objectives, and to make a donation by clicking on the Donate logo, on the right hand side of the page. About SSS Welcome to SSS!Society for Social Service (SSS) is a local non-profit, non-political, non-governmental voluntary organisation. It was established in November 1986 by the initiative of a group of development workers of Tangail district in order to promote the socio-economic condition of the underprivileged and indigent Bangladeshi people with special attention to women and children.
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Then this will be the most important message you will ever read. Big Call? Maybe. Here's why Let me explain… Hi, my name is Jane A few years ago I moved a ton of possessions from Canada..... to a tiny two bedroom house in Sydney Australia. Not only was this house small it had NO closets, cupboards, basement or garage. At the time I didn't even know houses existed without basements. I mean… where's a girl supposed to keep all her extra stuff? Maybe you can relate to my story. Our house was full BUT when I had my children things quickly got overwhelming. We had way too many things, absolutely no storage space and I kept everything. Don't get me wrong..... I love being a mom..... but adding all the baby and toddler stuff to my overfull house made it impossible to enjoy my kids. Clutter made everyday hard work. I seemed to be picking up and putting away all day long. I began to feel chronically overwhelmed. I was a busy mom- with a million things to do every day. The housework was never ending. I seemed to be picking up and putting away all day long. No matter what I did... everything seemed disorganized I tried to be organized and find the right place for things. But I didn't have the knack. And guess what... I spent tons of time every day looking for... shoes, socks, pens and keys. You name it I looked for it. My overfull house drained my time and... I felt tired, grumpy and overwhelmed all the time. It was impossible to keep my house basically neat and tidy. By the way. This is where my story gets really alarming I was so tired I couldn't face my cluttered disorganized kitchen so we often ordered pizza. I found out I had spent more at the pizza place than I had in my bank account. Whoops! What a shocking wake up call. I never realized how much money clutter was costing me. Expensive take out food, costly disorganized grocery shopping, throwing away food we never ate, buying clothes I never wore, buying stuff on sale because I might need it, office supplies I never used and the toys my kids never played with. At that moment I realized... my clutter, mess and disorganization cost me thousands of dollars. So I thought I have to do something to get my home organized and stop wasting money. I was determined to get out of this clutter crisis and live lighter, simpler and manage money better. But where to Start? So, of course I went to the internet, I don't know about you... but very quickly I got into information overload! There were so many different tips and a lot of useless information out there. If one person said do this the other said do that. It was so confusing. The information was piecemeal and complicated. I found it too difficult in my overwhelmed state. All I wanted was a simple- join the dots- all in one- resource that could handhold me through every step of the process, start to finish. I wanted a new perspective. A fresh start AND a quick easy way to dump all my clutter baggage. Just give me simple easy to follow info in one place! Anyway read on and let me save you the brain draining hours in front of your computer, But if you are happy to stop and patch bits of info together, be prepared to be stuck, confused, frustrated...... and keep your clutter forever Back to my story.. So I went back to the bottomless pit of scattered online information… to try to put something together that I could use. While I was searching for answers- I thought about some of the problems I had. Maybe you can relate to this? Have you ever felt like this? You think information to help me would be easy to find? Hhhmmmmm So I tried to put together relevant (so I thought) information to attempt to get things under control. It didn't work. The information wasn't simple or actionable. There were too many steps and no plan. Most of the "declutter information" saw me getting rid of the wrong things and regretting decluttering again. The information didn't help me make the right decision or translate to my life and my home. I would start clearing stuff out, then it would get too hard and stopped. The clutter just kept coming. I struggled with staying motivated but all I felt was fear. It frustrated me to no end To cut my long story short... I had a brilliant idea. Instead of decluttering I bought dressers and cupboards to put my stuff in. Now things started to get a lot worse. I collected more stuff and... I had more drawers to look through. I became more and more disorganized. The frustration was building. I started spending big bucks on containing my clutter. I even thought about renting a storage unit. To complicate things I continued to make bad decisions. In a frustrated decluttering frenzy I accidentally threw out some valuable jewelry, (left in a pocket of a pair of jeans I gave to charity). I donated an expensive carpet and then I had to spend money to replace it. I sold my nice dishes and kept my cheap ones. I was dumping the things I loved in the name of clutter! What was I thinking! This increased my fear of letting things go so I just hung on to things even tighter. The internet information I gathered told me to organize my clutter. So I, bought organizing products. Guess what….. some of them were the wrong size, others ugly and….. most of them just added to my disorganization. So now I had containers of things stacked everywhere. You're probably wondering what I did. Well… I was so angry about the wasted money and even bigger mess I gave most of the containers away. My daily battle was in the kitchen. It was so disorganized... I could never figure out where to put things. Deciding dinner started at 5 o'clock- with a quick dash to the store. My grocery bill was huge. I probably trashed around 40% of the food we bought. Don't get me started on the mess in our office. Piles of paper, chaotic, bill paying system and boxes of disorganized files. I just didn't know where to start or what to throw out. And guess what? I was a grumpy mommy and rotten partner. Household tasks were so time consuming… I couldn't relax at home. My stress and unhappiness were starting to go off the charts. I was tired of the same generic how to. It didn't give me support or change the way I thought about stuff. In fact all it did was make me waste a lot of money and end up creating even more clutter. And this is just the tip of the iceberg So here I was in my shrinking home... feeling more and more depressed because my dream of an easier lifestyle and beautiful home were drifting far away. I didn't seem to be able to get my head above it all. Have you ever felt like this, so stuck, not knowing what to do? Desperate to find some answers? Desperate to change? Luckily as chance would have it I came across a community organizing course. To make myself feel better I enrolled and I loved it. This course inspired me. I started to understand at a deeper level why decluttering was a problem for so many people. I asked my friends