RAW RANKED SITES ABOUT
#BRITAIN RISING

The most comprehensive list of britain rising websites last updated on Nov 1 2019.
Stats collected from various trackers included with free apps.
1
Scroll.in - Latest News, In depth news, India news, Politics news, Indian Cinema, Indian sports, Culture, Video News Scroll.in is an independent website covering news, politics, sports, culture and everything in between. Get the latest news, reportage, analysis and commentary on all that matters in India and beyond.
2
Buzz Comics, le forum comics du Grand Débat. - Powered by vBulletin forum de discussion sur les comics (Marvel, DC Comics, Vertigo, Image, IDW Publishing, Wildstorm, Oni, Dynamite, Avatar Press, Panini, Urban Comics, etc...)
3
Free Delivery Garages - Steel Carports, Steel Garages, Metal Carport Free Delivery Garages,steel carports and metal garages, metal carport, steel building kits, metal carports WE SPECIALIZE IN CUSTOMER SERVICE FROM BEGINNING TO
4
Cutting edge make-up effects for film and television by Barrie Gower | BGFX BGFX are a cutting edge Makeup Effects company providing photo-realistic characters for Film and Television, founded by Barrie Gower.
7
Cultureseekers Blog – Written by Robert Coleman, London's No.1 Cultureseeker! Written by Robert Coleman, London's No.1 Cultureseeker!
8
رئسية النمور - نمور مصرر منتديات الروش لتحميل احدث الافلام العربي و الاجنبي و تحميل احلي الاغاني و الكليبات و احدث الالعاب و البرامج الكاملة
11
goodreads The website maintained by Jeffrey B. Perry the biographer of Hubert Harrison and literary executor of Theodore W. Allen (author of "The Invention of the White Race").
12
Cutting edge make-up effects for film and television by Barrie Gower | BGFX BGFX are a cutting edge Makeup Effects company providing photo-realistic characters for Film and Television, founded by Barrie Gower.
13
The culture alternative | Jesus is the WAY, the TRUTH and the LIFE Jesus is the WAY, the TRUTH and the LIFE
14
15
Haunted Trails of Gettysburg Come investigate the cellar of a home built in the 1820's and 8 acres of what used to be a confederate field camp and 3 field hospitals during the civil war. The spirits are extremely active and many paranormal teams who investigate, keep coming back!
17
Free Delivery Garages - Steel Carports, Steel Garages, Metal Carport Free Delivery Garages,steel carports and metal garages, metal carport, steel building kits, metal carports WE SPECIALIZE IN CUSTOMER SERVICE FROM BEGINNING TO
18
TxtMania | The Philippines, a group of over 7,000 islands with combined land area encompassing 300,000 square kilometres, grew into a nation under more than three centuries of Spanish conquest and 42 years of American rule. It is the first country outside the New World that closely witnessed the United States' rise to power following the 1898 Spanish-American War. Situated 800 kilometres southeast of mainland Asia, the archipelago, named after King Philip II of Spain, was discovered in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, the same explorer who had discovered the Pacific Ocean in search of the so-called "Spice Islands" and is now widely considered the first navigator to have cruised around the planet. Ironically, the Filipinos, after having been subdued for centuries by foreign colonizers as a result of Magellan's voyage, would emerge as the best seafarers in the world, manning a third of all international vessels today. Some 7.8 million overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) and Filipino migrants would help rebuild cities in many countries and bring back over US$10 billion in annual remittances to their families in the Philippines. The country's geographical location and long exposure to foreign influences has placed the Philippines on a unique cultural base in Asia. It is now the only predominantly Catholic country in the region, with 70 million out of its total population of 85 million (as of 2005) confessing to be Catholic. There are also large numbers of Protestants and Born-Again Christians in the country while the Muslim population is concentrated in southern Mindanao. Early Trade The first inhabitants of the Philippines were the Negritos who traveled from mainland Asia over a land bridge that is now underwater. Migrants from other Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia later followed and established a Malayan culture that flourished before the Spaniards came. Chinese and Arab merchants helped establish markets at the community level. A sultanate system, first established in the southern island of Sulu in the 14th century, is believed to have reached the islands of Luzon and Visayas, giving way to the rise of the Islamic faith. The Spaniards would later drive the Muslims to the south and establish Catholicism as the main religion in the north and central parts of the country. Local villages, known as barangay, traded agricultural and fishery products with each other. The Igorot tribe in Northern Luzon carved the marvellous Banaue Rice Terraces from the mountains, a proof of their advanced agriculture technology. Communities near the shore exchanged goods with Chinese and Arab merchants, who came aboard large ships. These communities traded slaves, gold, beeswax, betel nuts, pearls, and shells for porcelain, silk, iron, tin and semi-precious stones. The Philippine islands were a part of an extensive trade route used by Chinese merchants as early as the 10th century. By the time Magellan arrived in the islands, regular trade and cultural contact between Chinese traders and local chieftains were firmly instituted. Many Chinese merchants settled in the country and shared their crafts with the natives. Some historians claim that an Italian Franciscan priest, named Father Odorico, was actually the first European to have reached the Philippines in 1324 when his ship bound for China took refuge from a storm in Bolinao Island in northern part of Luzon. Aside from the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordillera Mountains, early settlers did not leave any giant monument, and this is what makes conservative historians doubt the existence of the rich kingdoms in the country hundreds of years ago. However, it cannot be denied that early Filipinos were learned individuals who expressed their beliefs and sentiments in rich languages. According to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), there are actually 78 language groupings and over 500 dialects in the Philippines. Feudal Society Magellan, who claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, died in a battle with a group of local warriors led by Lapu Lapu at Mactan Island. It was Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in the fourth Spanish expedition, who named the territory as Filipinas after the heir to the Spanish throne in 1543. In 1565, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi led an expedition to colonize the islands and by 1571, most parts of the archipelago came under Spanish rule. The Spaniards established the colonial government first in Cebu in 1565 and then in Manila in 1571. Historians claim that University of San Carlos in Cebu and University of Sto. Tomas in Manila are the oldest universities teaching European type of education in Asia. Jesuit and Dominican priests established the two institutions. Under Spanish rule, Catholicism became the dominant religion. Catholic friars not only lorded over the congregations; they enjoyed vast political and economic influence, which they eventually used to repress Filipino peasants' uprisings in the largely feudal Philippine society at that time. The Spaniards also quelled a number of rebellions instigated by the Chinese migrants. The friars distributed lands to Spanish families, who later comprised the landowning class. To perpetuate their economic interests, this class would also rise to become the political elite that would remain in power to this day. This gave way to the hacienda system in the Philippines, where cacique or landowners managed large tracts of lands tilled by peasant workers. Under the system, farmers were supposed to receive half of the harvest, but they usually ended up with much less because they had to pay for large interests on debt incurred from the cacique. This would be later corrected with a system of land reform, which, however, remains to be fully implemented to this day. Galleon Trade The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade became the major trading system between Asia and the Americas for nearly two centuries. Manila became a transhipment point of American silver to China. It was through this trade that the first Chinese silk and porcelain reached the shores of the New World. There were unverified claims that Filipinos helped build the city of Los Angeles in America. The Chinese and Filipinos would later become the two largest Asian migrant groups in the United States. Coconut became the country's top agricultural product, because of Spain's huge need for charcoaled coconut shells used for the caulking of the galleons. In 1642, the colonial government issued an edict requiring each Filipino to plant 200 coconut trees all over the country. By 1910, coconut exports would account for a fifth of total Philippine exports and to this day, coconut oil remains the country's top agricultural shipment. The Galleon Trade lasted for about 200 years until 1815. It is during this period that rice and tropical fruits from the Philippines such as mango and banana made their way to Latin America. Beginning 1750, Spanish priests encouraged the development of plantations to grow abaca (hemp), tobacco, coffee and sugar. Sugar barons from the Visayas would later emerge as among the richest clans in the country. From 1762 to 1764, the British briefly captured Manila during the Seven Years War. The treaty of Paris ended the British occupation and returned the colony to the hands of their original colonial masters. Plantation Crops In 1781, the Spanish governor established the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines, which would become a major source of revenue for the colonial government. From 1820 to 1870, the Philippines would be transformed to an agricultural export economy. Located on the oceanic trading routes connecting Asia to other parts of the world, the Philippines became a transhipment point of merchandise goods from all over Southeast Asia on their way to Europe. The Philippines exported plantation crops such as sugar, abaca, other fibres, tobacco, coffee, and coconut products to China, Spain, United States, United Kingdom and British East Indies. In return, it imported textiles and rice. Historians claim that Spain administered the Philippine affairs through Mexico. Spanish administrators in the country were actually reporting to the Viceroyalty of Mexico. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Madrid directly governed its only Asian colony and even allowed rich Filipinos to study in Europe. The Spanish rule gave way to the rise of a small but highly powerful elite class, which to this day, controls most of the Philippine economy. The elite families, which own large plantations, were able to send their children to Europe for education. Foreign Investors Investors from Spain, Germany, Britain and other European countries laid the groundwork for utility companies in steam navigation, cable, telegraphy, railroads and electricity in the country. They also invested heavily in rice and sugar milling, textile and banking. The local elite developed the brewing industry, which would become one of the most profitable sectors in the economy. Although the educated Filipinos who studied in Europe shunned the use of force to topple the colonial government, their writings provoked nationalist sentiments among young men, who eventually formed a revolutionary movement against Spain. In 1896, the war between Spanish and Filipino soldiers escalated following the death of novelist Jose Rizal and rebel leader Andres Bonifacio. Emilio Aguinaldo, the new leader of the revolutionary forces, forged a pact with US Commodore George Dewey in Hong Kong to defeat the Spanish army. American Colony The Americans entered the scene because of its conflict with Spain over Cuba. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American war in the Pacific, the Philippines had to be taken by the US, lest other European countries such as Britain, France and Germany would fight for their next Southeast Asian colony. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo, first backed by American forces, declared the independence of Kawit, Cavite, the seat of the revolutionary Filipino government at that time, from Spanish rule. The Americans took possession of Manila on August 13, 1898. While armed clashes with Spanish forces continued in other parts of the country, the Americans and the Spaniards were negotiating for the purchase of the Philippines for US$20 million. In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the US. Filipinos felt insulted at the fact that their country has been passed from one colonial master to another for only US$20 million. When the US, which had not conquered any country before, made known its intention to succeed Spain as the next colonizer of the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his men waged a revolutionary resistance that ended with his capture in March 1901. The American soldiers easily subdued the remaining factions of rebellion with the help of their powerful weapons and their divide-and-conquer tactic. As an archipelago of 7,000 islands, the Philippines is home to different ethnic groups which do not speak the same language. The national government's attempt to declare Tagalog (spoken in Central and Southern Luzon including Metro Manila) as the national language would not easily win the support of other regions. The Philippine-American war took the lives of 4,234 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers. The death toll was much higher on the civilian population, with as high as 200,000 casualties. Although local resistance persisted until 1903, the US ended its military rule on July 4, 1901. American Way Under American civilian rule, the Philippines was introduced to US-type of education, Protestant religion, and later to the concept of democracy. Placed under US control were most parts of the country, except in the southern portion of Mindanao where Muslim rebels held strong resistance. William Howard Taft, the 27th US president, was the first American Civil Governor in the Philippines. Taft was praised for establishing a civil service system, creating a national legislature, suppressing prices, upgrading health standards, and sponsoring land reform and road building in the country. In 1907, the First Philippine Assembly composed of educated and rich Filipinos with vast landholdings. Manuel L. Quezon, who represented the Philippines in the US Congress, lobbied for the passage of the Jones Law, which in 1916 abolished the Philippine Assembly to give way for a bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. With the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934, Filipinos had their first taste of self-rule through the Philippine Commonwealth, a transitional government designed to prepare the Filipinos over a ten-year period for independence. By 1935, the Commonwealth was in place with Quezon as its first president. The Philippines also approved a new constitution in the same year. The United States is credited for helping establish the Republic of the Philippines, the first democratic government in Asia. Economically, the Philippines was ahead of its Asian neighbours, who were still subjects of European colonial powers before the war. Japanese Invasion In December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the Philippines and drove the Commonwealth Government from Manila. While Quezon continued to head the government-in-exile until his death in New York in August 1944, the Japanese forces handpicked Jose P. Laurel, a graduate of Yale University and Tokyo International University, to head a new government under their control. The Philippines was dragged into the war because of Japan's military ambition to become the dominant force in Asia and the Pacific. Japan wanted to be the leader of an economic zone in East Asia, which would be the source of its raw materials. The US presence in the Philippines, known for its strategic location in Southeast Asia, was the largest threat to the Japanese forces, following the destruction of the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. While the American forces were regrouping in the United States, Filipino soldiers formed a guerrilla organization called Hukbalahap (People's Anti-Japanese Army). Some 30,000 guerrillas at that time engaged the Japanese army in intermittent clashes. The Hukbalahap would later adopt the communist ideology and rule in the countryside. Meanwhile, Sergio Osmeña replaced Quezon as the head of the government-in-exile and joined General Douglas MacArthur in the liberation of Manila. General MacArthur returned to the Philippines via the island province of Leyte, along with 174,000 army and navy servicemen on October 20, 1944. The liberation of Manila took almost 20 days from February 3 to 23, 1945 and the fierce battle destroyed much of the city, with its ruins now often compared to the ruins of Warsaw, Poland in Europe. The Japanese army, however, continued to fight in the provinces, until September 2, 1945 when General Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya who was believed to have hidden vast amount of treasures during the war, surrendered in Baguio City. It is estimated that the battle of Manila cost the lives of 1 million Filipinos, 300,000 Japanese and 60,000 Americans. The intensity of the US-Japan war would force the former to drop an atomic bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and in Nagasaki three days later. US Bases By February 1945, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth in the Philippines but it was only on July 4, 1946 that the US granted the Philippines its independence, coinciding with the celebration of the Independence Day in America. However, US military bases would remain in the country for the next 45 years. On March 14, 1947, Manila and Washington signed the Treaty of General Relation, which provided the US to construct military bases for a lease period of 99 years. In 1959, the agreement was amended to shorten the lease period until 1991, after which both sides were to renegotiate the contract. When the US sought a ten-year extension of the lease period in 1991, the Philippine Senate, led by Senate President Jovito Salonga, rejected the proposal in a historic casting of vote on September 16, ending US military bases in the country. With newfound freedom in 1946, Filipinos elected Manuel A. Roxas, leader of the Liberal Party and one of the seven members of the Constitutional Convention who drafted the 1935 Constitution, as the first president of the independent republic in April 1946. His presidency was focused on rebuilding the cities and municipalities torn by the war, redistributing lands as wealthy landowners returned to reclaim their estates, and confronting the Hukbalahap, which by this time was tagged as a socialist-communist organization. The economy grew at a rapid pace, immediately after the war. Special Treatment Close economic ties between Manila and Washington continued after the war on the back of agreements providing for preferential tariffs for American exports and special treatment for US investors in the Philippines. In the 1946 Philippine Trade Act, the Americans were granted duty-free access to the Philippine market and special rights to exploit the country's natural resources. Because of the Trade Act, the Philippines suffered a huge trade deficit with the influx of American imports. In 1949, the Philippine government was forced to impose import controls, after getting the consent of Washington. Roxas' two-year presidency ended with his death, following a heart attack while delivering a speech at Clark Air Force Base in Pampanga province in April 1948. Vice president Elpidio Quirino succeeded Roxas as president and defeated Jose P. Laurel to keep his post in the 1949 presidential race. It was during Quirino's term that the Minimum Wage Law was enacted and the Central Bank was established to stabilize the peso and consumer prices. The country's gross national product grew by an average of 7.7 percent annually in the early 1960s, on the back of the double-digit increase in the manufacturing sector. In the 1953 presidential election, Ramon Magsaysay, who had served as defense secretary under the Quirino administration, won by a landslide. The charismatic Magsaysay initiated peace talks with the Hukbalahap, which would later evolve into a communist organization. He became popular for opening the gates of Malacanang Palace to ordinary people. He died in a plane crash on Mount Manunggal in Cebu in March 1957, which to this day remains a mystery to many Filipinos. While the standard of living in the Philippines was below that of the Western World, the country was often cited as the second richest economy in Asia, after Japan in the 1960s. However, ill-advised economic policies, poor governance and rapid population growth in the country would allow other Asian economies such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and China not only to catch up with but to leave the Philippines behind in the race towards industrialization. Filipino First Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the country's top government post following the death of Magsaysay. Garcia was known for his First Filipino Policy and Austerity Program, which put the interests of Filipinos ahead those of foreigners. Under his austerity measures, he encouraged temperate spending, which resulted in less imports and more exports. His nationalist policies, however, perpetuated the business interests of the ruling elite in the country and did not encourage local businesses to be competitive. Garcia lost to his vice-president in the 1961 presidential poll. Protectionist policies allowed local manufacturers to control the economy from 1949 to 1962, discouraging them from becoming competitive. Diosdado Macapagal, father of incumbent President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, was the president from 1961 to 1965. Before he became president, he authored the land reform program as a legislator and was vice-president to Garcia. As president, Macapagal began a five-year socio-economic program by removing imports control and liberalizing foreign exchange. It was Macapagal who declared June 12 as the national Independence Day. In 1962, the Macapagal administration began devaluing the peso by half to around 3.90 to the US dollar. Macapagal initiated a shift in investments from the light industries to chemicals, steel and industrial equipment. He was also one of the proponents of the MAPHILINDO, a trade bloc of three South East Asian countries – the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. This bloc later expanded to what is now the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). By 1965, foreign capital was present in nearly a third of the country's capital stock. Martial Law Ferdinand Marcos, the Senate president, defeated Macapagal in the presidential election to become the country's tenth president in November 1965. A close ally of the United States, Marcos launched military campaigns against the insurgents including the communist Hukbalahap and Moro rebels in Mindanao. In August 1967, Manila hosted a summit that led to the creation of the ASEAN. With his reelection in 1969, Marcos had to contend with worsening civil strife. An ideologist named Jose Ma. Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines on December 26, 1968. It was during the same year that University of the Philippines Nur Misuari founded the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the armed wing of Islamic resistance movement. In June 1971, the government convened the Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. Ironically, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972, following a series of bombings in Metro Manila, He abolished Congress, curtailed freedom of the press, imposed curfews, ordered the arrest of his political enemies, prohibited labour unions, and controlled the economy with the help of his cronies. Although his wife Imelda was credited for building some of the country's finest monuments, she was criticized for personal extravagance, a form of which was maintaining a collection of 3,000 pairs of shoes. Green Revolution The so-called green revolution in the early 1970s, which introduced new farming technologies, enabled the Philippines to export rice to its neighbours. The International Rice Research Institute was established in Los Banos town, Laguna province where Thai, Vietnamese and other Asian researchers trained to develop their own rice production. Thailand would later become the world's largest rice exporter and the Philippines one of the largest rice importers. With the introduction of new farming technologies, the Philippines became heavily dependent on importer fertilizers, which are mostly fuel-based. The increase in world crude oil prices also pushed prices of fertilizers, to the detriment of Filipino farmers trying to adopt the modern technologies. Chinese Tycoons On June 9, 1975, the Marcos administration signed a joint communiqué with Communist China to restore official diplomatic relations. The Communiqué recognized that "there is but one China, of which Taiwan is an integral part. In return, China vowed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Philippines and refrained from providing any substantial support to the Communist Party of the Philippines, the largest insurgent group in the country. The largest success story in the Philippines actually involved Chinese merchants who left China in pursuit of business opportunities abroad. Unlike rich American investors, Chinese migrants came to the Philippines with little money but large determination that the country's democratic society would help them become rich. True enough, they found goldmine in the Philippines. Today, the richest individuals in the Philippines have Chinese names, including billionaires such as Lucio Tan, Henry Sy, John Gokongwei, and George Ty. Together, they are the largest group of investors in the Philippines and control most of the largest companies in the country. Overseas Workers Under Martial Law, one man other than Marcos would singularly define labour relations in the Philippines and the role of the Filipino workers in the world. Labour Minister Blas Ople, a former journalist, authored the Labor Code on November 1, 1974 and launched the overseas employment program in 1976, which would send young and talented Filipinos who could not find work at home to other countries for dollar-earning jobs. Ople obtained the permission of Marcos to deploy thousands of Filipino workers overseas to meet the growing need of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates for skilled workers and the rising demand for Filipino seamen in flag-of-convenience vessels. Hesitant at first, Marcos later conceded to the proposal, if only to tame the growing militancy building among the hearts of the young and intelligent Filipinos who could not find job opportunities in their own land. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) were established to intensify recruitment of Filipino workers. This would make the Philippines the third largest destination of dollar remittances in the world, next to the more populous countries of India and Mexico. The Marcos administration also tried to court foreign investors, by committing guarantees against nationalization and imposing restrictions on trade-union activity. However, the blatant record of human rights abuses by the military under his administration was a big turnoff among foreigners. Under Martial law, the military and the police killed, abused, or arrested at least 10,000 Filipinos, including some of the brightest students and intellectuals. Many had disappeared without a trace. While Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981 in time for the visit of Pope John Paul II to Manila in February, he maintained most of his powers as a dictator. Benigno Aquino, an opposition senator living in asylum in the US, decided to return to Manila in 1983. His death, from assassins' bullets at the tarmac of the Manila International Airport, sparked adverse sentiments against the Marcos administration. Bankruptcy As the economy stagnated under the Marcos administration because of a mix of bad economic policies, corruption and uncontrolled population growth, the government had to resort to foreign borrowing to finance the fiscal deficit. In October 1983, the Central Bank notified its creditors about its plan to default payment on debt amounting to US$24.6 billion. With the growing loss of confidence by the business community, the peso depreciated by as much as 21 percent in 1983. The gross domestic product shrank by 6.8 percent in 1984 and by 3.8 percent in 1985. Emboldened by Marcos' dipping popularity, the opposition gathered around Aquino's widow, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who would later challenge Marcos in the 1986 snap presidential election. When Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) declared Marcos the winner amid allegations of widespread electoral fraud, protesters, buoyed by Manila archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin, trooped to the streets. Following the defection of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Armed Forces vice chief Fidel Ramos from Marcos, protesters began converging along EDSA near Ortigas Avenue, which would culminate in the ouster of Marcos from Malacanang Palace on February 25, 1986. The media called the bloodless uprising as the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution - something that political groups would later thought could be replicated time and again. Democratic Rule After Marcos, his family and his cronies fled from the Philippines, Aquino became president, organized a new government, freed the political prisoners and tried to restore democratic rule in the country. In February 1987, her government approved a new Constitution, which would later be subjected to heated debates over its restrictive provisions on foreign participation in the economy. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government with a bicameral legislature composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives and an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court chief justice. To avoid a replication of Marcos' excesses, the Constitution limited the president's stay in office to one six-year term. It also created the autonomous regions of Muslim Mindanao and Cordillera and put agrarian reform as the cornerstone of the government's plan for social transformation. A renegade faction in the Philippine military launched a series of coup attempts against the Aquino presidency. Perception of political instability dampened economic activities and refrained the economy from matching the large strides taken by its Asian neighbors in the 1980s and 1990s. By this time, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand have overtaken the Philippines in the race towards industrialization. The Arroyo administration, while taking pride of having restored democracy, failed to bring the economy on track towards industrialization, and one of the factors singled out was the president's political inexperience and lack of consistency in pushing for economic reforms. In the 1992 presidential election, Aquino endorsed the candidacy of her chosen successor – Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos. In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo's powerful eruption sent tons of ashes around the planet's atmosphere. Subsequent lava/lahar flow buried several towns in Central Luzon and jolted the economy. The natural tragedy also forced American soldiers at Clark Field and Subic Bay to withdraw from their bases earlier than stipulated. The US turned over to the Philippine government the two bases with total assets amounting to US$1.3 billion. The Philippine government later transformed the two bases into special economic zones. Liberalisation In 1992, Fidel Ramos was elected President. He began his term amid an energy crisis, which plunged the country literally into darkness. This he was able to resolve by inviting foreign investors to take part in the so-called build-operate-transfer (BOT) scheme, where they would serve as independent power producers (IPPs) enjoying a lot of incentives and guaranteed market. While it brought light to Filipino households, the scheme would later translate to high electricity rates. In 1995, the Ramos administration also had to contend with a rice shortage, as a result of low agricultural production and poorly managed importation program. Since then, the government has authorised the National Food Authority (NFA) to import rice at will in order to prepare for any shortage in domestic stock. The Ramos presidency was also responsible for economic reforms such as privatisation of government assets, trade and banking liberalisation and deregulation, which would push annual trade growth at double-digit levels and draw in large-ticket foreign investments. By 1996, the Philippines was described as a newly industrialising economy along with the likes of Thailand and Malaysia. It was also under the Ramos presidency that communism was legalised, and some leftist organisations would later join Congress as partylist groups. The government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) headed by Nur Misuari would sign a peace agreement that would establish a peace zone in southern Philippines. However, other militant rebel groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Abu Sayyaf would continue waging a war against the government for a Islamic state in the south. What Ramos failed to accomplish is the amendment to the 1987 Constitution to remove the restriction on foreign ownership of land and public utilities, which limits maximum ownership to 40 percent. The opposition party accused him of trying to tinker with the charter to remove the six-year term limit of the president and in the process perpetuate his stay in power. In the end, he had to give up such attempt under the weight of public opinion. Financial Crisis With the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis, the Philippine economy contracted by 0.6 percent in 1998, the same year Joseph Estrada, a popular politician with links to the movie industry, became president. The economy actually grew although at a slower pace at 3.4 percent in 1999 and at 4 percent in 2000 even as the inflation and interest rates began to decline. In comparison, growth reached 5.2 percent under the Ramos presidency in 1997. While Estrada got the backing of Filipino-Chinese businessmen by reducing the problem of kidnapping, he did not get the same support from other "elite" businessmen. Despite appointing top economists, Estrada, a former college dropout, could not convince the "high society" that he could resolve the country's economic woes. Ironically, what brought down the Estrada administration was not his economic policies, seen by many as not substantially different from those of Ramos, but the perception of wide corruption in his administration. In October 2000, a former ally implicated Estrada in illegal gambling payoffs and kickbacks. Reports that he has many wives housed in different mansions also got Estrada indifferent treatment from the Church, which was a force behind the 1986 People's Power Revolution. EDSA 2 In December 2000, the House of Representatives impeached Estrada. The subsequent impeachment trial at the Senate was aborted when senators from the opposition party walked out of the courtroom, triggering street demonstrations reminiscent of the 1986 revolt. Within hours after the walkout, the crowd at EDSA grew into millions of anti-Estrada protesters. When political and military leaders withdrew their support from Estrada, Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide swore Vice President Gloria Mapacagal Arroyo as the next president on January 20, 2001. Arroyo, a daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal, came to Malacanang with a promise to clean the government of corrupt officials and bring down the number of poor Filipinos, which represents a third of the total population. In her first year in office, she faced numerous challenges starting with the May 1 rebellion, instigated by the Estrada camp to regain the presidency. The rebellion proved futile, as the highly politicised military and the police remained loyal to Arroyo. She also had to contend with Muslim extremists, who began to target cities in their attacks. Following the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001, the Philippines was one of the first countries to express support for a US-led international campaign against terrorism. On the economic front, Congress passed the liberalisation of the retail trade sector and the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, which aims to privatise the state-owned National Power Corporation. The Arroyo administration also promoted business process outsourcing (BPO), information technology, tourism, and mining as key investment areas for foreign companies. Trade with other Asian countries was also given importance in view of the declining trade volume with the United States. Telecommunications One particular industry, which has led economic growth since 2000 is telecommunications, although this proved to be a bane for other industries as Filipinos cut their expenditures on other items to buy mobile phones and pay for monthly network services. By 2005, it is estimated that half of the 85 million Filipinos would have mobile phones, a high penetration rate for a developing market. Because of the global economic slump following the September 11 attacks, the GDP grew by merely 1.8 percent in 2001. Growth reached 4.3 percent in 2002 and 4.7 percent in 2003 even as the Arroyo administration confronted communist and Islamic insurgency problems and a shocking military coup in July 2003. After surviving the coup, Arroyo won the May 2004 presidential election over Estrada's close friend and popular actor Fernando Poe Jr. Economic growth reached 6.1 percent in 2004, the highest in 15 years, although this was negated by high inflation and uncontrolled unemployment rates which were more felt by the poor. Fiscal Deficit Pressed by economists to narrow the burgeoning fiscal deficit, President Arroyo urged Congress to pass a package of tax reform measures aimed at achieving a balanced budget by the end of her term in 2010. Because of a long history of budget deficits, the public debt hit more than 130 percent of the GDP in 2003 and has been rising since then. Different sectors, however, criticised the administration for passing a heavier burden of taxation on the people at a time crude oil prices were hovering at historic high levels and pushing prices of goods and services beyond the capacity of ordinary consumers. By the second half of 2005, there were signs that the fiscal deficit was narrowing, even with the delay in the implementation of the Expanded Value Added Tax (EVAT) law, which raised by 2 percentage points the tax rate on consumer products and services to 12 percent and by 3 percentage points the corporate income tax to 35 percent. The new EVAT law, which was expanded to cover fuel and electricity, took effect on November 1, 2005. New Constitution As the popularity of President Arroyo dipped to the lowest level amid allegations that she bought her way to the presidency in the 2004 presidential elections, she was given an option to correct the loopholes in the political system by amending the 1987 Constitution. She formed a Consultative Commission to recommend charter amendments focusing on lifting all restrictions to foreign investments and paving the way for a shift in the form of government from a presidential, central system into a parliamentary, federal system. Posted by Text Mates at 4:16 PM 0 comments Labels: Economy, History, National, Social Filipino Inventions Solar powered Balut maker The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology at the University of the Philippines-Los Banos has invented a solar "balut" maker. Engineer Fernando Paras Jr. said the machine, which covers an area of five square meters, is actually an incubator that can process duck eggs into embryonated eggs or balut for 15 to 17 days. Traditionally, balut makers in Pateros have been using electricity for incubation. The new invention is a two-way solar-powered system, with the solar water heater serving as the primary heat source while the photovoltaic cells serve as the auxiliary heat source regulating the temperature inside the incubator. The machine can process up to 4,000 eggs at the same time. This can double the income of farmers. SMS reader for the Blind A group of four engineering students from the De La Salle University invented the SMS reader, a device that allows the blind to read and send text messages. The prototype is composed of a black box with a Braille display that mimics the interface of a mobile phone. A data cable is connected to a slot in the black box. Superkalan Narciso Mosuela of La Union province invented the "superkalan", a novelty stove that can be fired with anything that burns—wood, paper, dried dung and leaves, corn cobs, and coco shells. The body of this stove is made of aluminum alloy, with a cast iron heat intensifier. For his invention, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) bestowed on Mosuela the "best design award" for Third World country category in 1987. Aside from the superkalan, Mr. Mosuela invented a functional rice thresher and other kitchen gadgets. Anti-cancer cream In November 2005, Filipino inventor Rolando dela Cruz won the gold medal for his "DeBCC" anti-cancer cream at the prestigious International Inventor's Forum in Nuremberg, Germany. The "DeBCC" cream, developed from cashew nuts and other local herbs, was chosen over 1,500 entries as the "most significant invention" of the year. According to Mr. dela Cruz, the cream was a simple answer to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer worldwide. BCC affects around 800,000 Americans every year, according to the Skin Care Foundation. BCC also affects 500,000 Europeans and 190,000 Australians every year. Mole Remover In 2000, Rolando dela Cruz developed an ingenuous formula that could easily remove deeply grown moles or warts from the skin without leaving marks or hurting the patient. His formula was extracted from cashew nut (Annacardium occidentale), which is common in the Philippines. The formula won for dela Cruz a gold medal in International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology Exhibition in Kuala Lumpur in September 2000. In March 1997, dela Cruz established RCC Amazing Touch International Inc., which runs clinics engaged "in a non-surgical removal of warts, moles and other skin growths, giving the skin renewed energy and vitality without painful and costly surgery." Modular Housing System Edgardo Vazquez won a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal in 1995 for developing a modular housing system. Such a system called Vazbuilt is reportedly capable of building within weeks a house with prefabricated materials that can withstand typhoons and earthquakes. Ironically, Vasquez is not getting enough support from the Philippine government to propagate his technology, which could help provide shelter to some five million Filipino families without their own homes. Vazquez is the national president of the Filipino Inventors Society. Super Bunker Formula-L In 1996, Rudy Lantano Sr., a scientist from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST), won the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal for developing Super Bunker Formula-L, a revolutionary fuel half-composed of water. The mix burns faster and emits pollutants, 95 percent less than those released to the air by traditional fuel products. The inventor said his invention is a result of blending new ingredients and additives with ordinary oil products through agitation and mixing, which is a very safe process. The initial plan was to commercially produce two million liters of Alco-Diesel, two million liters of Lan-Gas and an unlimited quantity of Super Bunker Formula-L each day for customers in Luzon. Natural Gas Vehicle The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle that runs on natural gas, whose rich deposits remain untapped under the Philippine seabed. The project's main objective is to look into the potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel to conventional petrol and diesel for the transport sector. The natural gas vehicle (NVG) has been road-tested in Isabela where an existing natural gas supply from the PNOC Gas Plant is located. Test runs have also been made in Cagayan, Ifugao and Mountain Province. The test vehicle used was the Isuzu Hi-Lander 4JA-1, direct injected diesel engine. The use of natural gas as a fuel is cheaper. On a gallon-equivalent basis, natural gas costs an average of 15 to 40 percent less than gasoline and diesel. There are over one million NVGs in the world today, according to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Lamp Fixing Invention A Filipino inventor has developed a technology, which could revive a busted lamp (pundido) and give it more years of functional life than those of new ones. Acclaimed by the Filipino Inventors Society as timely and revolutionary, the Nutec system can prolong the life of fluorescent lamps up to seven years. Nutec was developed by New World Technology, headed by president Eric Ngo and chosen as the "Product of the Year" at the Worldbex 2000 Building and Construction Exposition held at the Manila Hotel. Engineer Benjamin S. Santos, national president of the Inventors Society, called Nutec a timely invention. "Tubig Talino" The Department of Science and Technology claimed that it has developed "Tubig Talino", an iodine-rich drinking water that treats micronutrient deficiencies responsible for goiter, mental and physical retardation, and birth defects. "Tubig Talino" is actually a mixture of 20 liters of water and 15 ml of "Water Plus + I2". Consumption of five glasses a day of this iodine fortification in drinking water is expected to provide 120 micrograms of iodine, which meets 100 percent of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a male adult. Feminine Hygiene Product Inventor Dr. Virgilio Malang won a gold medal for his invention "Psidium Guajava Effervescing Gynecological Insert", a silver medal for his "Patient Side-Turning Hospital Bed", and three bonze medals for his inventions "external vaginal cleanser", "light refracting earpick", and "broom's way of hanging" at the Seoul International Fair in held South Korea in December 2002. There were 385 inventions from 30 countries that joined the competitions. Patis Contrary to popular belief, there was no fish sauce or Patis yet during the Spanish occupation. Patis began to become a part of most Filipinos' diet only after the Japanese occupation. Here is an account of how an enterprising lady discovered the fermentation of Patis. Immediately after the war, the family of Ruperta David or Aling Tentay started a dried fish business. One day, Aling Tentay stored in jars some salted fish that turned into fragments even before they dried. While in jars, the fish fragments turned into a liquid substance that tasted like our Patis today. Thus the beginning of the thriving Patis business of Aling Tentay, which was officially registered in 1949 and is known today as Tentay Food and Sauces Inc. (Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer) A Showcase of Ingenuity Nothing perhaps has been associated with Filipino technology as much as the country's pride - jeepney. The word "jeep" evolved from the military designation, general-purpose or G.P., of a light vehicle first used by the Americans in World War II. Developed by the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, this vehicle was powered by a four-cylinder engine and was classified as a quarter-ton truck in carrying capacity. It had served as a command vehicle, reconnaissance car, and ammunition carrier. The American soldiers brought these vehicles to the Philippines in the 1940s. After the war, these vehicles were left by the Americans and converted by the Filipinos into public utility vehicles. Employing artistic and indigenous designs, the Filipinos came up with a longer, well-decorated, techni-colored and sleeker vehicle, which they later called jeepney. From the standard military jeep, the body was extended to accommodate between 20 to 30 passengers. Modern jeepneys now sport very colorful and intricate paintings, fancy adornments, and metallic decors reflective of Filipino sentiments, values, and culture. The town of Las Pinas has been recognized as the jeepney-producing center in the country. Today, public utility jeepneys or PUJs serve as the primary means of transportation in most provinces. For this, the Philippines came to be known as the "land of the jeepneys".
19
Cultureseekers Blog – Written by Robert Coleman, London's No.1 Cultureseeker! Written by Robert Coleman, London's No.1 Cultureseeker!
20
goodreads The website maintained by Jeffrey B. Perry the biographer of Hubert Harrison and literary executor of Theodore W. Allen (author of "The Invention of the White Race").
21
Book.Events - What''s On in Portsmouth & Southsea Buy tickets online to popular local events and festivals, book.events is the place to see and attend what''s on in Portsmouth and surrounding areas
24
Castle Rising, Norfolk Castle Rising Castle is one of the most famous 12th Century castles in England. The stone keep, built around 1140 AD, is amongst the finest examples of its kind anywhere in Britain.
25