with great organizing genes about their habits, systems and routines. I talked to people I knew who had conquered their clutter to live happy simpler lives. I got a decluttering buddy and… started to test drive my ideas. As I downsized my stuff. I tried out the best of the best strategies to help others declutter their home and get organized successfully. I learnt so much from every decluttering project. As you can imagine all this experience really paid off. So I dumped the advice that was useless and kept the concepts that were inspiring, fun and worked. I thought just maybe there are other people like me out there? You know.... who would benefit from my experience… and make life so much easier by having all the solid consistent information in one place-in one easy to read book. And PRESTO-6 months later.... after many late nights and weekends at the computer I'd done it. Introducing a simple easy to read e-book that will make all the difference to your life, your family and your home. Here's a quick preview of the valuable information you'll have at your fingertips. What you get is a proven practical room by room, step by step blueprint with flexible strategies that you can make your own. Easy to understand language… and specific tips for all those clutter hot spots in your home like clothes, closets, files and paperwork. I've included 5 decluttering methods so you can swap, change and use what really works for you and the one decluttering technique that you must know. Not everyone is the same, or has the same amount of clutter so these strategies and techniques can be tailored to your energy, time and mindset. And that's just a small taste of what's in store I even have special sections to simplify and organize your life. Things like menu planning, staying motivated, how and where to start and organizing kid's things. I've even added quick routines that keep your house tidy and clean. There are motivating quotes, moral boosters and easy, organizing tips. Did you know that getting rid of clutter eliminates 40% of housework in the average home? (Ottawa Citizen, newspaper (1/14/00 80% of the clutter in most homes is a result of disorganization not lack of space (Ottawa citizen 1/14/0) Now I would like you to experience what your home can be: Just picture this for a moment. You come home tired from work or a day out. You open your door….smile and relax because you see a welcoming clean and tidy home. You walk into your spotless kitchen and make some tea. Your favorite dinner is in the fridge all ready to be cooked. Paperwork, bills, laundry are under control... everything is where it should be. You feel contented and confident. Every item has its home so putting away is easy. There is nothing for you to do but sit down, relax and enjoy your time. Your home is a creative inspiring place to be. Your weekend is free for fun. What a joy. There you have it... I don't know about you but I wish I had all that information when I was overwhelmed by my stuff and in the middle of my clutter crisis. Simple Solutions for Your Everyday Clutter Problems And there is even more Bonuses . The best part- the price, and to be honest with you if I added up the countless hours of hard work I've poured into this e-book, and all the evenings and weekends I sacrificed, I would have to charge you hundreds of dollars of labor. I could easily sell this package for $97, it would be great value. But I want to keep it reasonable for you. Considering you would have to pay at least a thousand dollars to hire a professional organizer for a few days… (not to mention all the mega costly decluttering mistakes you'll now avoid)…I want to keep it reasonable… around the equivalent price of a container or two at your neighborhood storage store. I don't know about you… but before I decluttered I would spend way more than $47 dollars every few weeks on useless stuff I didn't need like,… groceries we never ate, take away meals, toys the kids didn't need and containers to hold nothing but junk. Here's another little surprise. Since this is the launch of my book –I'd like to give you an extra bonus. But you've got to jump on it quick because I will be bumping up the price to $47.97 soon. So here's the thing, I'm not sure how long I can keep it at this special price but since you are here now you can grab the whole lot for 27.97. But you really have to jump on it quick because like I said I will be bumping the price up to the original $47 soon. How am I doing that? Simple. Here's my Zero Risk Guarantee. Check it out Still not convinced Get Organized Get Happy The Simple Guide to Declutter and Organize your Head Home and Heart is the best deal on the market? Don't Decide Now! Buy it, try for a few days and if you still don't think Get-Organized Get-Happy is worth every penny I'll buy it back, Procrastinating can be a costly mistake. So to avoid disappointment act now and order a book before the price goes up. Lets recap what you are going to get What You Get Value Get-Organized Get-Happy $47 BonusGet Organized Get Happy Blueprint Planners $30 BonusHow to make Cash from your Cutter $30 BonusThe One Stop Shop Home and Family Organizer $30 Total $137 So there you have it –you have two choices 1. Keep doing what you're doing and pray that things will get better OR 2. Take a stand and get rid of your clutter You have nothing to lose, right Here's to living a little lighter Jane Alais P.S. If you are serious about dumping your clutter baggage and taking action for a fresher more organized home …and you want an easy road map and… the right handholding from start to finish… your search is over…You are just a click away from having it all (and more) at your fingertips for only $27.97 P.P.S. Don't forget…the next time you come to this site the price might be back up to the original $47.97, (which is dirt cheap anyway) And remember you get $120 worth of bonuses as well P.P.P.S. Let me remind you that you're totally covered by my $100% "No Questions Asked" guarantee! So there's no risk on your part at all. So what are you waiting for? Enjoy!
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Alexander Harding Art | Bringing art to all aspects of life If you decided not to go with some wireless security cameras, you may want to think about hiding all the wires. If not for safety reasons, at least for aesthetic ones. We all like to have security camera system, but the last thing you want is to have all sorts of cables that not are only easy to cut, but also don't look very well. Therefore, you do need to conceal them somehow. Some of the methods for hiding your security camera wires require a professional help, whereas other need only a bit of effort and or a couple of bucks when buying. Remember this also: even "wireless" systems may imply a wire for the power supply and you don't want any wire to get damaged by the elements. Let's not to mention the part about some intruders may cut the wires and disable your security system altogether (see Kituri supraveghere video - sisteme supraveghere interior si exterior). The carpet If you're placing the security cameras in a low place, concealing all the wiring under the carpet is a great way to go. You may easily hide the wires like this, while keeping it easy to access at the same time. You don't need to put too much effort into it either. Important note: if the carpet is glued in place, it may become a bit more challenging to hide the wires under the carpet. The paint When you're thinking about this solution, two problems may come in the way. You do need the wires of your security camera to be tightly snug against the wall or ceiling, where the camera is placed. That's the first. The second is that you do need to get the paint precisely the same color of your wall or ceiling. That is only if you want to get as accurate and nice in the end. Best thing about using paint? It's so easy and simple and you're not doing anything to the wires, keeping them easy to access even after you painted. The false ceiling If your house has some false ceiling, you may easily use it for hiding the wires. You simply thread them through the false ceiling and forward to the power supply. The wires are concealed and you only need to take out the tiles of the false ceiling when you have to replace or check the wiring. As false ceiling is a typical thing for offices and not so much for a regular house, we think this method isn't for everyone. Use the molding/baseboard When you're installing a low camera, you may very well hide the wires behind the baseboard. You may do the same thing if you install it near your ceiling, in which case behind the molding is a good solution for hiding the wires. This method may need a bit more effort, but it's still rather easy to do as it doesn't imply any drilling whatsoever. You may carefully take out the baseboard or the molding, as much as you need for the job. You continue by placing the wires of your camera system. You may need to push the wires all the way up into the corner, as you don't want to compress or catch them. You finish the job by replacing the molding or the baseboard. The flexible casing This is definitely one of the most complicated methods for hiding the wires and you may need some patience and skills for it. You need to run the camera wiring through the walls, in plastic tubing or flexible casing. You do need to do some drilling, so get the tools and skills you need for it. The results are impressive, but you need to keep in mind that the wires become almost impossible to reach. Unless you're some sort of experienced home invader. Keep in mind that wires are also hard to reach in case of electrical failure. If you still want to go with this method, it wouldn't be a bad idea to get some professional help that has experience in installing camera systems. Go through the walls/ceiling In some cases, the power supply or monitor is on the other side of the wall from the camera. In this case, you may have to drill right through on to the other side of the wall, getting the wire pass through it. You do need some technical experience for it and you can't really install the camera exactly where you need, so keep in mind the downsides. Go wireless If none of these methods seems like a good idea for you, don't hesitate to go with the wireless security systems that eliminate the entire wiring problem. You need to be willing to pay the extra buck as this solution is a bit more expensive, but, on the other hand, they are very easy to install and save you from the wiring problem.
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You Can Make Stuff | Helping you with Woodworking, DIY & Up-Cycling It doesn't matter if you are new to woodworking or have been at it for decades, choosing the right woodworking finishes for your projects can be complicated. What should I use as a finish? Should I brush it, wipe it or spray it? Tag along as we explore these options and several others, ending with some recommendations for getting started. Types of Topcoats Woodworking finishes can be broken down into two major types of finishes: Penetrating Oils and Surface Finishes. Penetrating oils are basically natural oils, often with synthetic resins added. By their nature, they soak in, or penetrate into the surface. Surface finishes, on the other hand, sit on the surface of the wood and create a protective barrier. Some of these can be thinned down, so they penetrate, and some oils can be built up, almost like a surface finish. If your goal is the bare wood look, use a penetrating oil. If you want a glossy look or more complete protection, use a surface finish. So let's dive into each of these categories and try to understand the differences they offer. Penetrating Oils Penetrating oils are probably the oldest woodworking finishes ever used and many are still popular with a lot of woodworkers. Over the last 50 years, most of these products have been changed, modified and updated. They're now blended with additives, like resins and driers, so they act more like a varnish. The following are the most popular choices on the market: Boiled Linseed Oil (BLO) Boiled Linseed Oil has been used since the 1700's. It soaks into the wood and leaves a shiny, but not glossy surface. BLO has a warm, yellow, glow, that enhances the grain, but it does darken wood as it ages. It resists some wear and tear, however, it will absorb moisture if left standing. This finish dries slowly (full cure can take 30 days), and requires many coats. It has moderate resistance to heat, water and most chemicals. With care It's safe to use, but the metallic driers are poisonous. Warning: BLO soaked rages can spontaneously erupt. Lay them out flat on the concrete to dry out. See more details in the safety section below. Danish Oil Danish Oil is part of a family of woodworking finishes that includes: Danish oil, teak oil, and antique oil. Popular due to their ease of use, these resins preserve the feel of the wood and leave a fairly durable finish that can be easily patched or refreshed. They work best on hard, open-grained woods like walnut, oak or teak. However, on softwoods, or closed grained hardwoods, they can have mixed results. They can darken the wood, sometimes more than then you like, so test them on scrap woods first. Tung Oil Tung Oil is a natural oil, often blended with resins, and is built up with several thin coats. A fairly hard finish, it is resistant to abrasion, water, heat, acids and mildew. It's shine increases with each coat, but will not become glossy. It has a warm glow, that is lighter than linseed oil. It can be difficult to apply if it is a 100% tung oil. Sanding is required between coats. Most tung oil offered today is actually an oil/varnish blend. Thick coats can wrinkle, so thinning before use is recommended. Mineral Oil Mineral Oil is often overlooked when talking about woodworking finishes. That is unfortunate as it is a nontoxic option, a natural choice for wooden bowls, cutting boards and wooden utensils. You won't get much more from it than a warm glow, and a renewing of the surface. It can be purchased at any pharmacy, and most grocery stores. Use a little at a time, or you will end up with a sticky film since it doesn't really dry out. Warming the oil, before applying it, will help it to penetrate deeper. Plan on renewing the finish at least once a year, more often if it's put in a dishwasher. Penetrating oils are very difficult to remove later, since you have to remove all of the saturated wood, by sanding, planing or scraping. And remember: rags soaked in any of these woodworking finishes may spontaneously combust (see safety section below for proper disposal). Surface Finishes Walk down the finishing aisle at your favorite home center, and you will see a LOT of choices in woodworking finishes. Most of these are going to be surface finishes, like