Cioce | News and Articles All the day's economic and financial news, including new growth figures for the UK and the financial crisis in TurkeyLatest: Trump hits Turkey with higher tariffsLira has plunged almost 20% todayErdogan urges public to buy liraWhy Turkey is in troubleEarlier:UK growth rises to 0.4%, but manufacturing's in recessionMike Ashley swoops on House of Fraser 4.28pm BST Heading into the market close in Europe, and investors have taken fright at the Turkish problems, with worries about contagion uppermost in their minds. David Madden, market analyst at CMC Markets UK, says:European stock markets have been rocked by the plunge in the Turkish lira. The European Central Bank (ECB) warned that a number of eurozone banks might be exposed to the sharp decline in the Turkish lira.A number of Spanish, French and Italian banks are connected to Turkey in the form of foreign denominated loans, and if the Turkish borrowers haven't hedged their exposure it might spark defaults. Should European banks incur write-downs on account of the Turkish currency crisis, investment sentiment is likely to be weak. Many financial institutions in Europe have their own non-performing loans to contend with, and they could be facing a similar situation in Turkey. 4.04pm BST Reuters' Jamie McGeever has put today's fall in the Turkish lira into context:Turkish lira having one of the biggest one-day falls of any free-floating currency in over 20 years. Now down 14%, but was off as much as 20% earlier today. For comparison:Indonesian rupiah -15% on 6 May, 1998S African rand -15% on 15 Oct, 2008UK pound -8% on 24 June, 2016 3.57pm BST Here's Bloomberg's energy editor on Turkish steel exports, which will now be hit by the new Trump tariffs:#Turkey's #steel exports to the US fell by more than half in the first five months of 2018. They'd hoped to make back that ground. That now looks unlikely via @tbiesheuvel #Tradewars pic.twitter.com/BfPfhjVEET 3.55pm BST Erdogan is now repeating his previous pleas to buy lira:Erdogan again calling on Turkish citizen to buy Lira and sell foreign currencies...ERDOGAN: TURKEY ECONOMY TO GROW AT RECORD LEVEL IN 2018(just not in US dollar terms) 3.46pm BST The situation for Turkey looks bleak and it is entirely of its own making, says Jan Dehn, head of research at investment manager Ashmore Group: The situation unfolding in Turkey is fluid, but essentially unsurprising. Any emerging market investor who has done even a modicum of due diligence will be aware of the monetary policy problems Turkey has been running for years. President Erdogan's consistent pressure on the central bank to keep interest rates low – a product of his erroneous belief that high interest rates lead to inflation – has brought Turkey's macroeconomic situation into serious imbalance, hence placing the country in a vulnerable position. The chickens have now come home to roost.US President Donald Trump has, in typical fashion, wasted no time in exploiting a minor diplomatic spat over an American pastor jailed in Turkey to add insult to Turkey's largely self-inflicted injuries by slapping tariffs on Turkey – which will further exacerbate today's slide. 3.37pm BST Earlier Turkey's finance minister - and Erdogan's son-in-law had also tried to ease fears about the country's economy, including concerns about the central bank's independence. Associated Press reports:In a bid to ease investor concerns about Turkey's economic policy, the country's finance minister says the government will safeguard the independence of the central bank. Treasury and Finance Minister Berat Albayrak on Friday also vowed sustainable and healthy economic growth as well as "strong struggle" against inflation, which currently stands at close to 16 percent. 3.31pm BST Before his second speech and after Donald Trump's speech, Erdogan was reportedly in contact with Russia:BREAKING: Turkey says President Erdogan has held phone call with Russia's Putin to discuss economic ties amid market turmoil. 3.27pm BST Erdogan is practically goading the market into an 8 handle next week 3.23pm BST Turkish president Erdogan is making a second speech at the moment.#Erdogan 2nd speech of the day...will he say anything to steady investor's nerves? This as the Lira continues to plummet & contagion ramps up in Europe pic.twitter.com/waNliQcdsf 3.16pm BST Neil Wilson, chief market analyst at Markets.com, also sees echoes of the Greek troubles:If you're looking for a black swan event, this could be it, although we must stress that so the panic is very much confined to Turkey. Nevertheless, ghosts of Greece are still vivid in the memory for European investors and today is the first sign that the problem with Turkey's larger dollar debts is no longer confined to its borders. 3.09pm BST Three summers ago, Greece was forced to impose capital controls to prevent a run on its banks, as its future in the eurozone hung in the balance.Gavin Friend, senior market strategist at National Australia Bank, believes Turkey could soon be forced into similar measures:"Though hiking rates would be the market's preferred option for Turkey to stem this crisis and help deal with inflation this seems unlikely given what we heard from President Erdogan today.If we assume IMF assistance is out of the question from both sides, that leaves capital controls. That is problematic given Turkey's need for foreign inflows - but of course they won't be coming for now and stemming the flow the other way is the issue. This won't help in building trust between Turkey and international investors. 3.04pm BST Paul McNamara, investment director at asset management firm GAM, has written a fine explanation of the causes of Turkey's economic woes:"We think that Turkey has a toxic combination of a weak external position (current account deficit), excessive private sector debt and a high level of foreign funding in the banking system. This is coming to a head as a much-needed demand slowdown is causing asset quality problems in the banks. The role of construction in the economy for example is comparable with that in Spain or Ireland ahead of the European bust."We think the Turks have exhausted the possibilities of rate hikes, and are backed into a corner by their inadequate level of currency reserves (the IMF thinks that Turkey has the least adequate level of reserves of the major EM economies. The country's politics are also a problem with the President's son-in-law as Finance Minister and perception of political interference with the "independent" Central Bank. 3.00pm BST Turkey's deepening currency crisis is sending fear sweeping through the financial markets. 2.57pm BST #Turkey Lira hits new low as Trump increases tariffs. pic.twitter.com/xVrlQ7a1D5 2.43pm BST Turkey's currency crisis could force president Erdogan to impose capital controls, or seek help from the International Monetary Fund, says Brad Bechtel of investment bank Jefferies:Turkey has a handful of options including seeking an IMF program, capital controls, rate hikes, yield to American demands or do nothing and so far the only option he seems to be leaning towards is do nothing.His stubborn stance against the US and twisted view of the IMF combined with a fear of higher interest rates make the situation untenable. The complete loss of credibility in the central bank was the final shoe to drop and spark for the latest rout we've seen in the currency. Until decisive action is taken, they will continue to spiral out of control. 2.33pm BST Turkey is now suffering one of the most painful and intense currency crises in many years:Hold on to your hats!Turkish lira 19% down Vs USD on the day at the US open.Lira is down 46% against the dollar in the past 52 weeks. It gets worst faster than I can update the chart. pic.twitter.com/0fcO6luOAi 2.29pm BST The Turkish lira is plunging to new record lows following Donald Trump's tweet.It's now down 18% (!!) today, at over 6.5 lira to the dollar, compared with 5.5 lira last night.Select Developing Market Currency Performance, YTD: (Turkey now performing worse than Argentina) pic.twitter.com/iimmYQj88d 2.12pm BST NEWSFLASH: Donald Trump has announced he's doubling the tariffs on Turkish steel and aluminium imports, as the diplomatic row between Turkey and the US deepens.Trump announced the move in a tweet, claiming it was in response to the lira's recent slump.I have just authorized a doubling of Tariffs on Steel and Aluminum with respect to Turkey as their currency, the Turkish Lira, slides rapidly downward against our very strong Dollar! Aluminum will now be 20% and Steel 50%. Our relations with Turkey are not good at this time!Turkish Lira extends drop to more than 11% as Trump hits the country with higher metals tariffs pic.twitter.com/nSONeyEafD 2.07pm BST Turkey's currency crisis has deepened today, as president Erdogan attempting to calm the situation with a defiant address to the nation.After watching the lira fall to record lows in recent days, Erdogan declared that Turkey is facing an "economic war', which he vowed not to lose.If there's anyone who has dollars, gold or euros under their pillow, I am asking them to take them to the bank and exchange them for Turkish lira. Erdogan highlights...- Interest rate lobby won't crush Turkey- Let's retake city squares to repel economic attack- We'll smash this plot against country- Let no one doubt our success- Take our money from under mattress and put in bank(Watch here: pic.twitter.com/b4hXJ3858OErdogan is asking citizens again to take their dollars and euros and convert them to liras. A visit to bank branches in Istanbul today indicated that the opposite is happening pic.twitter.com/YVMk5dHEVO"Turkey's macro challenges are numerous and well known - an overheating economy, a sizable external financing requirement, an outsized structural current account deficit, persistent double digit inflation, low net FX reserves and a large private sector debt burden. As a result of this, investor confidence in President Erdogan's regime has been waning for much of the past year but key cabinet changes made after the June 24th elections have been particularly damaging for sentiment..... "While Turkey's fundamental challenges are numerous, there are plenty of straightforward textbook solutions which, if implemented, can halt the downward spiral of investor confidence and asset prices. An aggressive interest rate hike from the Central Bank would be a good start, something of the order of +1,000bp that Argentina delivered back in May would be appropriate at this juncture. This would help slow the economy, probably into a recession, which would help crunch the relentless demand for imports and thereby alleviate some of the current account deficit problem. 1.41pm BST Here's our economics correspondent Richard Partington on today's GDP figures:Warmer weather helped the British economy grow at a faster pace in the three months to the end of June, despite official figures revealing the manufacturing sector slumped into recession for the first time since the Brexit vote.The Office for National Statistics said GDP increased by 0.4% in the second quarter from a rate of 0.2% in the previous three months, helped by stronger retail sales and good weather enabling the construction industry to make-up lost ground from the heavy snow earlier this year. Related: UK manufacturing in recession despite faster GDP growth 1.20pm BST Philip Hammond also dropped a loud hint that the UK government could push for new taxes on online retailers:We want to ensure that the high street remains resilient, and that we also make sure that taxation is fair between businesses doing business the traditional way, and those doing business online.That requires us to renegotiate international tax treaties because many of the big online businesses are international companies. 1.20pm BST Chancellor of the exchequer, Philip Hammond, has blamed Britain's slow growth in recent quarters on Brexit uncertainty.Speaking in Coventry today, Hammond told reporters that:"Clearly that uncertainty is having a depressing effect on economic growth." 12.46pm BST The TUC make a very important point -- if you adjust for population increases, Britain's growth has been extremely poor since the financial crisis."The latest figures cap a dismal decade for the economy. But we should not accept weak growth as the new normal – it's the result of bad management of the economy. There has been too little investment and a failure to focus on getting wages rising."If we want a stronger decade ahead, the UK must catch up with the levels investment we see in other OECD nations. And the government must put action to get wages rising at the heart of its plans." 12.00pm BST However...Rebecca Long Bailey MP, Labour's Shadow Business Secretary, is concerned that Sports Direct now has control of House of Fraser. 'It is unforgivable that the Conservatives have stood by and done nothing while tens of thousands of jobs have been put at risk. Their inaction has prepared the ground for the likes of Mike Ashley, notorious for his company's poor treatment of workers, to hoover up businesses.Staff will undoubtedly be concerned about what the sale means for their wages and conditions.House of Fraser saw its business rates store bill jump by 15% - nearly £4m - to £30.2million this year, says experts Altus. Hardly helped its perilous state. Oh, and rival Amazon's UK corporation tax bill nearly halved to £4.6m last year. 11.32am BST Financial experts are pleased that House of Fraser has been saved from the abyss by Sports Direct - even though we don't know Mike Ashley's long-term plans for the retailer.Simon Underwood, business recovery partner at accountancy firm, Menzies LLP, says it's a "welcome outcome":"This is possibly the best news from the High Street this year and a positive indicator for other ailing retailers."House of Fraser is a strong brand and this £90m bid from Sports Direct owner Mike Ashley means many of its stores will be saved and its operations streamlined."Now that Sports Direct has acquired the House of Fraser brand – including all of the stock in the business - it will allow continued operation with a likely focus on the flagship stores."This will be welcome news not only for suppliers who rely on House of Fraser for their livelihoods, but also for all employees involved. 11.18am BST Britain's economy is still "struggling to gain momentum" despite growing faster in April-June, says Mike Jakeman, senior economist at PwC, "The improvement was partly driven by one-off events, such as higher consumer spending on food and drink around the World Cup, the heatwave and the Royal Wedding. However, there was also some evidence that hot weather and wall-to-wall football deterred shoppers from buying goods other than food or drink. The net effect was that household consumption grew at the same pace as in Q1. "Instead, the acceleration was driven by investment, which rebounded after a very poor first quarter, but only to the level seen at the end of 2017. Brexit-related uncertainty is still deterring large, export-focused firms from committing to investment plans. Net trade also subtracted from growth for the first time since late 2016, as a result of weaker exports of cars and planes. 11.16am BST Professor Costas Milas of the University of Liverpool says today's UK GDP report is rather mixed:Although the 0.4 quarter on quarter per cent growth for 2018Q2 is in line with expectations, the annual growth reading of 1.3 per cent is slightly lower than that the 1.41 per cent estimate (based on market interest rate expectations) by BoE policymakers and even lower than the 1.5 per cent 'trend growth´ considered by the Bank as our new economic 'norm'. What BoE policymakers have decided to do is store up interest rate 'ammunition' should Brexit-related developments over the next few months require deep interest rate cuts to revive the economy.It is vital that financial markets and traders see all this so that selling pressure on the sterling currency recedes. 11.10am BST Sam Tombs of Pantheon Economics makes an important point -- the slump in sterling since the Brexit vote has not healed the UK's trade woes:Staggering that net trade has dragged on GDP growth since sterling depreciated. At the same stage after all other 10%+ depreciations since 1945, net trade had boosted growth. Brexit may not have happened yet, but the risks it poses already are draining the life out of the economy pic.twitter.com/tspni6Spm4 11.05am BST Anthony Gillham, head of investment at City firm Quilter Investors, isn't very impressed with today's growth report.He warns that the UK is still 'playing catch-up' after slowing last winter."While growth has improved slightly, it does so from a low starting point. Over the medium term, UK growth has been thoroughly unspectacular, with the domestic economy expanding at a slower pace than most developed countries."There is a real risk of stagflation on the horizon, with the recent interest rate hike failing to address the fall in the pound, and the sentiment of Mark Carney and Liam Fox even talking the value of Sterling to its lowest point against the dollar in a year. The UK finds itself in a difficult situation where the Bank of England is hiking rates to try and keep a lid on import costs that drive up inflation, but it is doing so against the backdrop of weak economic growth."The general climate of uncertainty that pervades is discouraging households form making big ticket purchases, while business investment is also stifled as a result of CEOs feeling cautious about starting big projects before they have more certainty about the UK's future relationship with European trading partners. 10.56am BST Suren Thiru, head of economics at the British Chambers of Commerce (BCC), says Britain's growth rate remains lacklustre.He's particularly concerned by today's trade figures, saying:"The higher growth in the second quarter was largely due to stronger service sector output, which helped offset a contraction in industrial output and a widening trade deficit. While there was pick-up in construction output, the improvement was from a low base, and the sector continues to add little to overall UK growth."The widening of the UK's trade deficit in the quarter is disappointing, and reflects both a decline in goods exports and a rise in imported goods. The deterioration in the UK's net trade position is further confirmation that we are still some way from achieving a rebalancing of our economy. 10.45am BST UK economic growth is still "way below the gains we were used to before the financial crisis" says Rob Hodgson, Head of Wealth Management at GWM Investment Management.Economics journalist Dharshini David agrees that 0.4% growth isn't something to shout aboutReality check: growth may have accelerated in Q2 but only from a frankly puny Q1, and only to a rate that until recently would have been marked as sub-par 10.35am BST John McDonnell MP, Labour's Shadow Chancellor, says the economy is suffering from Brexit uncertainty, and years of government cutbacks: "More than eight years of unnecessary ideologically-driven austerity has created an economy unable to cope with the instability brought about by the Tories' mismanagement of the Brexit negotiations.The result is low growth and stagnant pay. "Grow this anaemic, councils are going bankrupt and the NHS is now in permanent crisis while holidaymakers are being hit by the Tories' falling pound. 10.32am BST Chancellor Philip Hammond has tweeted:The economy has grown every year since 2010. Unemployment is at its lowest since the 1970s and our national debt is starting to fall. We are building a stronger economy for everyone. 10.15am BST Back on GDP, and this chart shows how Britain's manufacturers had a tough few months:Today's q2 GDP data doesn't make for pleasant reading for the manufacturing sector. Output contracted by 0.9% overall with hefty declines across the majority of sub-sectors #ukmfg pic.twitter.com/OygO60foZ0 10.10am BST Newsflash: Sports Direct has bought House of Fraser for £90m, just a couple of hours after it fell into administration.The retailer, run by Mike Ashley, is acquiring all of the group's 51 stores, and its stock. It's not clear what this means for the company's 17,000 staff, though.Sports Direct International plc ("the Company" or "the Group") announces the acquisition of the business and assets of House of Fraser from the administrators of House of Fraser Limited, House of Fraser (Stores) Limited and James Beattie Limited, the House of Fraser group's main operating companies (the "Operating Companies"), for a cash consideration of £90 million (the "Transaction").Pursuant to the Transaction, the Group has acquired all of the UK stores of House of Fraser, the House of Fraser brand and all of the stock in the business. 9.59am BST Although Britain's growth rate picked up in the last quarter, it has been modest for the last 18 months: 9.48am BST Here's Rob-Kent Smith, head of national accounts at the ONS, on today's data:"The economy picked up a little in the second quarter with both retail sales and construction helped by the good weather and rebounding from the effects of the snow earlier in the year.However, manufacturing continued to fall back from its high point at the end of last year and underlying growth remained modest by historical standards. 9.45am BST Britain's trade gap has worsened, as the country continues to import much more than it exports to the rest of the world.The total UK trade deficit widened by £4.7bn to £8.6bn in the three months to June 2018, due mainly to falling goods exports and rising goods imports. 9.39am BST Britain's service sector drove growth in the last quarter, growing by 0.5%.The construction sector also had a good quarter, expanding by 0.9%.The UK manufacturing sector is now in technical recession, contracting two quarters in a row. First time since early 2016. Slightly awkward for the Chancellor, who's brought the media to an advanced manufacturing centre today pic.twitter.com/rDyQin5Gi2 9.30am BST Breaking! The UK economy grew by 0.4% in the second quarter of 2018.That's up from 0.2% in the first three months of the year, as the economy got back up to speed after the bad wintery weather. 9.28am BST The pound has fallen to a fresh 13-month low against the US dollar this morning.Sterling shed three quarters of a cent in nervy trading to hit $1.2740, its lowest level since June 2017."The markets have lost confidence in the triumvirate of President Erdogan, his son-in-law as finance minister and the [central bank's] ability to act as it needs to."#TRY | *TURKISH LIRA DROPS TO 6/USD (down more than 12%) - BBG pic.twitter.com/UIpe0XfiaX 9.16am BST Related: Business Today: sign up for a morning shot of financial news 9.14am BST Overnight, we've learned that Japan's economy expanded by 0.5%, thanks to a pick- up in consumer spending. Can the UK match it?Economists said Japan's recovery was likely to continue on the back of higher wages and consumer spending, unless trade conflicts with the U.S. worsen. pic.twitter.com/X9oNu9DjXE 8.30am BST Michael Hewson of CMC Markets predicts that the UK economy rebounded strongly in the last quarter:A decent recovery across construction, manufacturing and services is expected to show 0.4% growth, with the timing of Easter, a Royal Wedding and warm weather set to paint a decent picture of economic activity. 8.25am BST Retail expert Nick Bubb thinks some parts of House of Fraser can still be saved, saying:Hopes of a "pre-pack" deal to salvage parts of the business (with Sports Direct?) still seem high… 8.23am BST The House of Fraser story is moving fast.EXCLUSIVE: Sports Direct tycoon Mike Ashley is close to striking a deal to buy House of Fraser. I understand that the Newcastle United FC owner could wrap up an agreement with administrators EY as soon as this morning, although deal has yet to be signed. Full story up soon. 8.17am BST Frank Slevin, chairman of House of Fraser, says he's hopeful that the company's future will be sorted out soon.He told investors this morning:"This has been an extraordinarily challenging six months in which the business has delivered so many critical elements of the turnaround plan. Despite the very recent termination of the transaction between Cenbest and C.Banner, I am confident House of Fraser is close to securing its future." 8.15am BST High street chain House of Fraser has confirmed it is appointing administrators after negotiations between investors and creditors failed to reach a "solvent solution."The retail chain, which employs over 17,000 people, has been forced to turn to Ernst & Young as administrators after days of negotiations with billionaire tycoons Mike Ashley and Philip Day, and the retail turnaround fund Alteri Investors.Court hearings are expected to take place at 7:30 am today, at which orders will be sought appointing individuals from Ernst & Young LLP as administrators of each of the Operating Companies with immediate effect.Significant progress has been made towards completing a sale of the Group's business and assets. The proposed administrators are expected to continue to progress those discussions with a view to concluding a transaction shortly after their appointment. The group needs about £50m after C.banner, the Hong Kong-listed owner of Hamleys, pulled out of plans to raise £70m to invest in House of Fraser. Most industry experts expected any rescue to involve putting House of Fraser into administration to allow a new investor to buy its most attractive stores without taking on loss-making sites. Plum locations include shops in Glasgow as well as Bluewater in Kent, Manchester, Belfast and Meadowhall in Sheffield. Related: House of Fraser calls in administrators as rescue talks fail 8.02am BST Good morning, and welcome to our rolling coverage of the world economy, the financial markets, the eurozone and business.Today we discover how Britain's economy is faring, when growth figures for the second quarter of 2018 are released.The second quarter was altogether brighter, with good weather, a Royal Wedding and the World Cup all driving consumer behaviour. The latest ONS retail sales data suggests that food and drink sales have been positively impacted by the sunshine and the football, while spending in pubs also increased by 9.5% year on year in June according to Barclaycard's consumer analysis. Not all parts of the UK economy have been making hay in the sunshine however, with big ticket items particularly under pressure. Household appliance sales fell 14.8% in the year to June according to Barclaycard, and the football combined with the warm weather led to a June drop in sales for non-food retailers according to the ONS. Related: House of Fraser days away from collapse without new funding Continue reading... Link to article:
26
Keller Williams Realty real estate, homes, houses, homes for sale, home value, realtor.com, zillow.com, trulia.com, exton, keller Williams, kw, keller Williams real estate, keller williams realty, keller Williams, exton, keller williams devon, devon, agent, real estate agent, realtor, rent, specialist, buyer, seller, search, Pat, Pat Moyer, Atglen Borough, Avondale Borough, Birmingham Township, Caln Township, Charlestown Township, Coatesville City, Downingtown Borough, East Bradford Township, East Brandywine Township, East Caln Township, East Coventry Township, East Fallowfield Township, East Goshen Township, East Marlborough Township, East Nantmeal Township, East Nottingham Township, East Pikeland Township, East Vincent Township, East Whiteland Township, Easttown Township, Elk Township, Elverson Borough, Franklin Township, Highland Township, Honeybrook Borough, Honeybrook Township, Kennett Square Borough, Kennett Township, London Britain Township, London Grove Township, Londonderry Township, Lower Oxford Township, Malvern Borough, Modena Borough, Newlin Township, North Coventry Township, Oxford Borough, Parkesburg Borough, Penn Township, Pennsbury Township, Phoenixville Borough, Pocopson Township, Sadsbury Township, Schuylkill Township, South Coatesville Borough, South Coventry Township, Spring City Borough, Thornbury Township, Tredyffrin Township, Upper Oxford Township, Upper Uwchlan Township, Uwchlan Township, Valley Township, Wallace Township, Warwick Township, West Bradford Township, West Brandywine Township, West Caln Township, West Chester Borough, West Fallowfield Township, West Garden Township, West Goshen Township, West Grove Borough, West London Township, West Marlborough Township, West Nantmeal Township, West Nottingham Township, West Pikeland Township, West Sadsbury Township, West Vincent Township, West Whiteland Township, Westtown Township, Willistown Township, Aldan Borough, Aston Township, Bethel Township, Chadds Ford Township, Chester, Brookhaven Borough, Chester Heights Borough, Chester Township, Lower Chichester Township, Upper Chichester Township, Clifton Heights Borough, Collingdale Borough, Colwyn Borough, Concord Township, Darby Borough, Darby Township, Upper Darby Township, East Lansdowne Borough, Eddystone Borough, Edgmont Township, Folcroft Borough, Glenolden Borough, Haverford Township, Lansdowne Borough, Marcus Hook Borough, Marple Township, Media Borough, Middletown Township, Millbourne Borough, Morton Borough, Newtown Township, Norwood Borough, Parkside Borough, Prospect Park Borough, Nether Providence Township, Upper Providence Township, Radnor Township, Ridley Park Borough, Ridley Township, Rose Valley Borough, Rutledge Borough, Sharon Hill Borough, Springfield Township, Swarthmore Borough, Thornbury Township, Tinicum Township, Trainer Borough, Upland Borough, Yeadon Borough, Avonwood, Avon-mohr, Avonlea, Avon Wheel Estates Mhp, Avon Grove, Autun, Autumn Ridge, Autumn Hills, Autumn Hill Iv, Audubon, Auburn Hills, Auburn Crest, Aston Woods, Aster Place, Aspenwood, Aspen Wood, Ashwood, Ashwell, Ashley Estates, Ashleigh Greene, Ashlea, Ashland Woods, Ashford, Ashbridge Farms, Ashbridge, Ashbourne Meadows, Ashberry Lane, Asbury, Artisans View, Artisan Way, Arianna Ii, Arianna, Ardleigh Estates, Arbours at W Goshen, Arborview, Arbordeau, Arbordayle, Arbor Glen, Applewood, Appleville West, Appleville East, Applegate, Applecross, Applebrook, Anvil Hills, Anselma, Anderson Farm, Ambleside Downs, Alton, Alpine Gardens, Alpine Estates, Allegiance, Aldham, Ackworth, Acker Park, Byrne Lofts, Byers Station, Byers, Buttonwood Farms, Burrows Run, Burrows Ridge, Burrows Mill, Bulltown, Bull Tavern, Bucktown Crossing, Bucktown, Bucktoe Manor, Bucktoe Hills, Buck Run, Bryn Erin, Brownstone Acres, Brownbacks, Brothers Riding, Brookwood, Brookside Estates, Brookside, Brookshire, Brooks Edge, Brookmeade, Brookmead Farms, Brooklands, Brookfield, Brook Crossing, Broad Run Ridge, Broad Run Knoll, Broad Run, Broad Meadow, Brittingham, Brittany Woods, Brittany Hills II, Brittany Hills, Bristle Knoll, Brintons Bridge, Brinton Woods, Brinton Village, Brinton Station, Brinton Sq, Brimful Farm, Brightwell Reserve, Brighton Village, Brighton Manor, Brigadoon, Bridlewood, Briarwood, Briarlea, Briarcroft, Briar Knoll, Brentwood, Brentford, Breckenridge, Brantham, Branford Woods, Branford Village, Brandywine Woods, Brandywine River E, Brandywine River, Brandywine Ridge, Brandywine Pointe, Brandywine Overloo, Brandywine Meadows, Brandywine Manor F, Brandywine Manor, Brandywine Knoll, Brandywine Hunt, Brandywine Hills, Brandywine Hill, Brandywine Greene, Brandywine Forest, Brandywine Farms, Brandywine Chase, Brandywine @ Thorn, Brandyview, Brandyridge, Brandie Layne, Brampton Chase, Brainerd, Braestone At Landenb, Bradford Woods, Bradford Square, Bradford Ridge, Bradford Pointe Estates, Bradford Pointe, Bradford Mdws, Bradford Hills, Bradford Glen, Bradford Crossing, Bradford Chase, Bow Tree, Bordeaux Estates, Books Meadow, Bondsville, Bluffs At Big Elk Cr, Blue Rock Meadows, Blossom Meadows, Blackburn Knoll, Blackburn Creek, Blackberry Hill, Black Rock Hill, Black Horse Run, Black Horse Farms, Black Horse, Bittersweet, Bishop Woods, Birmingham Hunt, Birmingham Estates, Birmingham, Birchrun Hill, Birchlan, Birch Run, Beversrede, Bevans Orchard, Berwyn Estates, Berwyn Downs, Bernay Woods, Bently II, Bentley II, Bentley, Belrose, Bellefield, Beaver Run Knoll, Beaver Run, Beaumont, Beacon Hill, Bayard Meadows, Bayard Ests @ Lgwd, Bassett Hunt, Barton Mdws, Baron Crest, Barnsworth, Barnsley, Barnsgate, Barneston, Barley Woods, Barley Sheaf, Barley Greens, Baneswood, Bancroft Woods, Banbury, Balmoral, Ballyfield, Bally Moor, Bala, Baker, Bainbridge, Cumberland Ridge, Cumberland Meadows, Culbertson Run, Crosspointe, Crossng at Bailey St, Crossing At Buckto, Crossfields, Crossan Estates, Cross View, Cross Keys, Cross Creek Estates, Cross Creek, Cromby, Crofton Court Cond, Cricklewood, Crestview, Crestmont Farms, Creekside Knoll, Creekside, Creamery Bern, Cream St, Cowan Estates, Covered Bridge Cro, Coventryville, Coventryshire, Coventry Village, Coventry Terr Mhp, Coventry Ridge, Coventry Reserve, Coventry Pointe, Coventry Mews, Coventry Meadows, Coventry Lake Estates, Coventry Greene, Coventry Glen, Coventry Farms, Coventry Crest, Courtyards At The Ga, Courts At Longwood, Courtfield Streams, Court At The Ledges, Countryview, Country Walk, Country Ridge, Country Meadows, Country Green, Country Gate, Country Club Valle, Cotswold Estates, Cossart Creek, Cornwallis Estates, Cornerstone, Corner Store, Corner Ketch Landing, Corner Ketch, Corinne, Copperfield, Copeland Hills, Cooper Farm, Conestoga Station, Conestoga, Concord Manor, Compass, Coltsfoot, Coltons Farm, Colton Farm, Colonial Woods, Colonial Village, Colonial Mews, Colonial Meadows, Colonial Farms, Colebrook, Coldstream Crossing, Coldstream, Cold Springs Run, Cold Spring Park, Cochranville Mhp, Cobblers Ridge, Coach Hill, Clyde Park, Clover Ridge, Clover Mill, Clover Lea, Clonmell, Clocktower Woods, Clifton Estates, Claremont Village, Claremont, Clarelyn, Cider Knoll, Church Hill, Chrome, Chisel Creek, Cheswold Village, Chestnut Woods, Chestnut Tree Vlg, Chestnut Ridge Estates, Chestnut Ridge, Chestnut Meadows, Chestnut Hollow, Chestnut Hill Woods, Chestnut Hill, Chestnut Farms, Chestnut Chase, Chesterville, Chestershire, Chesterfield, Chesterdale Farms, Chesterbrook, Chester Valley Kno, Chester Springs, Chester Co Commons, Chesire Lea, Cheshire Knoll, Cheshire Hunt, Cheshire Chase, Cheryl Ridge, Cherry Creek, Chautauqua, Chatwood, Chatham Village, Chatham Chase, Chase At Bell Tave, Charter Oak, Charter Chase, Charlton Farms, Charlestown Oaks, Charlestown Meadows, Charlestown Meade, Charlestown Hunt, Chapel View Estates, Chapel Hill, Chantilly Farm, Chandler Ridge, Chambers Rock Farm, Chalfant St Giles, Chadds Wood, Chadds Ford West, Chadds Ford Knoll, Chadds Ford Juncti, Century Oaks, Century Oak, Century Farms, Century Acres, Centerville Mdws, Center Sq, Cedarville, Cedarcroft, Cedar Ranch Estates, Cedar Mill, Cedar Knoll, Cedar Hollow, Cedar Hill Estates, Cedar Croft, Cedar Crest, Caswallen, Castlehill, Carver Ct, Carton Southgate, Carton Northgate, Carters Mhp, Carroll Hill, Carriage Run, Carriage Park, Carriage Crest, Carlton South Gate, Carlton North Gate, Carlton At Chadds, Carisbrooke, Caribou Village, Canterbury Woods, Canterbury Brook, Canterbury Acres, Canterbury, Canterburry Acres, Cannon Woods, Cannon Hill Farms, Candlewyck, Canavan, Cambridge Run, Cambridge Chase, Cambridge, Cambria, Calnshire Estates, Caln Mobile Hm Pk, Caln East, Caln Crest, Caln, Calidore Farms, Caines Creek, Dutts Mill, Dutton Farms, Dutton Farm, Duportail Village, Dunn Hill, Duck Farm, Downingtown Common, Downing Ridge, Downing Forge, Downeast Area, Dowlin Meadow, Dow Village, Dovecote, Douglass Lane, Dorchester Place, Dorchester Hill, Donomore Farms, Dogwood Estates, Doe Run Farms Ii, Doe Run Farms I, Doe Run, Dilworthtown Oak E, Dilworthtown, Devonshire Commons, Devonshire, Devon Downs, Dennis Run, Denbigh Chase, Delio Estates, Delchester Farm, Deerfield Knoll, Deerfield Greene, Deerfield, Deer Valley, Deer Run, Deer Pointe, Deer Crossing, Deer Creek Crossing, Deepdale, Dean Street West, Daylesford Manor, Daylesford Lake, Daylesford Estates, Daylesford, David Estates, Davenport Mdws, Davenport Estates, Darlington Hunt, Daniels Way, Dalkeith Farm, Daleville, Daisy Meadows, D Orsay, Exton Woods, Exton Station, Exton Commons, Evian, Evergreen Ridge, Evergreen Acres, Eve Lyn Woods, EstsAtHidden Meadows, Ests Of Pinecreek, Ests Of Londn Brdg, Ests Of Hillendale, Ests Of Broad Run, Ests at Red Fox, Ests At London Brook, Ests At Douglass, Ests At Bell Tavrn, EstatesAtGlendale, Estates At Hideaway, Estates At Bucktoe, Est At Tattersall, Est At Northbrook, Erin Glen, Ercildoun, Enclav Pleasant Wood, Embreeville, Embassy Court 2, Embassy Court 1, Elmwood Gardens, Ellis Wood Estates, Elkview, Elk View, Elk Valley, Elk Ridge Farms, Elk Ridge Estates, Elk Creek Reserve, Elk Creek Farms, Elk Creek Farm, Eldredge Estates, Edgewater, Edgemoor Run, Edgehill, Edgefield, Edenton, Eden Pond Lane, Eden Dell, Echo Hill, Echo Dell, Eaton Village, Eastwood At Tall T, Easttown Woods, Eagleview, Eagles Ridge, Eagle Manor, Eagle Hunt, Eagle, Frog Hollow Meadow, Friendship Village, Friendship Hills, Fresh Mdws, French Creek Village, French Creek Townh, French Creek Manor, French Creek Falls, French Creek Estates, Freiberg Estates, Freemont, Freedoms View Estates, Frazer View, Franklin Village, Franklin Hollow, Franklin Hill, Franklin Chase, Franklin, Foxwood, Foxview Estates, Foxfire, Foxfields, Foxes, Foxcroft, Foxall, Fox Trail, Fox Run, Fox Ridge, Fox Pointe, Fox Meadows, Fox Meadow, Fox Lee Manor, Fox Lair, Fox Knoll, Fox Hollow Farms, Fox Hollow, Fox Hill, Fox Creek, Fox Chase, Fox Chapel, Fox Brooke, Fox Brook, Four Winds, Four Streams, Four Oaks Farm, Fountains At Westt, Foulke Manor, Forrestville Glen, Forrest Ridge Estates, Forge MountainNorth, Forge Mountain, Forge Crossing, Forestville, Forest Hill Park, Forest Glen, Font Hill, Font, Folly Hill Farms, Folkestone, Flint Hills, Flint Hill Crossing, Five Points, Firethorne Estates, Fieldstone Farm, Fieldpoint, Fieldbrooke, Fetters Mill, Fernwood, Fernleigh, Fern Hill, Fern Bank Farm, Featherstone Manor, Farmington View, Falls at St Peters, Fallowfield Farms, Fallowfield East, Fallbrooke, Falcons Lair-summt, Falcons Lair, Falconcrest, Fairways At Branda, Fairway Village, Fairway Estates, Fairville Hills, Fairville, Fairview Park, Fairview At Chester, Fairmont, Fairfields, Fair Meadow, Fair Hill Estates, Fair Hill, Guthriesville, Gumtree, Grove Hill Farms, Grove, Grist Mill Farms, Greystone, Gregory Mhp, Greenwood Square, Greenwood Hills, Greenville Mdws, Greentree Homes, Greentree, Greens Of Penn Oak, Greens @ Waynesbor, Greenridge, Greenpoint Farm, Greenhill, Greenfield, Greene Country Wds, Greenbriar, Green Street Mews, Green Point Farm, Green Manor Farms, Green Manor Farm, Green Lawn, Green Lane Village, Green Hills, Green Hill Terr, Green Hill Manor, Green Hill Acres, Green Hill, Green Briar, Great Valley Mills, Great Oak Circle, Great Good, Grandview Acres, Grandstaff, Grand Oak Run, Grand Oak, Grace Villa, Goshenville, Goshen West, Goshen Valley, Goshen Terr, Goshen Heights, Goshen Downs, Goshen Crest, Goshen Commons, Goodwin Acres, Glenwood Estates, Glenview Acres, Glens Of Meadowval, Glenrose, Glennville, Glenn Ridge, Glenmoore Woods, Glenloch, Glenhardie, Glenhall, Glenelg Farm, Glen Roy, Glen Ridge, Glen Craig, Glen Acres, Ghyll Beck Estates, General Warren Village, Gateswood, Gary Terrace, Garnet Oaks, Garden Villas, Gander Hill, Gallagherville, Hyllwynd, Hyde Falls, Hurry Hill Estates, Huntview At Horses, Huntsfield, Hunting Hills, Hunters Run, Hunters Ridge, Hunters Pointe, Hunters Glen, Hunters Crossing, Hunters Chase, Hunter Knoll, Hunt Manor, Hunt Hill Estates, Hunt Field, Hunt Country, Humphreyville, Hummingbird Farm, Howellville, Horseshoe Farm, Horse Country Hill, Hopewell, Hoopes Park, Honeycroft Village, Honey Valley Estat, Honey Brook Village, Honey Brook Manor, Homeville, Homes At Wyncote, Hollytree Estates, Holly View, Hollow Run Farm, Hollow Run, Hollow Rock, Hollingsworth, Holiday Farms, Hillwoode, Hillview, Hilltop, Hillstream Ii, Hillside Manor, Hillside Farms, Hillside, Hillsdale Farm, Hills Over Pratts, Hills Of Sullivan, Hills Of New London, Hills Of London Grov, Hills Of Darlingtn, Hilloch Manor, Hillingham Ii, Hillingham I, Hillhurst, Hillbrook Farms, Highspire Hills, Highspire Estates, Highspire, Highpointe, Highlands Sycamore, Highlands Of White, Highlands Elkcreek, Highlands At White C, Highlands At Millv, Highlands At Charles, Highlands, Highland View, Highland Pointe, Highland Mhp, Highland Glen, Highland Farm, Highland, Highgrove At Bradf, Highgrove, Highgate, Highfield, High Woods, High Pointe Meadow, High Point, High Meadows Farm, High Meadow, Hiestand, Hide-away Mhp, Hiddenhollow, Hidden Valley Farm, Hidden Valley Estates, Hidden Valley Estates, Hidden Pond Ii, Hidden Pond, Hidden Meadows, Hidden Hollow, Hidden Forest, Hickory Hollow, Hickory Hill, Hickory Glen, Hibernia Ridge, Hibernia Knoll, Hibernia Hunt, Hessian Hills, Hess Mill Run, Hersheys Mill Estates, Hersheys Mill, Heron Hill, Heritage Valley, Heritage Square, Heritage Place, Heritage Farms, Heritage At Parke Fa, Hephzibah, Hedgerow Timbers, Hedgerow At Culber, Heathrow Estates, Heatherwood, Heather Wynd East, Heather Knoll, Heather Hills, Heather Hights, Heather Grove, Heather Glen, Heather Fields, Heartsease, Hayti, Hayfield Lane, Hayesville, Hayes Run, Hawthorne Lane, Hawks Nest Meadows, Hawks Crest, Haverhill Estates, Haverhill, Haverfield, Havenstone, Hartfeld, Hartefeld, Harrogate, Harmonyville, Harmony Hills, Harmony Hill, Harmony Farm, Hanover Hunt, Hamorton Woods, Hamorton Village, Hamorton, Hamlet Hills, Hamilton Woods, Hamilton Place, Hamburg Terrace, Halona Hills, Haldane, Hadleys Mill, Hadleigh, Ivystone, Ivy Hill, Ivy Glen, Iron Ridge, Inversnaid, Inniscrone View, Ingleside Village, Indian Springs, Indian Run Village Trp, Indian Run Farm, Indian King, Indian Hills, Indian Hill, Independence Sq, Imperial Mhp, Idlewilde, Icedale Woods, Icedale, Justin Lane, Juniper Hill, Jennersville, Jenners Lea, Jenners Commons, Jefferson Village, Jefferson Grove, Jacobs Run, Kylie Meadows, Knoxlyn Farm, Knoxbridge, Knollwood, Knolls Of Birmingh, Knobb Hill, Knob Hill Farms, Knauerton, Kirkwood Preserve, Kirkwood Knoll, Kirkland Manor, Kirkland, Kirby Woods, Kinterra, Kingswood Crossing, Kingsbury, Kings Grant, King Estates, Kimberwick, Kimberton Ridge, Kimberton Meadows, Kimberton Knoll, Kimberton Hunt, Kimberton Greene, Kimberton Chase, Kimberbrae, Kimbelot, Keystone Quarters, Keystone Mhp, Kenview, Kentmere, Kent Farm, Kensworth, Kennett Sq, Kennett Ridge, Kenmara, Kenlin Village, Kenilworth, Kemblesville West, Keatsglen, Kaolin, Lynnwood, Lynnbrooke, Lynetree, Lyndenwood, Ludwigs Crossing, Ludwigs Corner, Lower Hopewell, Lorettas M H Park, Longwood Village, Longwood Reserve, Longwood Meadows, Longwood Crossing, Longwood, Longview Lane, Longview Estates, Longview At Wylie, Londonshire, Londonderry Ct Mhp, Londonbrook, London Grove, London Croft, London Britain Farm, Locust Ridge, Locust Knolls, Locust Grove, Lockwood Chase, Locksley Glen, Locksley Crossing, Loags Corner Ct Mhp, Loags Corner, Lloyds Hills, Little Washington, Little Fox Hill, Little Elk Creek V, Liongate, Links At Thorndale, Linden Lawn Estates, Linden Court, Lincoln Manor, Lincoln Crest Mhp, Lilly Woods, Liberty Square, Liberty Knoll, Liberty Court, Lexton Woods, Lexington Pointe, Lexington Court, Leopard Lakes, Leopard Farms, Leopard Farm, Leopard, Lenover Hill, Lenape Springs, Lenape Ridge, Lenape Farms, Lenape, Legends, Leforge, Lazy Acres Mhp, Laurier, Laurel Woods, Laurel Ridge, Laurel Pointe, Laurel Hights, Laurel Crossing, Laurel, Lansdowne Farms, Lansdown Farms, Lanmark Farms, Landmark, Landenburg Hunt, Landenburg, Landenberg Manor, Landenberg Hunt, Landenberg Highlan, Landenberg, Land Grant Farms, Lamborn Ridge, Lamborn Hunt, Lamation, Lamatan Ii, Lakewood Dr, Lakeview, Lakeridge, Lafayette Woods, Lafayette Park, La Reserve, Myers Glen, Mountainview, Mount Vernon, Mount Olivet, Mount Idy Tr Pk, Mount Bradford Farm, Mortonville, Morningwood, Morgan Hollow, Morehall, Moorehall At Valle, Moorehall, Monteray Woods, Monacy Manor, Moccasin Woods, Mitchell Farm, Misty Ridge, Misty Meadows, Mindy Acres, Minden, Millview, Milltown, Millstream Ridge, Millstone, MillersMobileHomePk, Miller Hill, Millcreek, Millbrook, Mill Valley, Mill Top, Mill Pond Farm, Mill Lane, Mill Creek Estates, Milford Hills, Milford Farms, Miles Spring, Milbourne, Middleton Village, Middleton Greene, Mews At Bailey Stati, Merrymet Farms, Merriwether Farm, Merlin Hills, Meriwether Farms, Meriweather Farms, Merestone Iii, Merestone I, Mercers Mill, Mendenhall Woods, Meetinghouse Glen, Meetinghouse, Medinah, Medford Farms, Meadowview, Meadows At Valley, Meadows At Summerset, Meadows At Summerh, Meadows, Meadowlake, Meadowcroft Knoll, Meadowcroft, Meadowcreek, Meadowbrooke Hunt, Meadowbrook Farm, Meadowbrook, Meadow Woods, Meadow View, Meadow Run, Meadow Crest, Meadow Creek, Mckinley Hunt, Mcguigan, Mcdonald Run, Mccleod Pond, Mcclellan Farms, Mcclellan Farm, Mayfield, Matthews Mdws, Marydell Farms, Mary Dell, Martins Tr Pk, Martins Farm, Martins Corner, Martin Manor, Marshallton Chase, Marshallton, Marshall View I, Marshall Pond, Marshall Hunt, Marshall Estates, Marshall Creek Farm, Marshal Creek, Marsh Harbour, Marsh Creek, Marsh, Marquis Dr, Marlbrooke, Marlboro Woods, Marlboro Mdws, Marlboro, Marchwood, Maplewoods, Maplewood Mhp, Mapleflower, Maple Lane, Maple Hill, Maple Grove, Maple Creek Farm, Manor Hunt, Manchester Mews, Manchester Farms, Manchester, Malvern Woods, Malvern Hunt, Malvern Hills Ii, Malvern Hills I, Malvern Court Tr P, Mallard Run, Malin Station, Maisfield, Main Street Village, Maidstone, Madison Estates, Nottingham Village Mhp, Nottingham Estates, Nottingham, Nottebrae, Norwood House, Norwood, Northwoods, Northridge Village, Northridge, Northgate At Bailey, Northgate, Northbrook, North Hill, North Creek Mills, North Creek, North Coventryville, Norbrook Mhp, None Available, Nobb Hill, Nivin View, Niven View, Newstead, Newport Village, Newport, Newlin Greene, Newlin Green, New South Hills, New Milford, New Daleville, Netherwood, Netherfield, Nantmeal Woods, Nantmeal Village, Oxford Village Tr Pk, Oxford Mhp, Owenwood, Overlook At Tatter, Overlook, Overbrook Farms, Ovations At Elk View, Osborne Place, Osborne Hill, Orchard Valley, Orchard Ridge, Orchard Park Mobil, Oppermans Corner, One Park Place, Olmsted, Old Orchard Mhp, Old Oak, Old Kimberton Hill, Old Forge Crossing, Old Covered Bridge, Oermead Farm, Octorara Woods, Octorara Glen, Oakwood Farms, Oakwood, Oakland Corporate, Oakdale, Oakcrest, Oakbourne Park, Oak Run, Oak Ridge, Oak Leaf Forest, Oak Knoll, Oak Hollow, Oak Hill, Oak Glen, Oak Creek, Pughtown, Providence Hunt, Providence Hill, Prospect Place, Princeton Village, Presrve At Birch Run, Preserve At Squire Chey, Preserve At Tobi H, Preserve At Hideaway, Preserve At Elk Ridg, Preserve At Elk Cr, Preserve At Applebr, Preserve At Inniscr Golf, Pratts Dam, Powderhorn, Powder Mill, Pottstown Landing, Potters Pond, Poplar Hill, Ponds Of Woodward, Ponds Edge, Pond View Estates, Pond Cove, Pomeroy Hights, Pomeroy, Polo Run, Pocopson Creek, Plumtree, Plumstock, Plumsock, Plumly Farms, Plum Tree Village, Plum Run, Pleasant Hills, Pleasant Grove, Pleasant Bank Farm, Pinnacle @ Brandyw, Pine-leigh, Pinegrove Bridge, Pinebrook Village, Pine Valley, Pine Ridge, Pine Hill, Pine Grove Bridge, Pine Creek Valley, Pine Creek, Pin Oak Farms, Pikeland Village, Pikeland, Picket Post, Pickering Station, Pickering Spring F, Pickering Pointe, Pickering Meadows, Pickering Hunt Estates, Pickering Hill, Pickering Glen, Pickering Estates, Pickering, Phillipsville Estates, Phillipsville, Pheasant Run, Pheasant Hill, Perkiomen, Penny Lane, Pennwyck, Pennwood South, Pennwood Farms South, Pennwood Farms, Pennwood, Pennsbury Hills, Pennsbury Hights, Penns Preserve, Penns Manor, Penns Greene, Pennock Place, Penningtonvil Park, Pennington Mdws, Penn Oaks Estates, Penn Oak, Penn Field, Penn Crossing, Pemberton Valley, Pemberly, Pelham Place, Pelham Pl, Peacedale Court, Peacedale, Paxson Park, Pawling Woods, Pasture View Farm, Paschall Mill Estates, Parkway Manor, Parkside, Parkesburg Knoll, Parkersville, Parker Preserve, Parker Hill, Parker Ford, Parkchester Estates, Park Springs, Park Place, Paper Mill Woods, Paper Mill At Brandy, Paoli Woods, Paoli Pointe, Paoli Manor, Paoli Gardens, Pamona Park, Palmer Run, Painters Lane, Paddock, Queens Rangers, Quarters West, Quarters E, Quarters, Quarry Ridge, Quaker Hill, Quaker Acres, Quail Hill Springs, Quail Hill, Quail Crossing, Ryerss Hunt, Rustmont, Russet Ridge, Russellville, Running Fox, Royersford, Royalwood Estates, Roundelay, Round Hill, Rossmore, Roslyn, Rosewood Knoll, Rosewood Farms, Roselawn Farm, Rosedall, Rosecroft, Rose View, Rose Hill, Ronnie Park, Romansville, Roman Village, Rollinwood, Rolling Ridge, Rocky Hill, Rocky Glen, Rockville, Rockland Village 1 & 2, Rockford Crossing, Rock Run, Rock Creek, Robin Hill, Riverwalk, Riverside At Chadds, Riverside, Rivercrest Estates, Rising Sun Village, Ringfield, Ridley Creek Cove, Ridings Of Malvern, Ridings Of Brandywin, Ridings At Uwchlan, Ridings At Newlin, Ridings At Hun Run, Ridings At Bell T, Ridglea, Ridgewood Farm, Ridgewood, Ridgeview North, Ridgeview, Rhondda, Revolutionary Farm, Reserves At Covent, Reserves At Chadds, Reserve At Waynebroo, Reserve At Spring, Reserve At Eagle, Reserve At Chesterfi, Reserve At Bailey St, Renaissance Place W, Renaissance Place E, Reids Tr Pk, Regency Park, Regalwood, Reeves Way, Reeves Park Pl, Reeceville, Red Oak Farms, Red Lion, Red Fox Knoll, Red Clay Valley, Red Bridge Farm, Rebel Hill, Rebecca Ridge, Raven Hollow, Rapps Ridge, Rapps Corner, Ramsgate, Ramblewood Mhp, Ramblewood, Raintree, Radnor Hunt, Radley Run Mews, Radley Run Iv, Radley Run, Sycamore Springs, Sycamore Lane, Sycamore Farm, Sycamore Crossing, Sweet Clover, Sweedsford Woods, Swedesford Woods, Swedesford Chase, Sutton Woods, Sussex, Surrey Hills, Sunwood Farm, Sunset View, Sunset Hollow, Sunset Hills, Sunset Grove, Sunnyview Knoll Ii, Sunnyview Knoll, Sunnyside, Sunland Estates, Summit Ridge, Summit House, Summerhill, Summerfield At Elv, Summerfield, Sullivans Bridge, Sullivan Station, Sugartown Ridge, Sugartown, Sugarpointe, Sugar Knoll, Sugar Hills, Sugar Bridge, Suburban Village, Sturbridge, Struble Lake Estates, Strickersville, Strasburg Hunt, Strasburg Court, Strafford Village, Stottsville Estates, Stony Run Mhp, Stoneybrook, Stoney Run, Stoney Ridge, Stoney Hollow, Stonewood Ridge, Stonewalls, Stonepine, Stonehenge, Stonehedge, Stonegate, Stonecroft, Stonebridge Crossi, Stonebridge, Stonebarn Crossing, Stone Croft, Stone Creek, Stirling Chase, Stillwood, Sterling Heights, Stenning Woods, Stenning Hills, Steepleview At Gle, Steepleview, Steeplechase, Stargrove Hollow, St Peters Village, St Davids Estates, Squires Lea, Squires Knoll, Spruces, Springtown Greene, Springton, Springlea, Springhouse Estate, Springhill, Springdell Village, Springdell, Springdale, Spring Valley Farm, Spring Valley Esta, Spring Run Estates, Spring Run, Spring Oaks Farm, Spring Mill Farms, Spring Meadow Farm, Spring Mdws, Spring Knoll, Spring Hse Brndywn, Spring House Lane, Spring Hill Ests M, Spring Hill, Spring Glen Acres, Spring Brook Village, Southwoods, Southview, Southridge, South Ridge, South Hills Park, South Hills, South Coventryvill, South Coatesville, Sorrell Hill, Somerset Watch, Somerset