polyurethane. The number of options seems to be growing every day, as manufacturers update, or repackage their offerings. The trend toward water-based finishes is growing to meet the demand for environmentally friendly products. Surface finishes are popular because we like a hard surface that is easy to clean. We like the shine and it "feels" like we are doing professional grade work. The following are the more popular surface finishes you will find: Shellac Shellac is truly one of the oldest woodworking finishes around. Its use in the western world dates to the 1500's. And it's still popular with many craftsmen for good reasons. Shellac is a simple, safe finish. It dry's quickly, and multiple coats can be applied in a single day. Shellac has a warm, soft appearance, and has been used on fine furniture and musical instruments for centuries. Once dry, shellac is a safe product for the home, in fact, many drugs and foods are coated with shellac. Color If using pre-mixed shellac, you can choose either orange or white shellac. Orange is the most common product. It gives a traditional amber tone to woodwork. White shellac is been bleached to avoid, or reduce, the amber color cast. White shellac is not as resistant to moisture and has a shorter shelf life. Shellac dissolves in alcohol, so it is not recommended for table tops, bars or dressers, where perfumes may be used. What's a "Pound Cut" anyway? Shellac can be bought as dry flakes, or as a premixed liquid. Making your own is not difficult, and it you can control the concentration of the finish, properly known as "pound cut". "Pound cut" refers to the pounds of shellac added to a gallon of alcohol. As a starting guide, the following pound cuts are often used: 1-lb. – Pre-stain sealing, French Polish finishing 2-lb. – Pre-finish sealing; general wood finishing 3-lb. – Floor finishing; sealing knots & sap streaks 4-lb. – Sealing tough knots & sap streaks, stains* * A 4-lb. cut is generally used by professionals From "The Story of Shellac" by Zinsser Co., Inc. Many woodworkers use a "spit coat," or 1/2 -lb cut, to seal the wood before using other finishes, like polyurethane. It is recommended that a white, or bleached shellac be used, to avoid the natural waxes in the finish. Premixed shellac is usually sold as a 3-pound cut, which is a little heavy for general use. It needs to be thinned to a 2 pound cut for most uses. Shellac Flake Shellac flakes are mixed with alcohol, allowed to dissolve, then filtered before use, to get rid of natural debris, and un-dissolved flakes. Flakes can be purchased in a number of colors, which are created by the lac bug, and it's diet. They are dewaxed and bleached to lighten the tone. The more common colors, from lightest to darkest are Platina, Super Blonde, Blonde, Orange, Ruby, and Garnet. The best results will be from mixing with 190 proof, denatured alcohol. While most of the denatured alcohol offered today is not this pure, you can find it, so watch the labels. Avoid the 60 proof offerings, they can create problems. Because the finish will dissolve with alcohol, each new layer, melts the layer below, and they become a single, solid layer. Shellac has a shelf life of about 6 months. Avoid buying premixed if older than this (packaging date is on the can). So whether it's from the can, or you mixed it yourself you need to remember to check. To test if a batch of shellac is still good, put a couple of drops on a piece of glass, if it is dry to the touch in 5 minutes, it's still good to use. Applying Shellac Shellac can be brushed, padded or sprayed successfully. When spraying, some experimentation will be needed to find the right cut. Too thin, and it will be nearly dry as it goes down, leaving a rough surface. More information on spraying below. Lacquer Lacquer is an older, but relatively new, technology for finishing. There are two sub-types for lacquer: Nitrocellulose and Pre-catalyzed lacquer. Nitrocellulose Lacquer Nitrocellulose Lacquer is the older form, dating back to the 1920's. It forms a transparent film, with good gloss. It offers good protection while being on the soft side. Lacquer can be brushed, padded or sprayed. Hot rodder's loved this finish because it could create amazing looks. Few people know that in the 20's they brushed the paint on new cars. The fumes can be toxic, so use good protection when spraying, especially. However, once dry the film is safe for general use. Lacquer is well known for its ability to be rubbed out to a high gloss. Like shellac, each additional layer of lacquer slightly dissolves the layer below. This is different from varnishes, where the layers remain distinct. With shellac and lacquer, the result is a single layer, so properly done, they won't peal apart. It can be removed with lacquer thinner and is easily repaired with a fresh coat. Pre-Catalyzed Lacquer Pre-Catalyzed Lacquer has had resins added to add strength and durability to the finish. It has improved resistance to heat and moisture as well. The solvents and resins are toxic, but once fully cured the finish is safe for general use. It is more difficult to remove than standard lacquer. It can be brushed or sprayed. And of course, proper PPE is required. The finish can be rubbed out to a high gloss and can be purchased with additives to provide any other sheen desired. This is a professional grade finish, and is not available in smaller quantities (a gallon at a time). It has a 6-month shelf life once the catalyst is added, so make sure you can use it all since it pretty expensive too. Polyurethane Polyurethane is the most common surface finish available at most home centers. It is a tough, durable finish. It can be rubbed out with steel wool or synthetic pads to reduce the sheen. This is what most commercial cabinets and furniture are finished with today. It is a very forgiving finish to apply. Oil Based Polyurethane Oil based poly has a light amber tone, that is very durable, and safe after about a 7 day cure time. It is too soft to buff to a high gloss. It can be brushed, or sprayed on. Thin it down and oil based poly can be wiped on as well. Removal requires paint removers, so get it right the first time! Water Based Polyurethane Acrylic Acrylic or water based polyurethane is transparent and now has good UV stability, slowing some wood color changes. It has a 10 day cure time, and is safer in its wet form, than the oil based poly. These acrylic finishes are very hard and can be buffed to a high gloss. It can be brushed, or sprayed on. Removal requires paint removers, as well. Note: There are polyurethanes that contain stains as well. This is a quick way to get a finish down, but the stain is sitting on top of the wood, and usually hiding the wood grain. I do not recommend this for any project that you have put your heart into, especially if you want to see that wild grain. Spar Urethane Spar Urethane, has been modified over the years, and most brands are now specialized polyurethane blends. It provides a soft flexible finish, that is able to move with temperature changes. Good for outdoor furniture, doors, windows and trim. A good choice for bathroom cabinets, bar tops, and kitchen countertops. However, they are not recommended for floors, decks or fences, because of their softness Wax The last of The woodworking finishes that I want to discuss is wax, good old-fashioned wax. By itself, wax is not a very good protector of wood. Easy to put on and easy to care for. It's also easy to repair. But as a protectant, it leaves a lot to be desired. There is very little abrasion protection, and it is very poor against heat or moisture. However, add it to a good surface finish and you add another layer of protection to your project. For table tops and cabinets a nice wax finish, buffed out to a low-gloss, is the perfect way to cap off a project. You can purchase wax as a paste, cream, or liquid. For furniture, I like paste wax. When I'm making pens I prefer a liquid wax just because of the way that I'm able to apply it. In both cases, all you need to do is wipe it off let it dry to a light Haze and then buff it out to get the look you want. Top Coat Summary: You need to know how the end product will be used. For small projects like jewelry boxes, I like tung oil for its feel and warm look. For children's toys and quick projects I often use shellac. When finishing cabinets, or items that will see heavy use, I tend to use a polyurethane. And for outdoor furniture, a spar urethane. Great, now how do get it on the wood? Wood Prep First, we need to make sure the surface is ready for the finish we've selected. So we start with sanding. Remove all surface blemishes with 100 or 120 grit aluminum oxide paper and a sander. Work your way through the various grits until you reach the desired final grit. For an oil or penetrating finish, I stop at 150 grit. Sanding any finer than this keeps the oil, or stain, from penetrating the way you want it to. For varnishes and polys I sand to 220 grit, and with lacquer, I stop at 320 grit. I like silicon carbide papers for anything finer than 240. The goal at each stage is to remove the sanding marks from the previous grit. After my final grit, I hand sand, with the same grit, in the direction of the grain, to remove any swirl marks. Use a brush to remove the dust, and loose grit, between grits. Wipe everything down with a soft rag soaked in mineral spirits, and you are ready to apply that finish. While it's still wet, look for any sanding scratches, or swirls you may have missed. If you see them now, you will see them in the finished product, so take another pass with hand sanding. For more information on sand papers, see our article "Get A Grit On Sandpaper" Safety Before we get into the various methods of applying a finish, let's talk safety. Read the labels on these products, they will tell you what PPE to use. If they tell you to wear a respirator or filter, do it. Wear rubber gloves and goggles. The chemicals used are not your friends. This is especially true if you are spraying the finish since the chemistry is now airborne. Don't freak out, if you follow the guidance you will be fine. You will be using rags, either for applying or cleaning up the mess. A wadded up rag, soaked in these chemicals, can spontaneously combust. This is no way to lose a shop or house. I mean it! A pile of oily rags catching fire is a real risk, take steps to avoid it. The recommendation from the industry is to hang them up or lay them out on the floor flat until they are dry. Dunn Lumber has a quick article on proper disposal. For most of the above finishes, the rag will become hard and brittle. You can also burn them, if you can legally do so, in your area. Some have also suggested putting them in a sealed container with soapy water, but this will have its own disposal issues. Note: boiled linseed oil is the most likely to spontaneously combust. DO NOT leave these rags lying around. Do not put them in a sealed container by themselves. Ways to Apply The Finish Rags The oldest and simplest method of applying a finish is with a rag. This works well for penetrating finishes, like tung oil, boiled linseed oil,... Wipe on a couple of coats, and let it dry until it's no longer tacky to the touch. With shellac and lacquer, you can "pad" the finish on. This technique takes practice to get good at it. Regardless, you can use thinned surface finishes as a wipe on sealer. If you want to learn more, search for French Padding. Brushes Whether you know it or not, there are a lot of options when it comes to paint brushes. Bristle materials fall into two types: natural and synthetic. Natural bristles are some type of animal hair, like badger, or hog. They are the best choice for oil-based finishes. They should not be used for water based finishes, since the bristles soak up the water, and swell, becoming limp. A limp brush makes it very difficult to apply the finish. Synthetic bristles are great for water based finishes. Most won't give a great result with oils. However,there are now some synthetic brushes designed for both oil, and water based finishes. Read the brush package label, to see the manufacturers recommendations. Bristle Ends can be blunt, flagged or tapered. Blunt tips are used on cheap brushes, they are only good for stains. They can leave ridges and uneven surfaces in finishes. Flagged tips are used on better brushes and look like split ends on hair. They work well on oil finishes but can become clogged with water borne finishes. Tapered ends are the right choice for water borne finishes. Brush End Profiles also affect our ability to lay down a good quality finish. A flat profile (square flat end) is a bad choice for applying clear finishes, as they tend to leave ridges. Chisel-tip brushes have longer bristles in the middle of the brush, and shorter ones on the outside faces. They can be straight cut, or rounded in their shape. They do a better job of laying down a smooth finish. The end profile can be straight or cut at an angle. Angled ends allow for more control, especially in tight corners. Brush width is a simpler consideration. Choose a brush width that matches the project. Wide brushes work for wide panels. For narrower parts, use a brush that is slightly narrower than the part to avoid buildup along the edges. Foam Brushes: bottom line they don't work for finishes. Some finishes can melt the foam. But regardless, a foam brush is a foam factory. I don't like bubbles in my finish, so I don't use them. Brush Technique is pretty straight forward for a good looking finish on a panel: Start about 3 inches in from one end of the work piece. Brush toward the end, and off the board. This helps avoid drips and runs on the edges. Once the end is done, coat the rest of the board. Begin each stroke where you started in the first step. Work to the opposite end, overlapping your strokes. Once you've finished an area, tip off, or smooth the brush strokes out. Do not tip off on fast drying finishes like lacquer or shellac, for these finishes get it on, and leave it alone. Spraying Finishes Spray finishes are a quick way to get a lot of finish on a project. With practice, the finish will look fantastic. No brush marks or bristles stuck in the finish. The cost of entry into spraying varies. Spray cans are "cheap", but a big project will break the bank, buying them in bulk. Conventional spray guns are inexpensive if you own a compressor. HVLP systems vary widely in cost and features. Here's the low down: Spray Cans work well for small projects but are not recommended for larger ones. They put down thin coats, so it will take many coats by spray can, to build up a good surface. You can buy spray can versions of shellac, varnish, and polyurethane. Conventional Spray Guns use higher pressure air (90 psi) to atomize and propel the finish. They can be suction guns, often