Lake, Somerset, Snowdenville Mews, Snowdenville, Snowden Village, Snodenville Mews, Smokehouse Farms, Smithridge, Smithfield, Slonaker, Skycrest, Siousca, Singing Woods, Silver Birches, Shires at Glenmoore, Shilohwoods, Shiloh Hill, Sherwood Pines, Sherwood Manor, Shepherds Hollow, Shenkel Knoll, Shenandoah, Sheldrake Tract, Sheeder Mill, Sheeder, Shand Tract, Shamona Ridge, Shady Oaks Mhp, Shady Grove Mhp, Shady Grove, Shadow Oak, Shadeland Woods, Seven Springs, Settlers Path, Serpentine Acres, Seabury Hamlet, Seabrooke Estates, Scott Ridge, Scott Meadows, Scots Grove, Sconnelltown, Schoolhouse Lane, Schenkel Knoll, Scarlett Oaks, Scaleby Farm, Saybrook, Saxon Hunt, Sawmill Ridge, Saw Mill Estates, Savery Mill, Saranac, Sandy Hill Woods, Sandy Hill, Saint Stephens Green, Saint Matthews Wds, Saint John Circle, Saint Andrews Brea, Saginaw Village, Sage Hill, Sagamore, Sadsbury Village, Sadsbury Crossing, Saddlebrook Farm, Tyrone Farms, Twins At Grape Alley, Twin Turns Farm, Twin Ponds, Twin Pines, Twin Hills, Twin Hill, Twin Bridges At La, Twin Bridges, Twin Bridge Farm, Tweed Crossing, Turners Pond, Turnbridge, Turnbrae, Turnberry, Tunbridge, Tullamore, Troop Hill, Triple Creek Farms, Treyburn, Trestle Woods, Trestle Bridge, Tree Top, Trappe, Trails @ Wetherill, Traditions At Lw Ii, Traditions At Long, Traditions At Inni, Towns Edge, Towerville, Top-ridge, Tobi Hill Estates, Tiptree, Timbers, Timberlane, Timberlake, Timbercrest, Timber Mill, Tidewater, Thunderhill, Three Ponds, Thornridge, Thorndale, Thorncroft Woods, Thorncroft Estates, Thornbury Woods, Thornbury Knoll, Thornbury Estates, Thornbury, Thompsons Mill, Thompson Estates, Thomas Farm, Thistle Downs, The Woods Of Taylo, The Woods at Summit, The Woods At Rock Ra, The Woods At Naama, The Woods At Edges, The Woods At Caln, The Woods At Callo, The Woods, The Woodlands, The Wilderness, The Villages, The Village On Thorndale, The Townhomes Of Lib, The Timbers, The Terraces, The Stables, The Shires At Glenmo, The Seasons, The Ridings Of Hib, The Ridings, The Ridge At Chadd, The Reserve At Mal, The Reserve At Ch, The Reserve At Bethe, The Reserve, The Quarters West, The Preserve At Vall, The Preserve At Ne, The Ponds, The Pines, The Paper Mill, The Paddocks, The Overlook, The Moors at RadleyR, The Meadows, The Links At Th Gr, The Links, The Legends, The Ledges, The Knolls Of Birm, The Highlands At Tat, The Highlands At R, The Highlands, The Greens At Penn, The Gardens, The Fields At Creekv, The Ests Of Harrogat, The Ests At Hidden M, The Courtyard At C, The Courts At Valley, The Commons At Valley Forge, The Commons, The Circles, The Chase At Malvern, The Bluffs At Big, The Abbey, Terraces Of Windon, Terra Vista, Tennyson, Taylors Run, Taylors Mobile Home Park, Taylors Mill, Taylors Cove, Taylor Ridge, Taylor Mhp, Tattersall, Tarrencoyd, Tarleton Estates, Tanguy, Tanglewood, Talsco, Tall Trees At Uwchlan, Tall Trees, Taggerts Crossing, Uwchlan Woods, Uwchlan Springs, Uwchlan Hunt, Upland, Union Sq, Union Manor, Vixen View, Vista Ridge, Vista Farms, Virginia Glen, Vincentshire, Vincent Meadows, Villas At French C, Villages At Penn R, Villages At Longwood, Villages At Hillview, Village Walk, Village Of Shannon, Village Of Rose View, Village Of Pickering, Village Of Fern H, Village Of Cross K, Village Knoll, Village Greene, Village Builders, Village Blackshire, Village At Medford, Villa Of Timbers, Village Of Birch Run, Views At Jacobs Run, Views At Jacobs R, View Of The Park, Victoria Of Warwick, Victoria Hills, Victoria Gardens, Victoria Crossing, Versailles At Long, Vander Build, Valleyview Mhp, Valley View, Valley Stream Village, Valley Stream, Valley Station, Valley Springs, Valley Park, Valley Hills, Valley Greene, Valley Green, Valley Forge Woods, Valley Forge Park Center, Valley Forge MountainNorth, Valley Forge Mountain, Valley Forge Mount, Valley Forge Meadow, Valley Forge Estates, Valley Farm Estates, Valley Crossing, Valley Creek Farm, V F Mountain, Wytheburn, Wysteria Glen, Wyntre Brooke, Wynstone, Wynnewood, Wyndham Creek, Wyndham, Wyndam Hills, Wyncote, Wyllpen Farm, Wyebrooke, Wyckford Chase, Wyckfield, Worington Commons, Woodwards Corner, Woodward Estates, Woodview Hill Estate, Woodview Chase, Woodview Acres, Woodside, Woods Of Taylors M, Woods Of Oak Lane, Woods Of Diamond R, Woods Of Caln East, Woods Of Brookfield, Woods Of Ashbridge, Woods At Waynesbrook, Woods At Shelmire, Woods At Rock Raymond, Woods At Nottingham, Woods At Edges Mill, Woodridge, Woodmont North, Woodmont, Woodleigh, Woodledge at Whitford, Woodlea, Woodlawn Village, Woodlawn Estates, Woodlawn, Woodlark Farm, Woodlands, Woodland View Estates, Woodland Pointe, Woodland Hills South, Woodhill Estates, Woodgreen, Woodgate, Woodfield, Wooded Way, Woodcrest, Woodcock Farm, Woodbrooke, Woodbrook Estates, Woodbine, Wood Croft, Wood Crest, Winturford, Winterwood, Wingate Farm, Winfield, Wineberry, Windy Hill, Windswept At Tobi, Windsor Ridge, Windsor Farms, Windsor, Windridge, Windover, Windon, Winding River, Windham, Windgate Farms, Windemere, Winchester, Wiltshire At Oxford, Wiltshire, Wilson Estates, Willshire, Willowdale Crossing, Willowdale, Willow Street, Willow Springs, Willow Rock, Willow Ponds, Willow Pond, Willow Greene, Willow Glen, Willow Bend, Willistown Woods, Willistown Knoll, Willistown Hunt, Willistown Chase, Willistown Acres, Williamsburg, William Henry, Willbourne Acres, Will Quest Farm, Wildlife, Wildflower, Wild Goose Farms, Wickford Chase I I, Wickford Chase, Wickerton Farms, Wickerton, Wickersham Estates, Wickersham, Whitford Village, Whitford Ridge, Whitford Hills, Whitford Hill Ii, Whitford Estates, Whitford Corners, Whitford Commons, Whitford, Whitewoods, Whitewing Farm South, Whitewing Farm North, White-tail Crossing, Whitestone Farm, Whiteland Woods, Whiteland West, Whiteland Terrace, Whiteland Ridge, Whiteland Hills, Whiteland Glen, Whiteland Farms, Whiteland Crest, Whitehorse Meadows, Whitehorse Glen, Whitehorse Farms, Whitehorse Estates, Whitehorse, Whitebriar, White Clay Knoll, White Clay Glen, White Chimneys, White Briar, Whispering Woods, Whispering Pines, Whispering Oaks At, Wheatland Farms, Weyhill, Wexford Mews, Wetherill Estates, Wetherill Estates, Wetherhold, Wetherall Farm, Westwood, Westview Farms, Westview Acres, Westtown Reserve, Westtown Park, Westtown Mews, Westtown Knoll, Westtown Hillside, Westtown Country E, Westtown Chase, Westtown Acres, Westridge Estates, Westridge, Westmount, West Wynn, West Vincent, West Meadows, West Lynn, West Goshen Park, West Goshen Hills, West Glen, West Gate Village, West Chester, Wesley Court, Wesley Acres, Wentworth, Wembley Courte, Welsh Woods, Welsh Ayres, Wellington Hunt, Wellington Eagleview, Wedgwood Estates, Wedgwood Estates, Weavers Pond, Weatherstone, Wayside, Waynesbrooke West, Waynesbrooke East, Waynesbrooke, Waynesborough Wood, Waynesboro, Waynebrook Village, Wawaset Farms, Wawaset, Watsons Mill, Waterview Farms, Waterview, Watersfield, Waterloo Mills, Waterloo Farms, Waterloo Crest, Waterglen, Waterford, Waterbury, Watch Hill, Washington Mill Loft, Warwick Mhp, Warwick Knoll, Warwick, Waltz Lea, Walter Estates, Walnut Springs Estate, Walnut Meadows, Walnut Grove, Walnut Glen, Walnut Court, Wallace Woods, Walden Woods, Walden Pond, Wagon Wheel Mhp, Yellow Springs Estates, Yellow Springs Cross, Yeatmans Mill, Yarmouth Farms, Achey Lane, Admore, Aldan, Aldan Woods, Aldham, Allee Estates, Allgates, Alverno Valley Far, Alverno Valley Frm, Andover, Arborlea, Arbors At Edgmont, Ardmoor, Ardmore, Ardmore Park, Ardrossan, Aronimink, Aronimink Estates, Aronwold, Ashbridge, Ashland Glen, Ashwood Manor, Aston Arms, Aston Farms, Aston Mills, Athertyn, Augustine Creek, Autumn Woods, Avondale Springs, Bainbridge, Baldwin, Baldwin Run, Ballinahinch, Banbury, Barlow, Barn Swallow, Barren Hill, Barrington, Beacon Hill, Beatty Hills, Beatty Woods, Beau Tree, Beaupre, Beechwood, Beechwood Park, Beidler Knoll, Belmont, Bennington, Benson East & Mano, Bentley, Bethel Cove, Betzwood, Bevans Orchard, Beverly, Beverly Boulevard, Beverly Hills, Birchlan, Birchwood, Birchwood Estates, Birmingham, Birmingham Ests, Black Horse, Black Horse Run, Blantyre, Blossom Hill, Bon Air, Booth Corner, Bortondale, Bow Tree, Bowling Green, Boxwood, Bradford Sq, Cottgs Boudinot Farm, Echo Beach, Hills At Bethel, The Birches, Villas at Belmont, Vlg Of Becks Pond, Willow Bay
27
Twyford Moors Classic Cars - Jaguar XK120, XK140 and XK150 Specialist Twyford Moors Classic Cars are the UKs leading Jaguar XK120, XK140 and XK150 specialist.
30
Buxton Water | Here's to the Up & Coming Proudly made in Buxton in the heart of the Peak District, Buxton Water is a natural mineral water that celebrates the up & comers of Britain.
31
Country Storage MD | Elkton, MD 21921 Country Storage is located in Elkton MD, drawing customers from Fair Hill, Rising Sun, Nottingham, New London & Oxford, PA.
32
Josie Holford: Rattlebag and Rhubarb |  We awaited demobilisation All that winter of 1918 While we toiled in the grime of Taranto Loading ammo and cleaning latrines When they treated the whites to a pay rise It was like someone lobbed a grenade All our years of resentment exploded Saying, to hell with their rules and parades From No Parades by Chris Hoban. Listen here: Chris Hoban's song pretty much sums up the experience of the British West Indies Regiment (BWIR) in WW1. (And do give it a listen - it's haunting in its story-telling and evocation of the music of the period.) It's a story of how racism bigotry and mistreatment betrayed the loyalty, patriotism and courage of 15,000 men all of whom volunteered to fight for the Empire. It's also a story of mutiny, colonialism and the kickstart of the movement for self-determination and independence. What first spiked my interest in the BWIR was reading through the names in the record book of the Taranto Town Cemetery Extension. The Town Cemetery was used for British and Empire burials from June 1915 to April 1919, but by January 1918, it was necessary to open a military extension. After the Armistice the 102 Commonwealth burials in the town cemetery were removed to this extension. There are now 449 WW1 Commonwealth burials in the extension. There among the names of the dead are 147 from the British West Indies Regiment. Why were they there and what had happened to them? I started to get interested in the history of the regiment and that of course led to the Taranto mutiny of the winter of 1918-1919. Here's the story. Background to the Mutiny Taranto is an industrial town on the Mediterranean. Italy entered the war on the Allied side in May 1915 and the Royal Navy began using Taranto as a Mediterranean base soon thereafter. Taranto became a key transit point on the supply lines to and from Egypt. Mesopotamia, Palestine and Salonika. Lines of communication were established between the eastern theaters of war that ran then through Taranto, Turin, Lyons and Le Mans to Cherbourg It's where ships came in to re-coal and where troops passed through on their way from the near east to the Western Front or back to Britain. A huge tented encampment was set up to accommodate them and No 79 General and No 6 Labour Hospitals followed with more permanent brick and concrete structures added over time. It was a base and rest camp and labour units, including the 8th, 10th and 11th Battalions, British West Indies Regiment, were brought in to service the camp as well as load and unload the ships and trains. In 1915 the British War Office - which had initially opposed recruitment of West Indian troops - created the British West Indies Regiment (BWIR). It served in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. In spite of promises made at the time of recruitment, BWIR did not give black soldiers from the West Indies the opportunity to fight as equals alongside white soldiers. Instead, the War Office largely limited this trained infantry regiment to labour duties. Over 15,600 West Indian men volunteered for the BWIR, two-thirds of whom were from Jamaica. Others came from Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, the Bahamas, British Honduras, Grenada, British Guiana (now Guyana), the Leeward Islands, St Lucia and St Vincent. 185 were killed and 1,071 died of illness as a result of the war. The first battalions of the BWIR were stationed on the Suez Canal and were first used as labour battalions. They saw front line service in Palestine and Jordan serving with distinction as part of General Allenby's force that drove out the Turks and contributed to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. They earned medals and commendations for bravery and were mentioned in despatches. Later BWIR battalions were sent to the Western Front and then to Italy where they served in auxiliary roles that included digging trenches, construction of roads and gun emplacements, acting as stretcher bearers, loading ships and trains, and working in ammunition dumps. This was dangerous work often carried out in France and Flanders within range of German artillery and sniper fire. After the Armistice in November 1918, eight battalions of the BWIR – 8000 or so men - were stationed at Taranto in preparation for demobilization. They were joined by the battalions returning from Egypt and Mesopotamia many of whom had served in combat. Long standing grievances and growing resentment over unfair treatment, pay and promotion issues had been brewing for some time and in early December they erupted. This was a time of uprisings, riots and disturbances across the British Army. Men who had signed on for duration wanted to go home and get on with their lives. Mutiny and revolution were in the air. The BWIR had some very specific long-standing grievances and a growing resentment over unfair treatment, pay and promotion issues and in December 1918 they reached boiling point. The underlying issue was of course the betrayal of the promise made to them at recruitment: that they would be treated on an equal footing with the other regiments of the British army. Instead they had been primarily used for manual labor and treated as 'native" labor battalions and not as front line troops. Although designated as an infantry regiment and entitled to the same terms of service as other British regiments, commanders and officials often subjected the BWIR to the menial conditions dictated for 'native' corps. Military commanders and officials regarded the BWIR as inferior and treated them accordingly. On the Western Front they were excluded from facilities enjoyed by other British soldiers. The medical care and recreational facilities offered to West Indian troops was often inferior as a result. Estaminets – simple civilian-run cafes that offered the ubiquitous egg-and-chips respite from army food - were off-limits for Chinese and African Labour battalions and that restriction was extended to the BWIR, even though they were officially a unit of the British army. When they were wounded or became sick they were treated in 'native' hospitals and received poor treatment. Commissioned officer rank was restricted to those of 'pure" European descent and pay increases, granted to the British army in 1917, were withheld until protests from West Indian soldiers. Equally problematic was the official reluctance to deploy West Indians as combat troops. It meant that they had fewer opportunities to show the battlefield courage so prized by the military; fewer opportunities for medals and decorations. Their contribution - carrying ammunition, loading trains, building roads, railways and gun emplacements, cleaning latrines, cooking, carrying the wounded, digging trenches and graves, clearing the deadly debris of battle - had none of the supposed warrior glamour and glory of the battlefield. Ironically, it was the labour battalions that built the graveyards and cemeteries that are the symbols of remembrance. The Black Soldier's Lament – written by Canadian veteran George A. Borden in the 1980s - reflects the bitter disappointment of the injustice, the sense of shame and loss of manhood. At Taranto, soldiers reported being ostracized: "since we came here, we couldn't understand why these British soldiers they didn't seem to want any attachment with us. We had always seemed to get on good together in Egypt," a soldier from British Guiana recalled. They were given labour duties, loading and unloading ships and trains, as well as being ordered to clean latrines for white units. Meanwhile, sick and wounded BWIR men continued to succumb to illness and disease. In August 1918,12 men from Barbados had signed a respectful petition (you can read it here) outlining their grievances about pay pointing out that soldiers from white regiments had received a pay increase while they – together with "native" regiments - had not. They specifically identified this as a betrayal of the promises made to them at the time of recruitment. In addition, black soldiers had not been permitted to rise through the ranks, despite good recommendations. The Hon. J C Lynch, Chair of the Recruiting Committee, sent a letter in support of the petition indicating the justice of the claims. He also described the respectable (middle class) and often professional or land-owning backgrounds from which these men came. The 12 signatories were Joseph Chamberlain Hope DCM, Vernon G Thomas, Edward E. Packer, Vincent Lionel Talma, Leslie A. Greaves, John Berkeley Johnson, L'Estrand C. Deane, Alexander L. Marshall, Lashington L. Skinner, T Thompson, Herman P.J. Ince, and G.F. Bowen. Nothing came of this petition. After Armistice Day, on November 11 1918, the eight BWIR battalions in Europe were concentrated at Taranto in Italy to prepare for demobilization. They were subsequently joined by the battalions from Egypt and Mesopotamia. The combat veterans arriving in Taranto from the east were subjected to the same discrimination and second class status and treatment as the labour battalions. Brigadier-General Cyril Darcy Vivien Cary-Barnard was base commandant known for his strict segregationist regulations. According to some accounts, the men had been refused leave to enter town and he forbade black soldiers from using facilities alongside white soldiers. They had separate canteens they were not allowed to go to the cinema when white troops were there. When sick they were sent to the 'native' hospital where they received inferior treatment. They were prevented from being able to rise through the ranks. They were employed on fatigues and laboring duties in spite of assurances that this would not happen. All of these men had volunteered to serve and all of this was counter to the promises of equal treatment and opportunity they had been given on recruitment. Discontent was rife at Taranto just as it was across a broad spectrum of the British Army in the weeks after the Armistice. Canadian troops stationed in Britain, for example, staged three major riots. The BWIR had quite specific and particular grievances however, and they arose from the unequal and demeaning treatment they received. Soldiers returning from the Middle East had enlisted first and were ready to be mobilized. They resented being used as porters for white soldiers in transit and they resented being subject to the rigid segregation policies that barred them from equal access to canteens and cinemas. The designation "native" was imposed denying the BWIR access to proper medical facilities Major Thursfield of the 5th battalion protested to the camp commandant Brigadier-General Cyril Darcy Vivien Cary-Barnard about the betrayal of the promises made to the men. Cary-Barnard was a decorated veteran of the Boer War where he served with Lumsden's Horse. He served with distinction on the Western Front. He was decorated for conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, wounded, mentioned in despatches and promoted. And from October 1917, to 31 January 1919 he was Base Commandant, Taranto. At camp commander, Cary-Barnard had a reputation for harsh discipline and a dismissive attitude toward the legitimate grievances of the men of the BWIR. Field punishment was meted out for even trivial offenses removing the discretion from junior officers whose attitudes he regarded as too lenient. Cary-Barnard's response to Thursfield's protest was abrupt, brutal, racist and dismissive. The men were only niggers… no such treatment should ever have been promised them …they were better fed and treated than any nigger had a right to expect… he would order them to do whatever work he pleased, and if they objected he would force them to do it. On 6 December 1918, sergeants from the BWIR forwarded a petition with 180 names to the Secretary of State repeating the demands of the earlier petition, including for the pay increase granted by Army Order No.1 1918 to all Imperial troops. They also expressed their resentment at being barred from the possibility of rising through the ranks and outlined some of the history of West Indian service in the British forces where this color bar was not observed. They also requested an increase in the separation pay – money that was sent home to help their families. Inflation and war profiteering had led to huge increases in the prices of basic commodities and their families were suffering hardship in their absence. Captain Reginald Elgar Willis of the 9th battalion had travelled with the fifth contingent from Kingston on March 30th 1917. Promoted to Lt.Col., Willis had a reputation as a harsh disciplinarian. On December 6th 1918, ordered his men to clean the latrines used by Italian laborers. They refused and some men surrounded his tent and slashed at it with knives and bayonets before dispersing. There was some shooting and wild talk. Some men made demands that demobilization process be speeded up so that they would be home by Christmas. The next day the 9th and 10th battalions refused to work and there were clashes. They were forcibly disarmed and ordered on a route march. On December 8th, Pte. Samuel Pinnock was killed by Acting Sgt, Robert Richards who was charged with negligently discharging his rifle and was sentenced to four months labor. This was the only fatality during the mutiny period. Unrest and insubordination continued for four days with men refusing refusing orders and refusing to work. Unnerved, the military authorities reacted harshly and swiftly. The camp commander requested support and a battalion of the Worcestershire Regiment and a machine gun company were order to Taranto traveling "in fighting order with ammunition in their pouches". The mutineers were arrested. The 9th battalion was disbanded and the men distributed among the other battalions. The whole regiment was disarmed. Sixty men were charged with mutiny and 47 were found guilty. Most received sentences of between 3-5 years. One man - Pte. Arthur Sanches - who was considered the ringleader - was sentenced to death. This sentence was commuted to 20 years penal servitude. (He did not serve full term as in 1934 he was a member of the delegation that presented a petition to the Governor of Jamaica – Sir Arthur Jelf - requesting improvements to the roads and water service supply on the lands granted to ex servicemen.) Many accounts state that one man was executed for his part in the mutiny. This does not seem to be correct. One man was shot at dawn on January 20th 1919. He was Pte. Albert Denny of the 8th battalion who was executed by firing squad for the murder of Pte. Edgar Hilkiah Best 13573 10th Battalion of Barbados in a robbery on the 5th of September. The British authorities did make concessions and mobilization plans were speeded up. The Colonial Office prevailed on the War Office and in February 1919 the BWIR got, in full, the increased separation allowances withheld from them in the Army Order No.1. Even after the courts-martial the spirit of resistance continued. Some of those who who had been convicted and repatriated to the West Indies staged further revolts; disturbances occurred on the SS Orca which docked at Kingston, Jamaica. There, BWIR men allied themselves with seamen repatriated from Britain to protest their treatment. There was also discontent at Plymouth where in February 1919 four men of the BWIR were found guilty and received 2 years detention. In the midst of an even harsher camp regime enforced after the revolt, on December 17th 50-60 sergeants of the BWIR met and formed the Caribbean League. They held four meetings in December and early January and discussed not only their grievances but also their plans for what to do when they returned home. Out of their discussions emerged a sense of a pan-Caribbean identity and political awakening. They called for greater cooperation between the islands and mainland Caribbean territories and they talked of seeking independence and self-determination. At the second meeting one man - Sgt. Baxter - said that the black man "should have freedom and govern himself in the West Indies" and that "force must be used and if necessary blood shed to obtain the object". Such words would have alarmed the colonial establishment and probably drowned out the more modest aim of the League, "the Promotion of all matters conducive to the General Welfare of the islands constituting the British West Indies and the British Territories adjacent thereto." They agreed to strike for higher wages on their return home. They talked of a Caribbean–wide governing body with a headquarters in Kingston, although the choice of Jamaica led to some inter-island rivalry and controversy about the location.This was a distinctly social democratic and reformist agenda but also problematic for those determined to maintain the status quo of economic and power arrangements. At first the Caribbean League was treated with cautious approval by the military authorities as they saw it as a way to help contain and manage the discontent of the troops. At one of the later meetings however, one of the participants - Sgt. Leon Poucher, a Trinidadian reported to his commanding officer that they talk had turned toward self-government and strike action. This concern was relayed to the colonial authorities in the West Indies who were spooked by the thought of thousands of radicalized and angry ex-servicemen returning to their homes determined to seek change. The Caribbean League did not survive demobilization which was completed by August 1919. Although it was short-lived it seems to have had a powerful and radicalizing impact on those who participated. It gave rise to a new and confident voice of resistance that was to make an impact on the politics and social conditions of the post-war Caribbean. Take a look at this poem written at the time:Before enlisting Monteith had been a school teacher in Jamaica. He had written a number of patriotic poems praising the war effort and the Empire that had been published in the Jamaican Times. These words reflect a personal transformation and a new political outlook that many of the men of the BWIR would take home with them. In some ways this new spirit was presaged by the thinking at enlistment. By joining the imperial war effort to fight for king and country many hoped to prove something. Look at this 1915 article in the Jamaican journal the Grenada Federalist: As coloured people we will be fighting for something more, something inestimable to ourselves. We will be fighting to prove to Great Britain that we are not so vastly inferior to the white. We will be fighting to prove that we are no longer merely subjects but citizens – citizens of a world empire whose watch word should be Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood. The was an opportunity to show proof of worth, of the right of equality and freedom. Deliberately keeping these men from the combat duties of the front line served to thwart those aspirations. It had instead another outcome - that of radicalizing a generation of activists. In the West Indies, a number of BWIR soldiers played important roles in the growth of the working class, union and independence movements. They organized unions, led protests, contributed to reform movements and they laid the groundwork for the move to self-determination and independence. The BWIR served honorably in the Egypt, the Middle East, on the Western Front and in Italy. When given the opportunity, they proved themselves as combat troops. Faced with discrimination and humiliation they fought back against injustice. The BWIR was kept away from the victory parades that marked the end of the war. It was disbanded in 1921. In spite of their efforts, a confidential 1919 Colonial Office memo on the Taranto mutiny makes it clear that the British Government realized that things had changed: Nothing we can do will alter the fact that the black man has begun to think and feel himself as good as the white. Sources: The National Archive (UK) Imperial War Museum No Labour, No Battle: Military Labour During the First World War, Ivor Lee and John Starling Holding aloft the banner of Ethiopia, Winston James Race, Empire and First World War Writing, Santanu Das (editor)