called cup guns, where the finish is siphoned out of the canister from below, or gravity fed guns, where the canister is mounted above the gun. With a little practice, a great finish can be applied. One drawback is the amount of air consumed. Most hobbyist compressors cannot keep with the demand, and you can get uneven coatings, as the pressure runs down. These systems are not very efficient and will put 2/3 of the paint into the air, rather than on your project. They are inexpensive to get started with. High Volume, Low Pressure (HVLP) Guns use lower air pressures (10 psi at the tip) to atomize and propel the finish. They apply a lot of finish with each coat (high volume means, high volume after all). Even within this specialty product, there are a couple of choices. If you already own an air compressor, you can purchase a gravity fed gun, or a cup gun, designed for this use. Your other choice is a dedicated system. These consist of the gun, hose, and a turbine. Turbines provide a large volume of warm air, at low pressure. Higher end turbines have multiple stages, which provide more power. More power means they can push more and heavier finishes. Entry level turbine systems start at around $100, and high-end systems can run over $3,000. The single stage, low-cost systems do not give very good results with fine finishes, so choose wisely. I have three options myself for spraying HVLP. My conversion gun works with a compressor. I have an entry level, single stage turbine. It's okay for paint, not so great for fine finishes. My Apollo turbine is a pro system, that can put down a great finish. I was happy to find it used! Recommendations: Given the choice of spraying or brushing a complex, or large project, I always choose to spray with HVLP. Brushing a rocking chair can take 20 to 30 minutes, per coat. Spraying it will take 5-10 minutes. HVLP is also a much easier to clean up after (over spray is kept to a minimum). If you are just starting out, plan on getting a conversion HVLP gun. For $25 to $100 you can get a starter gun that will last you for years. Once you out grow it, you can choose what to upgrade to. Conclusion I hope you learned something from this. It is not hard to get started doing fine finishes, but it does take time, and practice to master. You should now know enough to make some choices and understand the options. Drop me a note and let me know if there is anything I missed, or if you have any questions or comments. And please sign up for our newsletter! Dan
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Home Air Pollution Particles in the air which have a negative affect on human health and the environment. Air pollution comes from toxic gases released during the manufacturing process, during transportation and from off-gassing. Eco buzzwords - B Biodegradable A product which is made of natural, raw materials that will decompose or rot into the earth without having a negative affect on the environment. Eco buzzwords - C Carbon Capture A process to trap and hold carbon dioxide as it is being produced before it reaches the atmosphere, as a method to reduce damaging emissions. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) A colourless chemical compound gas released into the atmosphere as a by product of burning carbon and when vegetable and animal matter composes. CO2 is one of the many greenhouse gases. Carbon footprint A measured amount of greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide which are released into the atmosphere by manufacture, transport, products, materials, activities etc. Footprints are described in CO2 equivalent grams. Carbon Neutral Human activities which have reduced the creation of greenhouse gases together with carbon offsetting, which overall do not increase the amount of CO2 already in the atmosphere. Carbon-Neutral Design A process to design buildings, products and services which minimise CO2 emissions through careful planning. The surplus can be off-set against eco project investments. Carbon Offsetting A way to reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere by balancing or cancelling out the amount of these gases through investments made in environmentally friendly projects. Climate Change A recorded and prominent change in the earth’s temperature over a long period of time, which changes local weather conditions. It is linked to global warming and human activities such as manufacture and transportation. Close the Loop To buy a recycled product which has been remanufactured / reprocessed / reused on more than one occasion. This eliminates waste and creates a complete product cycle. Conservation To prevent natural living resources from being used up through protection, preservation and limited use. Natural resources such as water, vegetation, animals, minerals and nutrients. This applies to non living resources such as old buildings and antiques. Eco buzzwords - D Daylighting Integrated design and use of natural daylight at the beginning of the build process. This optimises the position of a building and allows as much light into the interior as possible to reduce energy costs and encourage resource reduction. Disposable A product or material which is to be used only once before discarding. Eco buzzwords - E Eco (Ecology) The relationship between organisms and their environment. Commonly and informally used as a term for products and materials which are environmentally friendly. Eco-chic / Green Chic The trend and fashion of being environmentally conscious and buying ''green’ products. Eco-consumer A environmentally conscious person who buys products that are ''green''. Eco-consumerism / Green Consumerism Environmentally conscious people buying ''green'' products and manufacturers producing them for that demand. Eco-design Design which uses natural resources and integrates energy efficiency in a way that is balanced with the earth, climate and natural environment. Eco-elite A person who is environmentally conscious and who has the finances to support their environmental preferences. Eco-friendly / Environmentally Friendly / Planet-Friendly A broad term used for products and materials which are made specifically to reduce the negative effects on the environment. Also reducing the use of non renewable resources in sourcing, manufacture, packaging, use and disposal. This term applies to activities and services. Ecological Footprint An amount of land needed by a person or population to sustain their lives with the consumption of natural resources including waste. This is then calculated and compared to the earth’s ability to generate these resources. Ecological Rucksack The background historical information on how an end product is generated in materials, manufacture and energy input. Similar in meaning to the Ecological footprint but concentrating on material efficiency over the lifecycle of a product. Energy Efficient Methods and products which use a lower amount of energy to operate than their counterparts. Although initially more expensive, over the product lifetime they are typically more durable and cost less to use. Energy Efficiency Achieving the same outcome, such as light from a 60 watt bulb with less energy than counterpart bulbs. This reduces an unnecessary waste of energy and resources. Energy Conservation The reduction and limited use of non renewable energy such as electricity. This is achieved by using alternative renewable energy sources such as solar energy and daylighting. Environment Our natural or man-made surroundings both internal and external. Emissions Gases and vapours released into the atmosphere as a by product of another process e.g. manufacture, combustion, transportation etc. Embodied Energy The total amount of energy used by a process e.g. the total energy for a building begins with sourcing and manufacturing raw materials through to ongoing maintenance as the building ages. Embodied energy looks at the whole lifecycle. Ethical Goods & Services Companies who make sure that their suppliers uphold employee conditions and allow employees standard rights. Eco buzzwords - F Fossil Fuel Coal, oil and natural gases are created from condensed fossil remains of vegetation and animal/human life over the earth’s history. These fossils are a non-renewable natural energy resource when burnt. Eco buzzwords - G Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) / Genetically Engineered Organisms (GEOs) Organisms from bacteria, plants or animals which have been genetically changed in a laboratory through DNA technology. Global Warming The progressive increase in the earth’s surface and atmospheric temperature over a long period of time. This is linked to climate change, man-made human activities and the ongoing increase of greenhouse gases. To go Green To make both a conscious and active decision to reduce the negative effect on the environment through your own lifestyle choices. Green Building / Sustainable Building Design Building design and construction which uses methods, systems and materials that have a lower negative effect on the environment than conventional building design. Typical features are energy efficiency, daylighting, renewable energy, water conservation, waste management, eco building materials and brown land use. Greenhouse Effect The continual increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere destroys the ozone layer which allows radiation from the sun to reach our atmosphere. The sun’s heat cannot escape and becomes trapped as if within a closed greenhouse. This heats the earth and is linked to climate change and negative changes in eco systems. Greenhouse Gases Gases present in the atmosphere which absorb the sun’s energy and heat; water vapour, carbon dioxide CO2, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halogenated fluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3), perfluorinated carbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Green Washing Manufacturers who make false claims that their products are eco friendly, sustainable or organic etc. Eco buzzwords - H Handmade A product crafted by hand rather than by mechanic production. The product is unique and is not for mass production. Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) A product thrown away at home which is harmful to humans, animals and eco-systems; toxic, irritants, reactive, corrosive or ignitable. Eco buzzwords - I Incineration To burn waste instead of putting it into landfill sites. This creates energy which can be used as power, however it also releases greenhouse gases as a by product. Eco buzzwords - L Landfill site An area of land where solid waste can be disposed of. Life Cycle Analysis / Life Cycle Design To look at or design a product or material from the beginning to the end of its life to assess the environmental standards and the impact had on the environment. A typical lifecycle: raw material, manufacture, end product, use, reuse, recycling, disposal. Eco buzzwords - N Natural A product or material which does not come from man-made origins e.g. timber, leather, beeswax etc. Non-toxic A substance which is not poisonous or hazardous to a living organism’s health, well being and survival. Non-Renewable Resource A resource such as a raw material which cannot be regenerated, replaced or restored within human lifetime. One example of this is fossil fuels. Eco buzzwords - O Off-Gassing Gases released from building materials, finishes and products which are inhaled by humans and animals. Off-gassing causes interior air pollution and is connected to poor health and illness. Organic An alternative farming method for crops, dairy foods and livestock which removes toxins, manufactured chemicals, synthetic additives, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and provides products which are biodegradable. Eco buzzwords - P PETE / PET Polyethylene terepthalate is a kind of plastic which is found in fabric, soft drinks and hard containers. Made by a chemical process which releases emissions during the production process. This material can be recycled. Pollution Particles in water, air or earth which have a negative affect on human health and the environment. Pollution Prevention Methods to help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that are released into the atmosphere through man-made human activities. Relating to the use of energy, production processes, transportation etc. Post-Consumer A product or material which has been recycled or reused after its original purpose has completed. An example would be PET plastic bottles which have been recycled into new plastic bottles. The label may say “made with 95% post-consumer waste”. Pre-Consumer A product or material which has been recycled or reused before it has become a consumer product. An example would be collected PET plastic bottle waste from a factory floor which is put back into the production process to be used to make new plastic bottles. Product Take-Back A manufacturer who considers their products once they reach the end of their lifecycle; disposal, reuse, recyclable and sustainability. An example from Germany is the extra cost charged on glass bottles, which is then refunded when you return the bottle to the shop for recycling with the manufacturer. Eco buzzwords - R Recycle The process of changing consumer waste into new materials, products and packaging. Recyclable A material, product or piece of packaging which can be recycled when the end of its lifecycle has been reached. An example would be aluminium cans which can be broken down into their pure form to be made into new aluminium cans. Recycle Symbol A symbol used on labels which shows that the materials, product or piece of packaging can be recycled if there is a suitable recycling service in the local area. The symbol is made up of three chasing arrows. Recycled A material, product or piece of packaging which has been remanufactured into a new material, product or piece of packaging. Recycled Content The total amount described in percent of recycled and reused materials used in the manufacture of a new material, product or piece of packaging. This includes both pre and post consumer use of waste. Recycling A human activity which involves sorting and taking old products and materials such as glass, plastic, paper etc to be recycled rather than throwing them away as waste, which would increase the volume in landfill sites. Renewable Materials Natural raw materials such as timber and grasses, which can be grown or restored over time. Care must be given in the plantation management so that replanting and felling are in harmony. Renewable Energy / Technology Using natural resources such as water, wind and sun for an ever lasting energy source. Resources which have a much lower negative effect on the environment and do not produce greenhouse gases. Remanufacture When a product