33
Buzz Comics, le forum comics du Grand Débat. - Powered by vBulletin forum de discussion sur les comics (Marvel, DC Comics, Vertigo, Image, IDW Publishing, Wildstorm, Oni, Dynamite, Avatar Press, Panini, Urban Comics, etc...)
34
TxtMania | The Philippines, a group of over 7,000 islands with combined land area encompassing 300,000 square kilometres, grew into a nation under more than three centuries of Spanish conquest and 42 years of American rule. It is the first country outside the New World that closely witnessed the United States' rise to power following the 1898 Spanish-American War. Situated 800 kilometres southeast of mainland Asia, the archipelago, named after King Philip II of Spain, was discovered in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, the same explorer who had discovered the Pacific Ocean in search of the so-called "Spice Islands" and is now widely considered the first navigator to have cruised around the planet. Ironically, the Filipinos, after having been subdued for centuries by foreign colonizers as a result of Magellan's voyage, would emerge as the best seafarers in the world, manning a third of all international vessels today. Some 7.8 million overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) and Filipino migrants would help rebuild cities in many countries and bring back over US$10 billion in annual remittances to their families in the Philippines. The country's geographical location and long exposure to foreign influences has placed the Philippines on a unique cultural base in Asia. It is now the only predominantly Catholic country in the region, with 70 million out of its total population of 85 million (as of 2005) confessing to be Catholic. There are also large numbers of Protestants and Born-Again Christians in the country while the Muslim population is concentrated in southern Mindanao. Early Trade The first inhabitants of the Philippines were the Negritos who traveled from mainland Asia over a land bridge that is now underwater. Migrants from other Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia later followed and established a Malayan culture that flourished before the Spaniards came. Chinese and Arab merchants helped establish markets at the community level. A sultanate system, first established in the southern island of Sulu in the 14th century, is believed to have reached the islands of Luzon and Visayas, giving way to the rise of the Islamic faith. The Spaniards would later drive the Muslims to the south and establish Catholicism as the main religion in the north and central parts of the country. Local villages, known as barangay, traded agricultural and fishery products with each other. The Igorot tribe in Northern Luzon carved the marvellous Banaue Rice Terraces from the mountains, a proof of their advanced agriculture technology. Communities near the shore exchanged goods with Chinese and Arab merchants, who came aboard large ships. These communities traded slaves, gold, beeswax, betel nuts, pearls, and shells for porcelain, silk, iron, tin and semi-precious stones. The Philippine islands were a part of an extensive trade route used by Chinese merchants as early as the 10th century. By the time Magellan arrived in the islands, regular trade and cultural contact between Chinese traders and local chieftains were firmly instituted. Many Chinese merchants settled in the country and shared their crafts with the natives. Some historians claim that an Italian Franciscan priest, named Father Odorico, was actually the first European to have reached the Philippines in 1324 when his ship bound for China took refuge from a storm in Bolinao Island in northern part of Luzon. Aside from the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordillera Mountains, early settlers did not leave any giant monument, and this is what makes conservative historians doubt the existence of the rich kingdoms in the country hundreds of years ago. However, it cannot be denied that early Filipinos were learned individuals who expressed their beliefs and sentiments in rich languages. According to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), there are actually 78 language groupings and over 500 dialects in the Philippines. Feudal Society Magellan, who claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, died in a battle with a group of local warriors led by Lapu Lapu at Mactan Island. It was Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in the fourth Spanish expedition, who named the territory as Filipinas after the heir to the Spanish throne in 1543. In 1565, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi led an expedition to colonize the islands and by 1571, most parts of the archipelago came under Spanish rule. The Spaniards established the colonial government first in Cebu in 1565 and then in Manila in 1571. Historians claim that University of San Carlos in Cebu and University of Sto. Tomas in Manila are the oldest universities teaching European type of education in Asia. Jesuit and Dominican priests established the two institutions. Under Spanish rule, Catholicism became the dominant religion. Catholic friars not only lorded over the congregations; they enjoyed vast political and economic influence, which they eventually used to repress Filipino peasants' uprisings in the largely feudal Philippine society at that time. The Spaniards also quelled a number of rebellions instigated by the Chinese migrants. The friars distributed lands to Spanish families, who later comprised the landowning class. To perpetuate their economic interests, this class would also rise to become the political elite that would remain in power to this day. This gave way to the hacienda system in the Philippines, where cacique or landowners managed large tracts of lands tilled by peasant workers. Under the system, farmers were supposed to receive half of the harvest, but they usually ended up with much less because they had to pay for large interests on debt incurred from the cacique. This would be later corrected with a system of land reform, which, however, remains to be fully implemented to this day. Galleon Trade The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade became the major trading system between Asia and the Americas for nearly two centuries. Manila became a transhipment point of American silver to China. It was through this trade that the first Chinese silk and porcelain reached the shores of the New World. There were unverified claims that Filipinos helped build the city of Los Angeles in America. The Chinese and Filipinos would later become the two largest Asian migrant groups in the United States. Coconut became the country's top agricultural product, because of Spain's huge need for charcoaled coconut shells used for the caulking of the galleons. In 1642, the colonial government issued an edict requiring each Filipino to plant 200 coconut trees all over the country. By 1910, coconut exports would account for a fifth of total Philippine exports and to this day, coconut oil remains the country's top agricultural shipment. The Galleon Trade lasted for about 200 years until 1815. It is during this period that rice and tropical fruits from the Philippines such as mango and banana made their way to Latin America. Beginning 1750, Spanish priests encouraged the development of plantations to grow abaca (hemp), tobacco, coffee and sugar. Sugar barons from the Visayas would later emerge as among the richest clans in the country. From 1762 to 1764, the British briefly captured Manila during the Seven Years War. The treaty of Paris ended the British occupation and returned the colony to the hands of their original colonial masters. Plantation Crops In 1781, the Spanish governor established the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines, which would become a major source of revenue for the colonial government. From 1820 to 1870, the Philippines would be transformed to an agricultural export economy. Located on the oceanic trading routes connecting Asia to other parts of the world, the Philippines became a transhipment point of merchandise goods from all over Southeast Asia on their way to Europe. The Philippines exported plantation crops such as sugar, abaca, other fibres, tobacco, coffee, and coconut products to China, Spain, United States, United Kingdom and British East Indies. In return, it imported textiles and rice. Historians claim that Spain administered the Philippine affairs through Mexico. Spanish administrators in the country were actually reporting to the Viceroyalty of Mexico. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Madrid directly governed its only Asian colony and even allowed rich Filipinos to study in Europe. The Spanish rule gave way to the rise of a small but highly powerful elite class, which to this day, controls most of the Philippine economy. The elite families, which own large plantations, were able to send their children to Europe for education. Foreign Investors Investors from Spain, Germany, Britain and other European countries laid the groundwork for utility companies in steam navigation, cable, telegraphy, railroads and electricity in the country. They also invested heavily in rice and sugar milling, textile and banking. The local elite developed the brewing industry, which would become one of the most profitable sectors in the economy. Although the educated Filipinos who studied in Europe shunned the use of force to topple the colonial government, their writings provoked nationalist sentiments among young men, who eventually formed a revolutionary movement against Spain. In 1896, the war between Spanish and Filipino soldiers escalated following the death of novelist Jose Rizal and rebel leader Andres Bonifacio. Emilio Aguinaldo, the new leader of the revolutionary forces, forged a pact with US Commodore George Dewey in Hong Kong to defeat the Spanish army. American Colony The Americans entered the scene because of its conflict with Spain over Cuba. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American war in the Pacific, the Philippines had to be taken by the US, lest other European countries such as Britain, France and Germany would fight for their next Southeast Asian colony. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo, first backed by American forces, declared the independence of Kawit, Cavite, the seat of the revolutionary Filipino government at that time, from Spanish rule. The Americans took possession of Manila on August 13, 1898. While armed clashes with Spanish forces continued in other parts of the country, the Americans and the Spaniards were negotiating for the purchase of the Philippines for US$20 million. In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the US. Filipinos felt insulted at the fact that their country has been passed from one colonial master to another for only US$20 million. When the US, which had not conquered any country before, made known its intention to succeed Spain as the next colonizer of the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his men waged a revolutionary resistance that ended with his capture in March 1901. The American soldiers easily subdued the remaining factions of rebellion with the help of their powerful weapons and their divide-and-conquer tactic. As an archipelago of 7,000 islands, the Philippines is home to different ethnic groups which do not speak the same language. The national government's attempt to declare Tagalog (spoken in Central and Southern Luzon including Metro Manila) as the national language would not easily win the support of other regions. The Philippine-American war took the lives of 4,234 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers. The death toll was much higher on the civilian population, with as high as 200,000 casualties. Although local resistance persisted until 1903, the US ended its military rule on July 4, 1901. American Way Under American civilian rule, the Philippines was introduced to US-type of education, Protestant religion, and later to the concept of democracy. Placed under US control were most parts of the country, except in the southern portion of Mindanao where Muslim rebels held strong resistance. William Howard Taft, the 27th US president, was the first American Civil Governor in the Philippines. Taft was praised for establishing a civil service system, creating a national legislature, suppressing prices, upgrading health standards, and sponsoring land reform and road building in the country. In 1907, the First Philippine Assembly composed of educated and rich Filipinos with vast landholdings. Manuel L. Quezon, who represented the Philippines in the US Congress, lobbied for the passage of the Jones Law, which in 1916 abolished the Philippine Assembly to give way for a bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. With the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934, Filipinos had their first taste of self-rule through the Philippine Commonwealth, a transitional government designed to prepare the Filipinos over a ten-year period for independence. By 1935, the Commonwealth was in place with Quezon as its first president. The Philippines also approved a new constitution in the same year. The United States is credited for helping establish the Republic of the Philippines, the first democratic government in Asia. Economically, the Philippines was ahead of its Asian neighbours, who were still subjects of European colonial powers before the war. Japanese Invasion In December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the Philippines and drove the Commonwealth Government from Manila. While Quezon continued to head the government-in-exile until his death in New York in August 1944, the Japanese forces handpicked Jose P. Laurel, a graduate of Yale University and Tokyo International University, to head a new government under their control. The Philippines was dragged into the war because of Japan's military ambition to become the dominant force in Asia and the Pacific. Japan wanted to be the leader of an economic zone in East Asia, which would be the source of its raw materials. The US presence in the Philippines, known for its strategic location in Southeast Asia, was the largest threat to the Japanese forces, following the destruction of the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. While the American forces were regrouping in the United States, Filipino soldiers formed a guerrilla organization called Hukbalahap (People's Anti-Japanese Army). Some 30,000 guerrillas at that time engaged the Japanese army in intermittent clashes. The Hukbalahap would later adopt the communist ideology and rule in the countryside. Meanwhile, Sergio Osmeña replaced Quezon as the head of the government-in-exile and joined General Douglas MacArthur in the liberation of Manila. General MacArthur returned to the Philippines via the island province of Leyte, along with 174,000 army and navy servicemen on October 20, 1944. The liberation of Manila took almost 20 days from February 3 to 23, 1945 and the fierce battle destroyed much of the city, with its ruins now often compared to the ruins of Warsaw, Poland in Europe. The Japanese army, however, continued to fight in the provinces, until September 2, 1945 when General Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya who was believed to have hidden vast amount of treasures during the war, surrendered in Baguio City. It is estimated that the battle of Manila cost the lives of 1 million Filipinos, 300,000 Japanese and 60,000 Americans. The intensity of the US-Japan war would force the former to drop an atomic bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and in Nagasaki three days later. US Bases By February 1945, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth in the Philippines but it was only on July 4, 1946 that the US granted the Philippines its independence, coinciding with the celebration of the Independence Day in America. However, US military bases would remain in the country for the next 45 years. On March 14, 1947, Manila and Washington signed the Treaty of General Relation, which provided the US to construct military bases for a lease period of 99 years. In 1959, the agreement was amended to shorten the lease period until 1991, after which both sides were to renegotiate the contract. When the US sought a ten-year extension of the lease period in 1991, the Philippine Senate, led by Senate President Jovito Salonga, rejected the proposal in a historic casting of vote on September 16, ending US military bases in the country. With newfound freedom in 1946, Filipinos elected Manuel A. Roxas, leader of the Liberal Party and one of the seven members of the Constitutional Convention who drafted the 1935 Constitution, as the first president of the independent republic in April 1946. His presidency was focused on rebuilding the cities and municipalities torn by the war, redistributing lands as wealthy landowners returned to reclaim their estates, and confronting the Hukbalahap, which by this time was tagged as a socialist-communist organization. The economy grew at a rapid pace, immediately after the war. Special Treatment Close economic ties between Manila and Washington continued after the war on the back of agreements providing for preferential tariffs for American exports and special treatment for US investors in the Philippines. In the 1946 Philippine Trade Act, the Americans were granted duty-free access to the Philippine market and special rights to exploit the country's natural resources. Because of the Trade Act, the Philippines suffered a huge trade deficit with the influx of American imports. In 1949, the Philippine government was forced to impose import controls, after getting the consent of Washington. Roxas' two-year presidency ended with his death, following a heart attack while delivering a speech at Clark Air Force Base in Pampanga province in April 1948. Vice president Elpidio Quirino succeeded Roxas as president and defeated Jose P. Laurel to keep his post in the 1949 presidential race. It was during Quirino's term that the Minimum Wage Law was enacted and the Central Bank was established to stabilize the peso and consumer prices. The country's gross national product grew by an average of 7.7 percent annually in the early 1960s, on the back of the double-digit increase in the manufacturing sector. In the 1953 presidential election, Ramon Magsaysay, who had served as defense secretary under the Quirino administration, won by a landslide. The charismatic Magsaysay initiated peace talks with the Hukbalahap, which would later evolve into a communist organization. He became popular for opening the gates of Malacanang Palace to ordinary people. He died in a plane crash on Mount Manunggal in Cebu in March 1957, which to this day remains a mystery to many Filipinos. While the standard of living in the Philippines was below that of the Western World, the country was often cited as the second richest economy in Asia, after Japan in the 1960s. However, ill-advised economic policies, poor governance and rapid population growth in the country would allow other Asian economies such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and China not only to catch up with but to leave the Philippines behind in the race towards industrialization. Filipino First Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the country's top government post following the death of Magsaysay. Garcia was known for his First Filipino Policy and Austerity Program, which put the interests of Filipinos ahead those of foreigners. Under his austerity measures, he encouraged temperate spending, which resulted in less imports and more exports. His nationalist policies, however, perpetuated the business interests of the ruling elite in the country and did not encourage local businesses to be competitive. Garcia lost to his vice-president in the 1961 presidential poll. Protectionist policies allowed local manufacturers to control the economy from 1949 to 1962, discouraging them from becoming competitive. Diosdado Macapagal, father of incumbent President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, was the president from 1961 to 1965. Before he became president, he authored the land reform program as a legislator and was vice-president to Garcia. As president, Macapagal began a five-year socio-economic program by removing imports control and liberalizing foreign exchange. It was Macapagal who declared June 12 as the national Independence Day. In 1962, the Macapagal administration began devaluing the peso by half to around 3.90 to the US dollar. Macapagal initiated a shift in investments from the light industries to chemicals, steel and industrial equipment. He was also one of the proponents of the MAPHILINDO, a trade bloc of three South East Asian countries – the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. This bloc later expanded to what is now the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). By 1965, foreign capital was present in nearly a third of the country's capital stock. Martial Law Ferdinand Marcos, the Senate president, defeated Macapagal in the presidential election to become the country's tenth president in November 1965. A close ally of the United States, Marcos launched military campaigns against the insurgents including the communist Hukbalahap and Moro rebels in Mindanao. In August 1967, Manila hosted a summit that led to the creation of the ASEAN. With his reelection in 1969, Marcos had to contend with worsening civil strife. An ideologist named Jose Ma. Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines on December 26, 1968. It was during the same year that University of the Philippines Nur Misuari founded the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the armed wing of Islamic resistance movement. In June 1971, the government convened the Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. Ironically, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972, following a series of bombings in Metro Manila, He abolished Congress, curtailed freedom of the press, imposed curfews, ordered the arrest of his political enemies, prohibited labour unions, and controlled the economy with the help of his cronies. Although his wife Imelda was credited for building some of the country's finest monuments, she was criticized for personal extravagance, a form of which was maintaining a collection of 3,000 pairs of shoes. Green Revolution The so-called green revolution in the early 1970s, which introduced new farming technologies, enabled the Philippines to export rice to its neighbours. The International Rice Research Institute was established in Los Banos town, Laguna province where Thai, Vietnamese and other Asian researchers trained to develop their own rice production. Thailand would later become the world's largest rice exporter and the Philippines one of the largest rice importers. With the introduction of new farming technologies, the Philippines became heavily dependent on importer fertilizers, which are mostly fuel-based. The increase in world crude oil prices also pushed prices of fertilizers, to the detriment of Filipino farmers trying to adopt the modern technologies. Chinese Tycoons On June 9, 1975, the Marcos administration signed a joint communiqué with Communist China to restore official diplomatic relations. The Communiqué recognized that "there is but one China, of which Taiwan is an integral part. In return, China vowed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Philippines and refrained from providing any substantial support to the Communist Party of the Philippines, the largest insurgent group in the country. The largest success story in the Philippines actually involved Chinese merchants who left China in pursuit of business opportunities abroad. Unlike rich American investors, Chinese migrants came to the Philippines with little money but large determination that the country's democratic society would help them become rich. True enough, they found goldmine in the Philippines. Today, the richest individuals in the Philippines have Chinese names, including billionaires such as Lucio Tan, Henry Sy, John Gokongwei, and George Ty. Together, they are the largest group of investors in the Philippines and control most of the largest companies in the country. Overseas Workers Under Martial Law, one man other than Marcos would singularly define labour relations in the Philippines and the role of the Filipino workers in the world. Labour Minister Blas Ople, a former journalist, authored the Labor Code on November 1, 1974 and launched the overseas employment program in 1976, which would send young and talented Filipinos who could not find work at home to other countries for dollar-earning jobs. Ople obtained the permission of Marcos to deploy thousands of Filipino workers overseas to meet the growing need of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates for skilled workers and the rising demand for Filipino seamen in flag-of-convenience vessels. Hesitant at first, Marcos later conceded to the proposal, if only to tame the growing militancy building among the hearts of the young and intelligent Filipinos who could not find job opportunities in their own land. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) were established to intensify recruitment of Filipino workers. This would make the Philippines the third largest destination of dollar remittances in the world, next to the more populous countries of India and Mexico. The Marcos administration also tried to court foreign investors, by committing guarantees against nationalization and imposing restrictions on trade-union activity. However, the blatant record of human rights abuses by the military under his administration was a big turnoff among foreigners. Under Martial law, the military and the police killed, abused, or arrested at least 10,000 Filipinos, including some of the brightest students and intellectuals. Many had disappeared without a trace. While Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981 in time for the visit of Pope John Paul II to Manila in February, he maintained most of his powers as a dictator. Benigno Aquino, an opposition senator living in asylum in the US, decided to return to Manila in 1983. His death, from assassins' bullets at the tarmac of the Manila International Airport, sparked adverse sentiments against the Marcos administration. Bankruptcy As the economy stagnated under the Marcos administration because of a mix of bad economic policies, corruption and uncontrolled population growth, the government had to resort to foreign borrowing to finance the fiscal deficit. In October 1983, the Central Bank notified its creditors about its plan to default payment on debt amounting to US$24.6 billion. With the growing loss of confidence by the business community, the peso depreciated by as much as 21 percent in 1983. The gross domestic product shrank by 6.8 percent in 1984 and by 3.8 percent in 1985. Emboldened by Marcos' dipping popularity, the opposition gathered around Aquino's widow, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who would later challenge Marcos in the 1986 snap presidential election. When Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) declared Marcos the winner amid allegations of widespread electoral fraud, protesters, buoyed by Manila archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin, trooped to the streets. Following the defection of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Armed Forces vice chief Fidel Ramos from Marcos, protesters began converging along EDSA near Ortigas Avenue, which would culminate in the ouster of Marcos from Malacanang Palace on February 25, 1986. The media called the bloodless uprising as the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution - something that political groups would later thought could be replicated time and again. Democratic Rule After Marcos, his family and his cronies fled from the Philippines, Aquino became president, organized a new government, freed the political prisoners and tried to restore democratic rule in the country. In February 1987, her government approved a new Constitution, which would later be subjected to heated debates over its restrictive provisions on foreign participation in the economy. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government with a bicameral legislature composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives and an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court chief justice. To avoid a replication of Marcos' excesses, the Constitution limited the president's stay in office to one six-year term. It also created the autonomous regions of Muslim Mindanao and Cordillera and put agrarian reform as the cornerstone of the government's plan for social transformation. A renegade faction in the Philippine military launched a series of coup attempts against the Aquino presidency. Perception of political instability dampened economic activities and refrained the economy from matching the large strides taken by its Asian neighbors in the 1980s and 1990s. By this time, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand have overtaken the Philippines in the race towards industrialization. The Arroyo administration, while taking pride of having restored democracy, failed to bring the economy on track towards industrialization, and one of the factors singled out was the president's political inexperience and lack of consistency in pushing for economic reforms. In the 1992 presidential election, Aquino endorsed the candidacy of her chosen successor – Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos. In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo's powerful eruption sent tons of ashes around the planet's atmosphere. Subsequent lava/lahar flow buried several towns in Central Luzon and jolted the economy. The natural tragedy also forced American soldiers at Clark Field and Subic Bay to withdraw from their bases earlier than stipulated. The US turned over to the Philippine government the two bases with total assets amounting to US$1.3 billion. The Philippine government later transformed the two bases into special economic zones. Liberalisation In 1992, Fidel Ramos was elected President. He began his term amid an energy crisis, which plunged the country literally into darkness. This he was able to resolve by inviting foreign investors to take part in the so-called build-operate-transfer (BOT) scheme, where they would serve as independent power producers (IPPs) enjoying a lot of incentives and guaranteed market. While it brought light to Filipino households, the scheme would later translate to high electricity rates. In 1995, the Ramos administration also had to contend with a rice shortage, as a result of low agricultural production and poorly managed importation program. Since then, the government has authorised the National Food Authority (NFA) to import rice at will in order to prepare for any shortage in domestic stock. The Ramos presidency was also responsible for economic reforms such as privatisation of government assets, trade and banking liberalisation and deregulation, which would push annual trade growth at double-digit levels and draw in large-ticket foreign investments. By 1996, the Philippines was described as a newly industrialising economy along with the likes of Thailand and Malaysia. It was also under the Ramos presidency that communism was legalised, and some leftist organisations would later join Congress as partylist groups. The government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) headed by Nur Misuari would sign a peace agreement that would establish a peace zone in southern Philippines. However, other militant rebel groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Abu Sayyaf would continue waging a war against the government for a Islamic state in the south. What Ramos failed to accomplish is the amendment to the 1987 Constitution to remove the restriction on foreign ownership of land and public utilities, which limits maximum ownership to 40 percent. The opposition party accused him of trying to tinker with the charter to remove the six-year term limit of the president and in the process perpetuate his stay in power. In the end, he had to give up such attempt under the weight of public opinion. Financial Crisis With the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis, the Philippine economy contracted by 0.6 percent in 1998, the same year Joseph Estrada, a popular politician with links to the movie industry, became president. The economy actually grew although at a slower pace at 3.4 percent in 1999 and at 4 percent in 2000 even as the inflation and interest rates began to decline. In comparison, growth reached 5.2 percent under the Ramos presidency in 1997. While Estrada got the backing of Filipino-Chinese businessmen by reducing the problem of kidnapping, he did not get the same support from other "elite" businessmen. Despite appointing top economists, Estrada, a former college dropout, could not convince the "high society" that he could resolve the country's economic woes. Ironically, what brought down the Estrada administration was not his economic policies, seen by many as not substantially different from those of Ramos, but the perception of wide corruption in his administration. In October 2000, a former ally implicated Estrada in illegal gambling payoffs and kickbacks. Reports that he has many wives housed in different mansions also got Estrada indifferent treatment from the Church, which was a force behind the 1986 People's Power Revolution. EDSA 2 In December 2000, the House of Representatives impeached Estrada. The subsequent impeachment trial at the Senate was aborted when senators from the opposition party walked out of the courtroom, triggering street demonstrations reminiscent of the 1986 revolt. Within hours after the walkout, the crowd at EDSA grew into millions of anti-Estrada protesters. When political and military leaders withdrew their support from Estrada, Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide swore Vice President Gloria Mapacagal Arroyo as the next president on January 20, 2001. Arroyo, a daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal, came to Malacanang with a promise to clean the government of corrupt officials and bring down the number of poor Filipinos, which represents a third of the total population. In her first year in office, she faced numerous challenges starting with the May 1 rebellion, instigated by the Estrada camp to regain the presidency. The rebellion proved futile, as the highly politicised military and the police remained loyal to Arroyo. She also had to contend with Muslim extremists, who began to target cities in their attacks. Following the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001, the Philippines was one of the first countries to express support for a US-led international campaign against terrorism. On the economic front, Congress passed the liberalisation of the retail trade sector and the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, which aims to privatise the state-owned National Power Corporation. The Arroyo administration also promoted business process outsourcing (BPO), information technology, tourism, and mining as key investment areas for foreign companies. Trade with other Asian countries was also given importance in view of the declining trade volume with the United States. Telecommunications One particular industry, which has led economic growth since 2000 is telecommunications, although this proved to be a bane for other industries as Filipinos cut their expenditures on other items to buy mobile phones and pay for monthly network services. By 2005, it is estimated that half of the 85 million Filipinos would have mobile phones, a high penetration rate for a developing market. Because of the global economic slump following the September 11 attacks, the GDP grew by merely 1.8 percent in 2001. Growth reached 4.3 percent in 2002 and 4.7 percent in 2003 even as the Arroyo administration confronted communist and Islamic insurgency problems and a shocking military coup in July 2003. After surviving the coup, Arroyo won the May 2004 presidential election over Estrada's close friend and popular actor Fernando Poe Jr. Economic growth reached 6.1 percent in 2004, the highest in 15 years, although this was negated by high inflation and uncontrolled unemployment rates which were more felt by the poor. Fiscal Deficit Pressed by economists to narrow the burgeoning fiscal deficit, President Arroyo urged Congress to pass a package of tax reform measures aimed at achieving a balanced budget by the end of her term in 2010. Because of a long history of budget deficits, the public debt hit more than 130 percent of the GDP in 2003 and has been rising since then. Different sectors, however, criticised the administration for passing a heavier burden of taxation on the people at a time crude oil prices were hovering at historic high levels and pushing prices of goods and services beyond the capacity of ordinary consumers. By the second half of 2005, there were signs that the fiscal deficit was narrowing, even with the delay in the implementation of the Expanded Value Added Tax (EVAT) law, which raised by 2 percentage points the tax rate on consumer products and services to 12 percent and by 3 percentage points the corporate income tax to 35 percent. The new EVAT law, which was expanded to cover fuel and electricity, took effect on November 1, 2005. New Constitution As the popularity of President Arroyo dipped to the lowest level amid allegations that she bought her way to the presidency in the 2004 presidential elections, she was given an option to correct the loopholes in the political system by amending the 1987 Constitution. She formed a Consultative Commission to recommend charter amendments focusing on lifting all restrictions to foreign investments and paving the way for a shift in the form of government from a presidential, central system into a parliamentary, federal system. Posted by Text Mates at 4:16 PM 0 comments Labels: Economy, History, National, Social Filipino Inventions Solar powered Balut maker The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology at the University of the Philippines-Los Banos has invented a solar "balut" maker. Engineer Fernando Paras Jr. said the machine, which covers an area of five square meters, is actually an incubator that can process duck eggs into embryonated eggs or balut for 15 to 17 days. Traditionally, balut makers in Pateros have been using electricity for incubation. The new invention is a two-way solar-powered system, with the solar water heater serving as the primary heat source while the photovoltaic cells serve as the auxiliary heat source regulating the temperature inside the incubator. The machine can process up to 4,000 eggs at the same time. This can double the income of farmers. SMS reader for the Blind A group of four engineering students from the De La Salle University invented the SMS reader, a device that allows the blind to read and send text messages. The prototype is composed of a black box with a Braille display that mimics the interface of a mobile phone. A data cable is connected to a slot in the black box. Superkalan Narciso Mosuela of La Union province invented the "superkalan", a novelty stove that can be fired with anything that burns—wood, paper, dried dung and leaves, corn cobs, and coco shells. The body of this stove is made of aluminum alloy, with a cast iron heat intensifier. For his invention, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) bestowed on Mosuela the "best design award" for Third World country category in 1987. Aside from the superkalan, Mr. Mosuela invented a functional rice thresher and other kitchen gadgets. Anti-cancer cream In November 2005, Filipino inventor Rolando dela Cruz won the gold medal for his "DeBCC" anti-cancer cream at the prestigious International Inventor's Forum in Nuremberg, Germany. The "DeBCC" cream, developed from cashew nuts and other local herbs, was chosen over 1,500 entries as the "most significant invention" of the year. According to Mr. dela Cruz, the cream was a simple answer to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer worldwide. BCC affects around 800,000 Americans every year, according to the Skin Care Foundation. BCC also affects 500,000 Europeans and 190,000 Australians every year. Mole Remover In 2000, Rolando dela Cruz developed an ingenuous formula that could easily remove deeply grown moles or warts from the skin without leaving marks or hurting the patient. His formula was extracted from cashew nut (Annacardium occidentale), which is common in the Philippines. The formula won for dela Cruz a gold medal in International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology Exhibition in Kuala Lumpur in September 2000. In March 1997, dela Cruz established RCC Amazing Touch International Inc., which runs clinics engaged "in a non-surgical removal of warts, moles and other skin growths, giving the skin renewed energy and vitality without painful and costly surgery." Modular Housing System Edgardo Vazquez won a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal in 1995 for developing a modular housing system. Such a system called Vazbuilt is reportedly capable of building within weeks a house with prefabricated materials that can withstand typhoons and earthquakes. Ironically, Vasquez is not getting enough support from the Philippine government to propagate his technology, which could help provide shelter to some five million Filipino families without their own homes. Vazquez is the national president of the Filipino Inventors Society. Super Bunker Formula-L In 1996, Rudy Lantano Sr., a scientist from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST), won the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal for developing Super Bunker Formula-L, a revolutionary fuel half-composed of water. The mix burns faster and emits pollutants, 95 percent less than those released to the air by traditional fuel products. The inventor said his invention is a result of blending new ingredients and additives with ordinary oil products through agitation and mixing, which is a very safe process. The initial plan was to commercially produce two million liters of Alco-Diesel, two million liters of Lan-Gas and an unlimited quantity of Super Bunker Formula-L each day for customers in Luzon. Natural Gas Vehicle The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle that runs on natural gas, whose rich deposits remain untapped under the Philippine seabed. The project's main objective is to look into the potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel to conventional petrol and diesel for the transport sector. The natural gas vehicle (NVG) has been road-tested in Isabela where an existing natural gas supply from the PNOC Gas Plant is located. Test runs have also been made in Cagayan, Ifugao and Mountain Province. The test vehicle used was the Isuzu Hi-Lander 4JA-1, direct injected diesel engine. The use of natural gas as a fuel is cheaper. On a gallon-equivalent basis, natural gas costs an average of 15 to 40 percent less than gasoline and diesel. There are over one million NVGs in the world today, according to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Lamp Fixing Invention A Filipino inventor has developed a technology, which could revive a busted lamp (pundido) and give it more years of functional life than those of new ones. Acclaimed by the Filipino Inventors Society as timely and revolutionary, the Nutec system can prolong the life of fluorescent lamps up to seven years. Nutec was developed by New World Technology, headed by president Eric Ngo and chosen as the "Product of the Year" at the Worldbex 2000 Building and Construction Exposition held at the Manila Hotel. Engineer Benjamin S. Santos, national president of the Inventors Society, called Nutec a timely invention. "Tubig Talino" The Department of Science and Technology claimed that it has developed "Tubig Talino", an iodine-rich drinking water that treats micronutrient deficiencies responsible for goiter, mental and physical retardation, and birth defects. "Tubig Talino" is actually a mixture of 20 liters of water and 15 ml of "Water Plus + I2". Consumption of five glasses a day of this iodine fortification in drinking water is expected to provide 120 micrograms of iodine, which meets 100 percent of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a male adult. Feminine Hygiene Product Inventor Dr. Virgilio Malang won a gold medal for his invention "Psidium Guajava Effervescing Gynecological Insert", a silver medal for his "Patient Side-Turning Hospital Bed", and three bonze medals for his inventions "external vaginal cleanser", "light refracting earpick", and "broom's way of hanging" at the Seoul International Fair in held South Korea in December 2002. There were 385 inventions from 30 countries that joined the competitions. Patis Contrary to popular belief, there was no fish sauce or Patis yet during the Spanish occupation. Patis began to become a part of most Filipinos' diet only after the Japanese occupation. Here is an account of how an enterprising lady discovered the fermentation of Patis. Immediately after the war, the family of Ruperta David or Aling Tentay started a dried fish business. One day, Aling Tentay stored in jars some salted fish that turned into fragments even before they dried. While in jars, the fish fragments turned into a liquid substance that tasted like our Patis today. Thus the beginning of the thriving Patis business of Aling Tentay, which was officially registered in 1949 and is known today as Tentay Food and Sauces Inc. (Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer) A Showcase of Ingenuity Nothing perhaps has been associated with Filipino technology as much as the country's pride - jeepney. The word "jeep" evolved from the military designation, general-purpose or G.P., of a light vehicle first used by the Americans in World War II. Developed by the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, this vehicle was powered by a four-cylinder engine and was classified as a quarter-ton truck in carrying capacity. It had served as a command vehicle, reconnaissance car, and ammunition carrier. The American soldiers brought these vehicles to the Philippines in the 1940s. After the war, these vehicles were left by the Americans and converted by the Filipinos into public utility vehicles. Employing artistic and indigenous designs, the Filipinos came up with a longer, well-decorated, techni-colored and sleeker vehicle, which they later called jeepney. From the standard military jeep, the body was extended to accommodate between 20 to 30 passengers. Modern jeepneys now sport very colorful and intricate paintings, fancy adornments, and metallic decors reflective of Filipino sentiments, values, and culture. The town of Las Pinas has been recognized as the jeepney-producing center in the country. Today, public utility jeepneys or PUJs serve as the primary means of transportation in most provinces. For this, the Philippines came to be known as the "land of the jeepneys".