reaches the end of its lifecycle, it can be manufactured for a second time using the parts which remain functional. An example of this is printer cartridges which can be refilled once empty. Repurpose A product or material which is used for another purpose once its original purpose has completed. Reuse A product or material which is used again and again for the same purpose, such as milk bottles. Eco buzzwords - S Solar Energy / Power The sun is used as a renewable energy resource, an example of this is solar panels for electricity generation. Sustainable To lead a good quality of like, through a lifestyle which makes as much as possible from what we have as well as making something last indefinitely. Sustainable human activities will not adversely affect generations in the future. An example of a sustainable material is timber supplies, the rate of felling and growing of trees must be balanced so that felling does not outweigh the time needed for growing new trees. Forests which are in balance are called sustainably managed forests. Another aspect of this lifestyle choice is to conserve as much as possible. Sustainable Design / Design for Sustainability (DfS) and Design for Environment (DfE) A design using resources that have as little negative effect on the natural, economic and social environment as possible, which will not have any impact on future generations. Eco buzzwords - T Triple Bottom Line, People/Planet/Profit, TBL, 3BL Companies who add environmental and social standards into their concerns for profit and performance. Eco buzzwords - W Waste Management A manufacturing and construction term for managing waste; reduction, prevention, disposal and collection. Waste Reduction / Waste Minimisation An effort to limit the amount of waste created from the beginning to the end of a product lifecycle to reduce the environmental impact from continual filling landfill sites. Eco buzzwords - V Virgin Product Products that do not contain any recycled content, manufactured with 100% new materials. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) A toxic chemical contained within and then released as a gas from materials such as paint, glue, sealant, solvent and petrol over time. Found in most items of furniture and surface finishes. These vapours have a negative affect on the environment and human health. Eco buzzwords - Z Zero-VOCs Materials and products which do not contain volatile organic compounds. Charrette: a French word with a complicated connection to our profession…it generally refers to an intense brain-storming and drawing effort undertaken as a deadline approaches. Typically, it involves copius amounts of caffeinated beverages and piles of pens and sketch paper. Often a group undertaking. Parti: not to be mistaken with “PARTY!”, this is a small thumbnail sketch that distills the essence of the design – It’s the big idea. Napkin Sketch: Famous architects sell these as “art”. (see also Parti ) Axonometric: A drawn view of an object or building that looks confusing to almost everyone except an architect. It shows two sides plus the top (bird’s-eye axonometric) or bottom (worm’s eye axonometric) of a building. These also show up as “exploded views” in various manuals and assembly instructions. 5. Notion: Architect’s frequently get these…and they sound more important and artistic than saying “My idea for the new sewage treatment plant was to make it small and unobtrusive…”. This sounds better as “My notion for the new sewage treatment plant involves fragmentation and rusticity.” Right? 6. Pied-a-Terre: more French…basically a very small apartment in or near the center of the City. More recently these are being referred to as micro-flats (which could also mean low-heeled footwear for women with really small feet.) 7. Scheme: generally one of several variants on an idea (as in Schemes A, B, and C…). This tends to refer to a floor plan or site plan offered as alternatives for review and consideration. Not related to Amway or Bernie Madoff. 8. Bid alternate: This is a request to the General Contractor to provide stand-alone pricing on some ridiculously expensive item that the Architect is praying can make it into the final-built project. 9. Value Engineering: the process by which the Developer and the General Contractor take out all the “really good-stuff” in an effort to bring the overall construction cost down. Most architects wince at this phrase. 10. Poche: yet more French… not one of the Spice Girls (they’re British, and we’re clearly Francophiles), but rather refers to a thickened wall as it appears on a plan. This is really useful when creating niches…which are woefully out of fashion. Urban fabric: No, not a new type of spandex…but rather the arrangement, scale and overall development density of an area of the city. (e.g. “We are struggling to get this new Wal-Mart to fit sensitively into the urban fabric…”) 12. Exurbia: high-end residential areas beyond the suburbs. Although most architects would like to design a house on a huge exurban property for an exurbanite client with a fat budget…few are willing to say so out loud. 13. Blob-itecture: biomorphic building designs that are the current trend, especially among design school students and the architectural press. Imagine living or working in a building inspired by your spleen. Nice? Typological precedent: a historical example of built form that is used as a rule or model for subsequent efforts. Rejected by Modernists in pursuit of pure innovation, these were reevaluated and embraced by later generations of architects as a means of better connecting with history and culture. 15. LEED: short for Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design, a rating system by which buildings are evaluated on their “green” friendliness. 16. Interstitial space: the places “in-between”…think porches, courtyards, balconies, pergolas, etc. We love these spaces and insist that our projects include some type of indoor/outdoor place. 17. High-performance: nothing to do with muscle cars… this refers to super energy efficient building design. (“the architect’s design for this high-performance school earned a LEED Platinum rating.”) Borrowed view: a “trick” to visually extend a small space. 19. Defensible space: an environment whose layout allows its inhabitants to provide their own surveillance over communal areas and thus reduce crime. Those who might do harm will take note of these “eyes on the street” and simply move on for fear of being caught. Paintball guns should not be required. Program: a client’s list of required spaces within a project. 21. Bubble Diagram: the spaces in the program expressed as amorphous “bubbles” and arranged in such a way to establish logical adjacencies within a building. If the desired end product is blob-itecture, you can basically stop here. 22. Fit: refers to the happy relationship between a building and its site… nothing to do with tantrums or physical conditioning. 23. Space: It is both inside and outside, around and between, nothing and… everything. 24. Celebrate: architects love to use this expression (“We added pointy spiked purple towers near the front door to celebrate the entrance.”) There is often a lot of celebrating going on…frequently unwarranted. Form: that thing that “follows function” – unless you are into Blob-itecture or feel an irresistible urge to celebrate…
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