35
"Avebury - One of the most important megalithic monuments in Europe" Your guide to Avebury, other ancient sites and stone circles in Britain, with practical information to make your visit easier
37
guayaquilforum.com: Huge online library of free ebooks; download pdf and books for android, ipad, kindle reader, pc and mac
41
Red Mole Rising | A modest contribution to the history of the Fourth International in Britain A modest contribution to the history of the Fourth International in Britain
42
Melek Media House | Reports and reasonings for the Rastafari worldwide community "The Lion of Judah hath prevailed" Reports and reasonings for the Rastafari worldwide community "The Lion of Judah hath prevailed"
43
Philomathia Foundation | Promoting Human Values and Science through Education and Research The second phase of the interdisciplinary Philomathia Social Sciences Research Programme, a collaboration between the Philomathia Foundation and the University, has been launched to enable further pioneering work in addressing some of the major issues facing humanity today. SUMMARY OF PHASE 1 (2013-2018) Faculty of History (2013/14) Historicising the Measurement of Inequality PI - Dr Pedro Ramos Pinto In my current work I am interested in understanding how contemporary inequalities are shaped by the past, bringing a more long-term view to explain how and why societies distribute resources, opportunities and capabilities. As part of this, I direct a research network on the topic of Inequality and History, which was started by an AHRC grant. Most recently I worked with Dr Poornima Paidipaty on the history of the measurement of inequality, supported by a grant from the Philomathia Trust. During 2018-2019 I will be a Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the International Inequalities Institute at the London School of Economics. I am also interested in the history and political economy of welfare. One aspect of this concerns the creation, evolution and implications of authoritarian welfare regimes in Southern Europe and Latin America. This has evolved from earlier work which explored the interaction between the Portuguese Dictatorship and its citizens to explain the emergence of social movements of the urban poor during the Carnation Revolution (1974-1976), a theme which is explored in my book Lisbon Rising (2013).In addition, I continue to have an interest on the study of social movements and protest, both in historical and in contemporary perspective. Fellow- Dr Poornima Paidipaty I hold a PhD in Anthropology from Columbia University as well as an MA from Jawaharlal Nehru University and a BA from Yale University. My academic work focuses on the intersections of decolonization, governance, and modern social science. As part of the Philomathia funded project, 'The Measure of Inequality', I am currently researching the history and legacy of statistics and planning in postcolonial India. Alongside this work, I am completing a book, Tribal Nation, which explores the history of anthropology in the Indian subcontinent and charts the relationship between military science, political culture, and citizenship in India's tribal borderlands. Prior to coming to Cambridge, I was a member of the Society of Fellows at the University of Chicago. In addition to the generous sponsorship through Philomathia, my work has been supported by the Isaac Newton Trust, the British Academy, the Wenner-Gren Foundation, the School for Advanced Research, and the American Institute for Indian Studies. The widening gap between India's rich and poor is captured by the National Sample Survey (NSS), an organization founded in 1950, which gathers data from roughly 14,000 Indian villages and localities to provide a snapshot of how the population at large is faring. The NSS and its pioneering role in the measurement of poverty and inequality are some of the important subjects to explore how different modern societies have gauged social and economic disparity. As a nation, India is undergoing a profound transformation, but rapid growth has come hand in hand with rising inequality as well as growing disparity between rural and urban areas. NSS data remains one of the best resources for understanding and tracking these changes. As more of this information circulates in the public domain, it becomes all the more crucial to appreciate how such data is produced. Paidipaty's work on the history of the NSS offers a fascinating glimpse into one of the most significant and early mid-century precursors to contemporary developments in big data. Summary of project In July 2017, we held an international research conference at Cambridge University entitled Measuring Matters, which brought together leading scholars in economics, international history, sociology, anthropology and gender studies to examine the history and politics of measuring inequality. In addition to generous funds from the Philomathia Foundation, we were able to raise more than £7,000 for this event from CRASSH, the Economic History Society and the History Faculty's Ellen McArthur Trust. Our keynote speakers were Alice O'Conner (UCSB) and Sanjay Reddy (New School University). On the final evening of our conference we held a public event that featured Sanjay Reddy in conversation with Ha-Joon Chang (Cambridge) and Omar Khan (Runnymede Trust). The History of Political Economy has accepted our proposal to collect and publish the conference papers as a special issue of their journal. 9 essays from this event have been submitted for peer review (including an article by Dr. Paidipaty). The issue is scheduled for publication in May 2020. It will include an introductory essay by Dr. Ramos Pinto and Dr. Paidipaty, as well as an afterword by Dr. Sanjay Reddy. Dr. Ramos Pinto and Dr. Paidipaty are finalizing plans for a book on the history of inequality, tentatively titled Inequality: A Global History. This work will incorporate many of the insights gleaned from the Measuring Inequality conferences and MPhil course at Cambridge. We are in conversation with both CUP and Princeton about publishing this work, and expect to deliver the finished manuscript by December 2021. Department of Sociology (2013/14) (In)fertility, Education and Reproductive Health PIs – Prof Jacqueline Scott and Prof Sarah Franklin Professor Jacqueline Scott trained at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor where she received her PhD in 1987. She has held a variety of survey related positions before joining the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences (now HSPS) in 1994. Jackie was the Director of the Detroit Area Study, from 1989-1990; and Director of the ESRC Centre on Micro-Social Change, at the University of Essex from 1990-1994, where she was responsible for the initial design and implementation of the British Household Panel Study (now Understanding Society). Jackie was a Guest Professor, Zentrum für Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen (ZUMA). Mannheim, Germany (1993, 2005). From 2004-2010 she was the Director of the ESRC Research Priority Network on Gender Inequalities in Production and Reproduction. This was the largest research multi-disciplinary network of its kind in the UK. Jackie co-ordinated projects across eight British universities that investigated different aspects of the way women and men's roles and lifestyles have changed. The common goal of the Network was to understand why gender inequalities remains one of the most pressing social issues of our time and to identify ways that greater equality may be achieved. Professor Sarah Franklin moved from the London School of Economics to take up the Chair of Sociology at Cambridge in October 2011. In 2012 she received awards from the Wellcome Trust, ESRC, and British Academy to establish the Reproductive Sociology Research Group (ReproSoc) which has since gone on to become one of the leading research centres in the rapidly expanding field of reproductive studies. Fellow – Dr Nitzan Peri-Rotem I hold an undergraduate degree in Sociology and Communication (2005) and a Master's degree in Demography and Anthropology (2009) from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 2015, I completed a DPhil in Sociology at Nuffield College, University of Oxford. Before moving to the UK, I gained experience working as Head of Branch for Social Statistical Analyses at the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. In 2014, I was appointed as Philomathia Research Associate at the University of Cambridge until June 2017, when I took the position of a Lecturer in Social Policy at the University of Exeter. I continue to collaborate with Professor Franklin and the Reproductive Sociology Research Group in Cambridge on various projects, including the new interdisciplinary research project 'Changing (In)Fertilities', which is funded by the Wellcome Trust and is aimed at exploring how assisted reproductive technologies are changing the ways in which fertility and infertility are perceived and practiced. Summary of project The research project '(In)Fertility, Education and Reproductive Health' explored recent trends in reproductive behaviour in the UK and the rest of Europe amid global demographic, societal and technological developments of the past decades. In particular, the increase in women's education, has been one of the major driving forces of changing fertility patterns, including the ongoing rise in age at first birth. These trends have important implications for population ageing in Europe, as well as for individuals' ability to fulfil their own fertility aspirations. As part of this project, we analysed data from the British Household Panel Survey and the UK Household Longitudinal Study to examine changes in union formation and fertility patterns among men and women in Britain from 1991 to 2012. We found that marriage rates are declining more steeply among individuals with secondary or lower level of education compared to highly educated people, and that childbearing outside a stable union continues to be disproportionately higher among low educated women in Britain. These patterns both reflect and preserve social inequalities, since children growing up in non-intact families tend to have poorer life prospects compared to those living in more stable settings. The findings from this study were presented by Dr Peri-Rotem in several international academic conferences, including the European Sociological Association, Vienna Institute of Demography and the British Society for Population Studies. Apart from the research work on education and fertility, in May 2016, we hosted an international forum in Cambridge on 'Changing Fertility: Social, Demographic and Ethical Consequences of Assisted Reproductive Technologies'. This forum has brought together academic scholars, health professionals and members of non-governmental organizations to discuss the consequences of ART use on fertility patterns in post-industrialized societies. The forum has also formed the basis for a position paper, describing the spread of IVF use across Europe and its potential implications for fertility and public health, as well as recommended policies to address infertility. This paper was presented by Dr Peri-Rotem at the 3rd Annual Philomathia Symposium, as part of an organized session on 'Reproduction in an Era of Bio-Tech Revolution' which was chaired by Professor Sarah Franklin. Department of Politics and International Studies (POLIS) (2014/15) The consequences of the politics of austerity in the EU PI - Helen Thompson I am a Professor of Political Economy. I have been at Cambridge since 1994 and am at present Deputy Head of the School of the Humanities and Social Sciences. I'm a regular panellist on Talking Politics. My present work is focused on the historical origins of the post-2008 economic and political world and the crises it is generating for western countries. More particularly my recent work covers the political economy of oil, Brexit and the euro zone crisis. Fellow – Juan Munoz-Portillo In 2013, I received my PhD in Politics and International Relations from Dublin City University. Prior to moving to Cambridge I was a Post-doctoral Fellow at Dublin City University. Between 2014 and 2017 I worked with Prof Andrew Gamble, Dr Helen Thompson and Dr Pieter van Houten on the project "The consequences of the politics of austerity in the European Union". This project consisted of two parts. The first stage documented and analysed the specific ways in which states in the EU have implemented fiscal austerity programs. The second stage analysed various social and political consequences of the politics of austerity. My research interests lie in comparative political economy and international political economy, in particular, but not solely, electoral systems and the behaviour of legislators, the influence of political institutions on public spending, and politics and sovereign debt. After leaving the University of Cambridge in September 2017, I returned to Costa Rica, where I worked during one year as an adjunct staff member of the School of Political Science of the University of Costa Rica. During that time I also worked as a consultant for the Latin American Faculty of the Social Sciences (FLACSO) and the Latin American Office of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. I have been recently appointed, in January 2019, lecturer of International Politics at the School of Political Science of the University of Costa Rica. I expect to continue my research on fiscal austerity policies in the European Union. I also aim to apply my understanding of fiscal austerity policies developed during the course of the Philomathia project to the Latin American context, using the methodology myself and my principal supervisor in Cambridge applied. Summary of project The project 'The consequences of the politics of austerity in the European Union' officially terminated on 30 September 2017. During this time two papers were prepared and two international conferences were attended. At the time of writing, Pieter van Houten, one of the principal investigators, is engaged in leading collaborative papers arising from the project. We expect to get them published in the near future. In our Report of activities 2015 – 2016 we reported that we decided to adopt a narrative approach for our analysis of austerity policies in EU member states. A narrative method consists of the study of official records and sometimes news, based on theoretically defined criteria, seeking to identify policy decisions that are motivated by the intentions of authorities to reduce deficits and public debt, and not by other confounding factors. In other words, it is a way of isolating the effect of fiscal consolidation decisions from other variables that might simultaneously be having an influence on changes in public revenues and expenditures. They presented this paper at the 7th Annual Conference of the European Political Science Association, held in Milan on 22–24 June 2017. Juan and Pieter, with the support of the Philomathia Programme, organised the panel 'Comparative Approaches to the Study of Causes and Consequences of Fiscal Austerity Policies in the European Union' that was presented at the Council of European Studies' 24th International Conference of Europeanists, held in Glasgow on 12-14 July 2017. Prof Klaus Armingeon of the University of Bern and Prof Stefano Sacchi of the University of Milan, presented the paper 'Austerity. Where and Why Politics Still Matters' at this panel. Dr Michael Breen (Dublin City University) gave the paper 'Daily Judgement: Political News and Financial Markets'. Also in this panel Juan and Pieter presented their work 'Explaining the Magnitude and Composition of Fiscal Austerity Episodes in the European Union.' Each of these papers was discussed by Prof Sebastian Dellepiane-Avellaneda of the University of Glasgow. All of the presenters and the discussant have published their research on austerity policies in Europe in important political science journals (Armingeon 2012; McMenamin, Breen, and Muñoz-Portillo 2015; Dellepiane-Avellaneda and Hardiman 2014) Faculty of Law (2015/16) The Law of Energy Transitions PI – Prof Jorge Vinuales I hold the Harold Samuel Chair of Law and Environmental Policy at the University of Cambridge and is the founder and former Director of the Cambridge Centre for Environment, Energy and Natural Resource Governance (C-EENRG). I'm also the Chairman of the Compliance Committee of the UN-ECE/WHO-Europe Protocol on Water and Health, a member of the Panel of Arbitrators of the Shanghai International Arbitration Centre and the Director-General of the Latin American Society of International Law. Prior to joining Cambridge, I was the Pictet Chair of International Environmental Law at the Graduate Institute, Geneva, where I keep a limited affiliation as Adjunct Professor of Public International Law. I have a wide experience as a practitioner, both in an advisory and a litigation context. I was associate, counsel and of counsel with two major law firms specialised in international law for a decade. In addition to this work for the UNECE/WHO, I have served as arbitrator, counsel, expert and, earlier in my career, as secretary of arbitration tribunals in inter-State, investment and commercial disputes. I regularly advise governments, companies, international organisations or major NGOs on different matters of environmental law, investment law, human rights, maritime delimitation and public international law at large. Fellow – Dr Leslie-Anne Duvic-Paoli I am a Lecturer at The Dickson Poon School of Law. Before joining King's College London in August 2017, I was Philomathia Post-doctoral Research Associate in the Department of Land Economy at the University of Cambridge. I am a public international lawyer, with expertise in international environmental law and climate and energy law. I am particularly interested in understanding the nature and content of its principles: her monograph, entitled The Prevention Principle in International Environmental Law, was published by Cambridge University Press in 2018. A recording of the book launch event held at King's in October 2018 is available here. My research also looks at the energy transition to a low-carbon economy from an international and comparative law perspective. I work on the global legal implications of energy democratisation and the importance of participatory mechanisms in the design of inclusive energy systems. In addition, I'm starting a new research agenda on the 'water-energy-food' nexus in global governance: it investigates the gap between, on the one hand, its increasing relevance as a theoretical concept describing the interconnections between complex systems and presented as a solution to foster sustainable development; and, on the other hand, the limited interactions between specialized international legal regimes. I hold Master's degrees in international relations / political science from Sciences Po Paris and in public law from the University of Panthéon-Sorbonne, and a PhD (summa cum laude) in international law from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva. Summary of project The PI brought a visiting Postdoctoral Research Associate (PDRA), Dr Tibisay Morgandi, supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, whose research was closely aligned with the subject of the Project and was further supported with a small grant from the Philomathia Foundation to build a database. Dr Morgandi was also able to secure a permanent position (a Lectureship) in the University of London (Queen Mary) starting in September 2018, largely due to her involvement in the activities on global energy governance emerging from the project. This is another indication of the success of the Project in launching the career of aspiring academics. The PI secured a small grant from the Cambridge Humanities Research Grants Scheme to hire a part-time PDRA, Dr Maria Augusta Paim, to complete some of the data collection work initially envisioned for the third year of the Project. This work is still ongoing. In addition to launching the career of aspiring academics, the Project resulted (1) in a stream of important publications on energy governance, (2) in the organization of several events, including two high-profile ones, and (3) in some enduring extensions in the form of a Platform and Research Network, a Database on bilateral energy agreements, and subsequent research projects. Department of Land Economy (2015/16) Realising Genomic Medicine PI – Dr Kathy Liddell I undertook my doctorate in law at the University of Oxford focussing on the regulation of controversial genetic technologies in morally pluralist societies. In addition to substantial experience in academia, I worked in private legal practice and in public sector legal services for a health department. This work history has provided me with a solid knowledge of commercial realities and needs, as well as experience in legal policymaking. I have degrees in law and science from the University of Melbourne and bioethics from Monash University, and is a strong advocate of interdisciplinary research. My research focuses on health, medicine and society, with the aim of understanding and improving the legal frameworks that govern and support innovation in this field. A key theme in my research is to examine ways in which intellectual property rights help and hinder the translation of medical discoveries into effective, affordable clinical treatments and diagnoses, and how such frameworks could be modified to be more effective and just. Currently, I'm involved with an international collaboration which aims to investigate intellectual property law in five areas of bioinnovation: (i) repurposing pharmaceuticals; (ii) antibiotics; (iii) biologics; (iv) rare diseases; and (v) machine-learning based precision medicine. Fellow – Dr John Liddicoat I was the Philomathia Research Associate in Law at the University of Cambridge. I was working on a research project analysing intellectual property issues that interface with the realisation of genomic medicine. My research was funded by the Wellcome Trust, Cambridge University and the Philomathia Foundation. I adopt a variety of research methodologies including doctrinal legal research and established empirical methods, as well as developing new, science-inspired quantitative methods. The Philomathia project was very beneficial for my career and the development of the Centre for Law, Medicine and Life Sciences (LML). The Centre was established just prior to the commencement of the Philomathia project, and is now collaborating with an elite group of research centres on a range of topics. At the conclusion of the Philomathia Fellowship, I began a new position on 30 November 2018 as a Senior Research Associate with the Law Faculty at the University of Cambridge. This is a more senior role and is part of a large international research collaboration between Cambridge University, Harvard University, Copenhagen University and Michigan University. The collaboration is led by Professor Timo Minssen at the University of Copenhagen, who was inspired to work with LML after seeing its work on the Philomathia project. Furthermore, many of the lines of enquiry which commenced with the Philomathia project continue to be pursued in the international collaboration. Alongside the collaborative research, I also continued some independent research. Notably I published several articles based on my PhD thesis, and co-authored work with colleagues around the world. I have had the opportunity to travel to Hong Kong during my tenure as Philomathia Fellow. Together with colleagues from the LML, I was the guest of Professor Terry Kaan at the Centre for Medical Ethics and Law, HKU, Dr Anthony Ng (WYNG Foundation) and Dr Ron Zimmern (Hatton Trust). This was a terrific trip, and a good opportunity for our Philomathia research team to present its research results in Hong Kong. Summary of project Genomic medicine is an emerging discipline that involves using genetic information about a patient as part of their clinical care. Since the sequencing of the human genome, a key goal has been to make genomic medicine an everyday reality. However, scientific research that recognises a correlation between genetic make-up and a future health outcome is not enough. Considerably more research is necessary to understand how genes, drugs and other environmental factors work together, and how they work in particular individuals. This research involves complex and high-powered data analysis, and resource-intensive translation into effective molecular test and drug-test combinations. It is a multi-faceted challenge with scientific, regulatory, legal, ethical and financial aspects. In this project we were investigating two topics in which intellectual property (IP) laws support, and potentially hinder, the realisation of clinically-useful genomic developments. Overall, the project has been successful beyond our expectations. We have published (or have in review) nine peer-reviewed articles, three in Nature Biotechnology, and several more to be submitted for publication shortly. We've also organised six symposia or workshops, advised government on several issues tied to our project, and obtained seven grants (totalling around £66,000). In summary, the Philomathia Fellowship provided an inspiring and productive three years for our research, collaboration, centre development, and engagement in broader society. We are most grateful to the Philomathia Foundation for making it all possible. Phase 2 (2018-23) Department of Geography (2018-21) PI – Dr Bhaskar Vira My research interests centre on the changing political economy of environment and development, especially in South Asia; with a particular interest in the political ecology of forests, water, food, wildlife and landuse change and the social and political context for biodiversity conservation. I am concerned, in particular, with the often-hidden costs of environmental and developmental processes, and the need for scholarship to draw attention to the distributional consequences of public policy choices. My work focuses on the ways in which large-scale economic, societal and environmental transformations are governed, the values that frame how human societies engage with each other and with nature, and the networks of formal and informal institutions that are intertwined in everyday decision making across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. I apply a critical political economy perspective to contemporary debates in relation to ecosystem services and natural capital, and the values of nature for human wellbeing. I have led large scale intellectual and policy-oriented projects that involve interdisciplinary conversations across the natural and social sciences. Trained as an economist, but with a portfolio of research that now engages across the critical social sciences and their interface with the biological and environmental natural sciences, I inhabit the interdisciplinary intellectual 'borderlands' of a number of disciplines (Human Geography, Development Studies, Institutional Economics, Environmental Studies and Conservation), while being firmly rooted in the political economy tradition. Fellow – Dr Katarzyna Cieslik I am a postdoctoral research associate at the Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, specializing in Development Studies. My research focuses on the interactions among society, policy and environment, and their implications for sustainable development in the Global South. In particular, I'm interested in agency, entrepreneurship and civic potency of individuals in addressing the pressing development challenges related to sustainable livelihoods. I have recently completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Wageningen University and hold a PhD in Development Economics and Management from the Université libre de Bruxelles. I have conducted research in Ethiopia, Nepal, Kyrgyzstan, Peru, Colombia and Burundi. I've published on topics ranging from microfinance and entrepreneurship to social economy and development policy in World Development, Oxford Development Studies Journal and European Journal for Development Research. My research is highly practice-oriented; I have cooperated with UNICEF Burundi Innovation Lab agencies as well as a number of local NGOs in South America (CONDESAN, AGAPE) and Asia (Practical Action, Mountain Societies Research Institute). Summary of project Dr. Cieslik's work at Cambridge, together with Professor Bhaskar Vira and Dame Barbara Stocking, focuses on youth and livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a particular focus on public policy challenges for employment creation. The persistent rise in youth populations Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to continue until at least 2100. Developing locally and nationally appropriate employment policies and interventions is a key public policy challenge across the continent. Department of Social Anthropology (2018-21) PI – Dr Perveez Mody I have conducted ethnographic fieldwork in Delhi, and specifically in a District court, where I looked at the legal and informal processes whereby couples legitimate their love through marriage. I am interested in anthropological theories about the constitution of castes and "communities" in India, the history of civil marriage law from the colonial into the post-colonial period, the politics of religious nationalism, changes in South Asian kinship, marriage and urban sexuality (sexual relations, conjugality, gender and the family), law and human rights and the ways in which the modern state transforms and bears witness to intimate relations such as those expressed in a love-marriage. My current work concerns an ethnography of South Asian marriage and kinship amongst two ethno-religious groups in East London. Fellow – Dr Maria Ignacia Arteaga Perez I graduated from Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile with a BA (Hons.) in Sociology and came to the UK to pursue postgraduate studies in Social Anthropology. I hold an MSc. in Medical Anthropology (2014) and a PhD in Anthropology (2018) from University College London. My main research interest is in caregiving — its practices, possibilities and limits in different institutions and political economies. I explore this theme ethnographically. In the last seven years, I have looked at experiences of ageing, youth, disability and life-threatening medical conditions cross-culturally. My PhD thesis examined the everyday lives of colorectal cancer treatments in London (UK) through an analysis of the caregiving practices that both structure the treatment pathway and afford research participants the possibility of 'getting on with life'. I am currently a teaching associate and affiliated lecturer in the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cambridge. Alongside my teaching role, I am preparing research outputs in the form of peer-reviewed papers, a special issue, and a book manuscript based on my doctoral research, also co-organising a multidisciplinary workshop on practices of disease stratification. Summary of project From July 2019, I will be working with Dr Maryon McDonald and Dr Perveez Mody on a project related to the early detection of cancer in the UK, undertaking ethnographic research within a broad field that concerns the development of diagnostic technologies through to their clinical use and social effects.
45
Welcome to Happysnapper! Tour Great Britain, our history and further afield on your computer with no adverts,just pictures and videos.
47
Castle Rising, Norfolk Castle Rising Castle is one of the most famous 12th Century castles in England. The stone keep, built around 1140 AD, is amongst the finest examples of its kind anywhere in Britain.
48
Twyford Moors Classic Cars - Jaguar XK120, XK140 and XK150 Specialist Twyford Moors Classic Cars are the UKs leading Jaguar XK120, XK140 and XK150 specialist.